the main
about the project
Medicine news
To the authors
Licensed books on medicine
<< Ahead Next >>

Hell squirrel


The probability of becoming an alcoholic is not as small as it seems to socially prosperous visitors to trendy Moscow bars. According to an epidemiological study conducted in the United States, for the first year since the beginning of alcohol use, an addiction is formed in every fiftieth, and after ten years 11% are already getting into it. In general, for the entire lifetime, which includes episodic alcohol use, the probability of developing addiction is 22.7% - this is much less than that of nicotine (67.5% of users), but even slightly exceeds the likelihood of developing dependence on cocaine (20, 9 %). However, this is absolutely no reason to consider cocaine relatively safe: dependence on it develops faster, and an equally low percentage of hooked up is most likely due to the fact that cocaine is more difficult to find, and therefore the phrase “occasional use” may mean more rare contacts with a drug than in the case of legal and widespread alcohol.
The criteria for alcoholism are blurred and differ in different sources and in different countries. The authoritative American manual on the diagnosis and statistics of mental disorders, DSM - IV, identifies two problematic situations: alcohol abuse and dependence on it. They talk about abuse in the context of social problems: this diagnosis is made if a person from time to time neglects his work duties because of drunkenness, or is in dangerous situations (for example, he gets behind the wheel drunk), or he has alcohol. problems with the law, or he continues to drink, despite the deterioration of relationships with friends, family or colleagues. Alcohol dependence is determined by seven criteria common to all psychoactive substances: tolerance, withdrawal syndrome, uncontrolled use, unsuccessful attempts to reduce the amount of alcohol, a large amount of time spent searching for and drinking alcohol, damage to family, work or rest, and continued use without correction for health problems caused by alcohol. It is not necessary to type all seven criteria, three is enough.
In Russian textbooks on narcology, the criteria are not so clearly formalized. Usually, there are three stages of alcoholism (four, if we assume that “zero”, in which a person already seeks to drink alcohol, but calmly abstains from it when the situation does not contribute to drinking). Each is characterized by a flexible set of parameters, but the most noticeable of them are the suppression of the gag reflex with alcohol abuse at the first stage of dependence, the pronounced withdrawal syndrome and the need to “sober” at the second stage and the complete inability to acceptablely feel out of drunkenness - at the third. The development of each of them can take several years, and even at the second stage a person can cope with his work and with the establishment of social ties, so that people around him may not consider him sick at all. A suitable household criterion in order to understand that a man is an alcoholic and should not be married to him is a hangover, accompanied by a desire to drink more. In a healthy person who has drunk the day before and is now severely suffering from headaches and other unpleasant effects, the idea of ​​drinking another bottle of beer will be disgusting because he feels bad because alcohol in the blood has turned into a poisonous aldehyde. In an alcoholic, such an idea will cause enthusiasm, because it is bad for him because alcohol has run out of blood.
Another sign of alcoholism is the ability to drink up to memory lapses. This is called an alcohol palimpsest; a person cannot recall in his memory the entire chain of events that occurred to him during alcohol intoxication.
<< Ahead Next >>
= Go to tutorial content =

