Licensed books on medicine
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DO YOU HAVE TO FIGHT OR ALREADY GO TO THE DOCTOR?
But learned helplessness is much easier to prevent than to cure. If an inexperienced dog is taught first of all to avoid current and only then subject it to uncontrollable shocks, then in a new collision with a current that can be avoided, the animal will still try to do it: he already has the experience of victory, and even the subsequent experience of defeat could not completely destroy will to resist. Apparently, it is for this reason that the helplessness learned in Seligman's experiments was easier developed in dogs grown in greenhouse conditions in the laboratory than in the mongrels who grew up on the street: the first had no experience in overcoming unpleasant situations, and the second had it. This, in my opinion, is the most important conclusion in the whole story about learned helplessness. Experimental psychology tells us: the experience of victory is very important, for the sake of it it is even worth crawling.
Developing learned helplessness is possible not only in dogs. Similar experiments were carried out on many other animals, from cockroaches to humans. Representatives of our species do not even have to be shocked - it is enough to give a knowingly unsolvable puzzle so that the probability of successfully completing any subsequent tasks drops sharply. In general, the main principle for developing learned helplessness is to create a situation in which the subject cannot understand the logic of the events, predict them or influence them. It is not even necessary that these are bad events, in principle only the absence of a connection between the actions and the result.
Another remarkably effective method of forming emotional, behavioral, and cognitive impairments is chronic moderate stress. Nobody beats animals with animals, does not scoff, does not force them to solve obviously unsolvable tasks. They just happen all the time in life various minor troubles. On Monday there is no water in the drinking bowl. On Tuesday, there is water, but in the cage they add some kind of bloke. On Wednesday in the laboratory sounds unpleasant loud sounds. On Thursday there is no food. On Friday, wet and dirty bedding in a cage. On Saturday, they forgot to turn off the lights for the night. On Sunday, instead of normal lighting dim flickering light. And so on. Separately, animals would recover from each of these problems a day, if they were stressed at all, but when such a nasty life lasts two to three weeks, they develop a persistent decrease in mood (which manifests itself, for example, in that they completely lose interest sweet food is a sign of anhedonia, loss of interest in life in general). From a neurophysiological point of view, it is primarily about reducing the release of dopamine in the nucleus accumbens. To return the animals to normal health, it is necessary either to create comfortable conditions for them for a few more weeks, or to feed them with human antidepressants.
In real life, we are constantly confronted with chronic moderate stress. The bus went right out of the nose, it suddenly started to rain, the computer hung and the document was not saved, the salesman got drunk, the light bulb burned out. In small doses, all these events are absolutely safe for the psyche, but if a new trouble comes faster than you had time to forget the old one, then sooner or later it can turn you into a pumpkin. It may be worthwhile to pay more attention to the situation control, for example, always carry an umbrella with you and buy 120 spare light bulbs so that they never run out of the house.
Other people can build a well-learned helplessness to other people — if they take on the function of that unsolvable puzzle from laboratory experiments and are emotionally meaningful for us. Beloved ones, whose demands are internally contradictory (“you are too attached to me” at the same time as “you do not appreciate me enough”). Parents who will never be happy with us, no matter how hard we try (there will always be some son of Marya Ivanovna, who studies better first, earns more, is always more attentive to the family and is generally similar to the horizon, which you will never reach, - and, by the way, like this line, does not exist in objective reality). The boss, who scolds you for clearly following your own instructions - and, of course, scolding you even more if you adjust them as you see fit. The government, which does not even consider it necessary to hide from courtesy that the election results do not depend on your will. Well, and so on. The above examples, however, have been little studied in laboratories, because the terms “learned helplessness” and “chronic moderate stress” are relatively rarely applied to a person. These conditions usually form in animals and are considered as an experimental model for studies of human depression.
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DO YOU HAVE TO FIGHT OR ALREADY GO TO THE DOCTOR?
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