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The hellish squirrel


The likelihood of becoming an alcoholic is not so small as it seems socially safe for visitors to trendy Moscow bars. According to an epidemiological study conducted in the United States, for the first year since the beginning of alcohol use, dependence is formed in every fiftieth, and after 10 years 11% already get into it. In general, for the entire life span, including occasional alcohol use, the probability of dependence is 22.7%, which is much less than for nicotine (67.5% of users), but even slightly exceeds the likelihood of dependence on cocaine (20, 9 %). However, this is absolutely not an excuse to consider cocaine to be relatively safe: dependence on it develops more quickly, and the same low percentage of those who are hooked is probably connected with the fact that cocaine is more difficult to find, which means that the phrase "episodic use" can mean more rare contacts with drug than in the case of legal and widespread alcohol.
The criteria for alcoholism are blurred and differ in different sources and in different countries. The authoritative American guide to diagnosis and statistics of mental disorders, DSM-IV, highlights two problematic situations: alcohol abuse and dependence. About abuse speak in the context of social problems: this diagnosis is made if a person from time to time neglects his work duties due to drunkenness, or gets into dangerous situations (for example, gets into the car in a state of intoxication), or he is due to alcohol problems with the law, or he continues to drink, despite the deterioration of relations with friends, family or colleagues. Alcohol dependence is determined by seven criteria common to all psychoactive substances: tolerance, withdrawal syndrome, uncontrolled use, unsuccessful attempts to reduce the amount of alcohol, a large amount of time spent on searching for and drinking alcohol, damage to family, work or rest and continued use without correction health problems caused by alcohol. It is not necessary to type all seven criteria, three are enough.
In Russian textbooks on narcology, the criteria are not so clearly formalized. Usually, three stages of alcoholism are singled out (four, if you count "zero", in which a person already wants to drink alcohol, but calmly refrains from it when the situation does not contribute to drinking). Each is characterized by a flexible set of parameters, but the most notable of them is suppression of the emetic reflex with alcohol abuse in the first stage of dependence, pronounced abstinence syndrome and the need to "get drunk" in the second stage and the total impossibility of an acceptable feeling outside of intoxication - on the third. The development of each of them can take several years, and at the second stage a person can fully cope with both his work and the establishment of social ties, so that others may not consider him sick. A suitable household test in order to understand that a person is an alcoholic and does not need to marry him is a hangover accompanied by a desire to drink more. A healthy person who has drunk the previous day and is now severely suffering from headaches and other unpleasant effects, the idea of ​​drinking another bottle of beer will be disgusting, because he is unwell due to the fact that alcohol in the blood has turned into a poisonous aldehyde. In an alcoholic, such an idea will cause enthusiasm, because it is bad for the alcohol in the blood has run out.
Another sign of alcoholism is the ability to drunk to the dips in memory. This is called alcohol palimpsest, a person can not reproduce in memory the whole chain of events that occurred with him during alcohol intoxication.
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The hellish squirrel

  1. Hygienic characteristics of the protein
    Proteins are high-molecular nitrogen-containing substances and the most important nutrients. They consist of amino acids, 22 amino acids are registered. They consist of: carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, phosphorus, sulfur, nitrogen. The role of the protein is predominantly plastic, it is a building material for the formation of new tissues and the compensation of dead cellular structures. Replaceable amino acids: glycine, arginine,
  2. SYNTHESIS OF PROTEIN IN THE CELL
    At present, it can be considered established that heredity is realized in the process of protein biosynthesis. Synthesis of enzymes and other proteins necessary for the life and development of organisms occurs mainly in the first stage of the interphase, before the beginning of DNA replication. In the process of protein synthesis, the stages of transcription and translation are distinguished. The transcription is that hereditary
  3. Determination of protein
    Urine of a healthy person usually contains protein, but its concentration is very small (0.002 g / l). Proteinuria is the appearance of a protein in the urine, which is detected by laboratory methods of investigation. Types of proteinuria There are several types of proteinuria: prerenal, renal, postrenal. Prerenal proteinuria is characterized by the release through intact renal filter of pathological proteins
  4. The importance of protein in human life
    The properties of the protein depend on its composition and on the location of amino acids in the molecule. And the order of amino acids in the protein molecule plays a very important role in the performance of their functions. Amino acids, synthesized in our body, are called interchangeable. Some amino acids in the human body are not formed - these are essential amino acids. Proteins containing the entire set of essential amino acids,
  5. Disorders of quantitative intake of protein in the body