Hell squirrel

  1. Hygienic characteristics of the protein
    Proteins are high-molecular nitrogen-containing substances and the most important food substances. Consist of amino acids, 22 amino acids are registered. Consist of: carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, phosphorus, sulfur, nitrogen. The role of protein is predominantly plastic; it is a building material for the formation of new tissues and the replacement of dead cellular structures. Replaceable amino acids: glycine, arginine,
  2. SYNTHESIS OF PROTEIN IN A CELL
    At present, it can be considered established that heredity is realized in the process of protein biosynthesis. The synthesis of enzymes and other proteins necessary for the vital activity and development of organisms occurs mainly at the first stage of interphase, before the start of DNA replication. In the process of protein synthesis, stages of transcription and translation are distinguished. The transcription is that the hereditary
  3. Determination of protein
    Urine of a healthy person usually contains protein, but its concentration is very low (0.002 g / l). Proteinuria - the appearance of protein in the urine, which is detected by laboratory research methods. Types of proteinuria There are several types of proteinuria: prerenal, renal, postrenal. Prerenal proteinuria is characterized by the release of pathological proteins through an intact renal filter.
  4. The value of protein in human life
    Properties of a protein depend on its composition and on the location of amino acids in the molecule. Moreover, the order of amino acids in the protein molecule plays a very important role in the performance of their functions. Amino acids synthesized in our body, called interchangeable. Some amino acids in the human body are not formed - it is an essential amino acid. Proteins containing the entire set of essential amino acids,
  5. Violations of quantitative protein intake in the body
    An integral indicator of the state of protein metabolism and, in particular, reflecting the violation of protein intake in the body, is the nitrogen balance. As mentioned above, the nitrogen balance is the ratio of the daily amount of food that comes from food and is isolated in the form of intermediate products of nitrogen in the composition of urine, feces, and sweat. Normally, a healthy person has a zero nitrogen balance. Positive
  6. Some consequences of excess protein synthesis
    Reproduction of viruses in excess produces structural, morphological, units and subvirus components of a higher order. In principle, all these processes are well balanced, but still, even if small, defects in the structure of proteins (due to mutations or recombinations) always take place, which leads to the rejection of altered elements. Rejection occurs at all.
  7. Protein synthesis
    Synthesis
  8. REGULATION OF SYNTHESIS OF IRNA AND PROTEIN
    All cells of the body, no matter how differentiated, are usually identical in genotype. Each cell has all the chromosomes and the whole set of genes peculiar to a given organism. However, cells of different tissues of any organism differ in their qualitative and quantitative composition [proteins. Differences are observed even in the same cell at different times. This suggests that in the cage
  9. The structure and function of the protein
    Proteins play a crucial role in the life of any organism. The diversity and complexity of living matter, in fact, reflect the diversity and complexity of the proteins themselves. Each protein has its own unique function, which is determined by its inherent structure and chemical properties. Some proteins are enzymes, i.e. catalysts of biochemical reactions in living organisms. Each
  10. Violations of the final stages of protein metabolism
    The final stages of protein metabolism are the totality of the transformations that lead to the formation of terminal nitrogen-containing products excreted from the body — ammonia, urea, uric acid, creatinine, as well as the process of their excretion. An equilibrium indicator of elimination and formation of all these products is the level of residual (non-protein) nitrogen in the blood serum of 15–40 mg / dl or
  11. rna role and protein synthesis
    rna role and in synthesis
  12. The change in the rate of protein breakdown
    Typically, the half-life of different proteins ranges from several hours to many days. Thus, the time to reduce the albumin content of human serum by 50% is about 15 days. The magnitude of this period largely depends on the amount of proteins in food: with a decrease in the content of proteins, it increases, and with an increase - decreases. Significant increase
  13. Diseases associated with unregulated protein lining in the diet
    Rationing of protein in poultry feeding is of practical importance, since high-protein products such as eggs and meat can be formed only with a sufficient amount of protein in the diet. The need for poultry protein depends on their amino acid composition, diet balance, ambient temperature, level of productivity and other factors. Insofar as
  14. ANEMIA CAUSED BY DISTURBANCE OF THE STRUCTURE OF THE PROTEIN OF ERYTHROCYTE MEMBRANE
    Structure and function of the erythrocyte membrane The erythrocyte membrane is a double lipid layer in which protein structures are located. Lipids in the erythrocyte membrane are represented by phospholipids and free cholesterol in approximately the same molar ratios. In the erythrocyte membrane, there are 4 main classes of phospholipids - phosphatidylcholine, phosphatidylethanolamine,
  15. Disorders of plasma colloid osmotic pressure
    Disorders of CODE occur with changes in the concentration of total plasma protein, albumin and globulins, proteins of the blood coagulation system. The albumin fraction has the greatest value in maintaining the plasma CODE. When reducing the concentration of proteins decreases CODE. Condition with CODE lower than 20 mmHg called hypoonnia. The relationship between total protein concentration and plasma CODE is presented in Table. 20.1.
  16. Determination of daily proteinuria.
    It is known that in patients with kidney disease, urinary protein excretion increases with body cooling. Considering the possible fluctuations in the level of proteinuria at different times of the day, as well as the dependence of the protein concentration in the urine on diuresis, its different content in individual portions of urine, it is now customary to evaluate the severity of proteinuria by the daily loss of protein in the urine, i.e.
  17. DISORDERS OF COLLOID-OSMOTIC PRESSURE OF PLASMA
    Disorders of CODE occur with changes in the concentration of total plasma protein, albumin and globulins, proteins of the blood coagulation system. The albumin fraction has the greatest value in maintaining the plasma CODE. When reducing the concentration of proteins decreases CODE. Condition with CODE lower than 20 mmHg called hypoonnia. The relationship between total protein concentration and plasma CODE is presented in Table. 20.1.
  18. Violation of protein synthesis
    Among the causes of violations of protein synthesis, an important place is occupied by various types of nutritional deficiency (complete, incomplete fasting, lack of essential amino acids in food, violation of a certain quantitative ratio between essential amino acids entering the body). If, for example, in the tissue protein tryptophan, lysine, valine are in equal proportions
  19. Nutrition and biological value of vegetables, fruits and mushrooms
    Fats, proteins. Most fruits and vegetables do not contain fat and are poor in proteins (0.5-1.5 g per 100 g of product) *. Proteins are defective, difficult to digest, especially when eating vegetables and fruits in their raw form. The exceptions are soybean (20 g of protein), legumes (4–5 g), potatoes (2 g of protein), Brussels sprouts and cauliflower (4.8–2.5 g of protein), whose protein is absorbed quite well. Mushrooms
Medical portal "MedguideBook" © 2014-2016
info@medicine-guidebook.com