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TO FIGHT TO THEMSELVES OR TO GO TO THE DOCTOR?
But the learned helplessness is much easier to prevent than to heal. If an inexperienced dog is primarily taught to avoid current and only then to be subjected to uncontrolled impacts, then in a new collision with a current that can be avoided, the animal will still try to do it: he already has the experience of victory, and even the subsequent experience of defeat could not completely destroy the will to resist. Apparently, it is for this reason that in the experiments of Seligman the learned helplessness developed more easily in dogs grown in hothouse conditions in the laboratory than in those who grew up on the street: the first had no experience of overcoming unpleasant situations, and the latter had it. This, in my opinion, is the most important conclusion in the entire history of the learned helplessness. Experimental psychology tells us: the experience of victory is very important, for it even it is worthwhile to climb under the current.
The development of learned helplessness is possible not only in dogs. Similar experiments were conducted on many other animals, from cockroaches to humans. Representatives of our species do not even need to be electrocuted - it is enough to give a deliberately unsolvable puzzle so that the probability of successfully completing any subsequent tasks is drastically reduced. In general, the main principle for developing learned helplessness is to create a situation in which the subject can not understand the logic of the events that occur, predict or influence them. It is not even necessary that these are bad events, in principle only the absence of a connection between actions and result.
Another remarkably effective method of forming emotional, behavioral and cognitive impairments is chronic moderate stress. No one beats an animal with an electric shock, does not mock, does not force to solve deliberately unsolvable tasks. They just have different small troubles in their life all the time. There's no water in the water tank on Monday. On Tuesday, there is water, but a cell is populated by some Khmyri. On Wednesday, unpleasant loud noises are heard in the laboratory. There's no food on Thursday. Friday wet and dirty bedding in a cage. On Saturday, they forgot to turn off the light for the night. On Sunday, instead of normal lighting, a dim glimmering light bulb. And so on. From each of these problems individually, animals would recover over a day if they were at all stressed, but when such an unpleasant life lasts two to three weeks, they develop a persistent decline in mood (which is manifested, for example, in the fact that they completely lose interest to sweet food is a sign of anhedonia, loss of interest in life in general). From a neurophysiological point of view, it is primarily about reducing the release of dopamine in the nucleus adjacent to it. To bring back the animals to normal state of health, it is necessary either to create comfortable conditions for them for a few more weeks or to feed them with human antidepressants.
In real life, we constantly face chronic moderate stress. The bus went straight from under the nose, suddenly it began to rain, the computer hung and the document was not preserved, the salesman was nagging, the light bulb burned out. In small doses, all these events are completely safe for the psyche, but if a new trouble comes faster than you have forgotten the old, sooner or later it can turn you into a pumpkin. Perhaps you should pay more attention to control over the situation, for example, always carry an umbrella and buy 120 spare bulbs so that they do not end in the house ever.
Classically learned helplessness can be well formed by other people - if they take upon themselves the function of that unsolvable puzzle from laboratory experiments and at the same time emotionally significant for us. Beloved, whose demands are internally contradictory ("you are too attached to me" at the same time as "you do not appreciate me enough"). Parents who will never be happy with us, no matter how hard we try (there must be some son of Marya Ivanovna who first learns better, then earns more, is always more attentive to the family and in general is like a horizon line that you will never reach, - and, by the way, like this line, does not exist in the objective reality). The boss who scolds you for clear execution of your own instructions - and, of course, scolds you even more if you correct them at your discretion. The government, which does not even consider it necessary to hide from politeness that the election results do not depend on your will. Well, and so on. The above examples, however, have been little studied in laboratories, because for the human being the terms "learned helplessness" and "chronic moderate stress" are used relatively rarely. These conditions are usually formed in animals and are considered as an experimental model for the study of human depression.
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TO FIGHT TO THEMSELVES OR TO GO TO THE DOCTOR?
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