    An integral index of the state of protein metabolism and, in particular, reflecting a violation of the intake of protein in the body, is the nitrogen balance. As indicated above, the nitrogen balance is the ratio of the daily amount of nitrogen supplied with food and the nitrogen isolated in the form of intermediate products in the composition of urine, feces, sweat. Normally, a healthy person has a nitrogen balance of zero. Positive
  6. Some consequences of excessive protein synthesis
    When reproducing viruses in excess, structural, morphological, units and subviral components of a higher order are formed. In principle, all these processes are well balanced, but still, even if small, defects in the structure of proteins (due to mutations or recombinations) always take place, which leads to rejection of the changed elements. Culling occurs at all
  7. Synthesis of protein
    Synthesis
  8. REGULATION OF SYNTHESIS OF MNRNA AND PROTEIN
    All cells of the body, no matter how differentiated, are, as a rule, identical with the genotype. In every cell there are all the chromosomes and the whole set of genes characteristic of the organism. However, cells of different tissues of any organism differ in qualitative and quantitative composition [proteins. Differences are observed even in one cell at different times. This suggests that in a cage
  9. Structure and functions of the protein
    Proteins play a vital role in the vital activity of any organism. The variety and complexity of living matter, in fact, reflect the diversity and complexity of the proteins themselves. Each protein has its own unique function, which is determined by its inherent structure and chemical properties. Some proteins are enzymes, i.e. catalysts of biochemical reactions in living organisms. Each
  10. Disorders of the final stages of protein metabolism
    The final stages of protein metabolism are the whole set of transformations leading to the formation of terminal nitrogen-containing products excreted from the body - ammonia, urea, uric acid, creatinine, and also the process of their excretion. The equilibrium level of excretion and formation of all these products is the level of residual (non-protein) serum nitrogen 15-40 mg / dl or
  11. role of RNA in protein synthesis
    role of RNA in synthesis
  12. Change in the rate of decay of the protein
    Typically, the half-life of different proteins ranges from a few hours to many days. Thus, the time to reduce the content of human serum albumin by 50% is about 15 days. The magnitude of this period largely depends on the amount of proteins in the food: when the protein content decreases, it increases, and when it increases, it decreases. A significant increase
  13. DISEASES RELATED TO THE NON-REGIMENTED PROTEIN IN THE RATION
    Normalization of the protein in poultry feeding is of great practical importance, since high-protein foods such as egg and meat can be formed only with sufficient protein in the diet. The need for a bird protein depends on their amino acid composition, the balance of the diet, the temperature of the environment, the level of productivity and other factors. Because the
  14. ANEMIA RESULTING OF THE DISTURBANCE OF THE STRUCTURE OF THE ERYTHROCYTE MEMBRANE PROTEIN
    Structure and functions of the erythrocyte membrane The erythrocyte membrane is a double lipid layer in which the protein structures are located. Lipids in the erythrocyte membrane are represented by phospholipids and free cholesterol at approximately the same molar ratios. In the erythrocyte membrane distinguish 4 main classes of phospholipids - phosphatidylcholine, phosphatidylethanolamine,
  15. Disorders of colloid osmotic pressure of plasma
    Disorders of RCD occur with changes in the concentration of the total plasma protein, albumins and globulins, proteins of the coagulation system. The fraction of albumins has the greatest value in maintaining the plasma COD. When the concentration of proteins decreases, COD decreases. The condition with RCD is below 20 mm Hg. called hyponion. The relationship between the concentration of total protein and plasma COD is shown in Table. 20.1.
  16. Determination of daily proteinuria.
    It is known that in patients with kidney diseases, protein excretion in the urine is enhanced by cooling the body. Given the possible fluctuations in the level of proteinuria at different times of the day, as well as the dependence of urinary protein concentration in urine on diuresis, its different content in individual portions of urine, it is now accepted to evaluate the extent of proteinuria by the daily loss of protein in the urine,
  17. VIOLATIONS OF COLLOID-OSMOTIC PRESSURE OF PLASMA
    Disorders of RCD occur with changes in the concentration of the total plasma protein, albumins and globulins, proteins of the coagulation system. The fraction of albumins has the greatest value in maintaining the plasma COD. When the concentration of proteins decreases, COD decreases. The condition with RCD is below 20 mm Hg. called hyponion. The relationship between the concentration of total protein and plasma COD is shown in Table. 20.1.
  18. Violation of protein synthesis
    Among the causes of the violation of protein synthesis, an important place is occupied by various types of nutritional deficiencies (complete, incomplete starvation, the absence of essential amino acids in food, the violation of a certain quantitative ratio between the essential amino acids that enter the body). If, for example, tryptophan, lysine, and valine in the tissue protein are contained in equal proportions
  19. Food and biological value of vegetables, fruits and mushrooms
    Fats, proteins. Most fruits and vegetables do not contain fats and are poor in proteins (0.5-1.5 g per 100 g of product) *. Proteins are classified as inferior, difficult to digest, especially when eating vegetables and fruits in raw form. The exception is soy (20 g protein), legumes (4-5 g), potatoes (2 g protein), Brussels and cauliflower (4.8-2.5 g protein), the protein of which is well absorbed. Mushrooms
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