Licensed books on medicine
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For whom is all this done?
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What is "I"? We have described the desires of the Eid, the satisfaction of which gives the individual pleasure. We have explained how the Superego guides the actions of the Ego and punishes the individual for his sins. We considered how the Ego, sandwiched between these two forces, should lead "us" among the dangers of the outside world. For whom does all these forces work? What is my true self? Maybe this is my ego? Or my id? Or my Superego?
One woman described her ego as something that controls the rest of her being. She represented herself as something of a driver, driving a donkey-driven cart. The donkey was a part of her; at times he took over and forced her to do things that she felt sorry for. In such cases, I condemned her ass. What was it that I was talking about? It was Ego.
The ego is a system capable of seeing itself, just as parts of the body can sense one another. Hence, people have a feeling that they can follow the work of their own psyche as if from the side just as they can follow the movements of their feet. In fact, the Ego contains three parts, and they can all look at each other at different times. One of these parts is made up of special parent images; the other part is the adult Self, working in accordance with the Principle of Reality; and in addition, each person has a small child in his head that he once had. Every woman has a little girl in her head, and every man has a little boy. The parent part, the adult part and the child part are three different selves. While one of these I acts independently of the others, the individual feels one person; but if two of them act simultaneously, then each of them looks at the other, wondering what is going on? These three aspects of the ego will be discussed in more detail in chapter IX.
There is, however, something beyond this — a force that motivates people to grow, develop, and become better. It can be regarded as the fourth power of personality along with the Ego, Superego, and Eid. Psychiatrists and psychologists know very little about this fourth force, and maybe they do not know anything. Believers can say that it is a soul. Scientists currently have no answer. So far, we have avoided this issue by describing a person simply as an energy system — a system of forces that continuously tries to restore or maintain balance, and does not at all try to “please” anyone or anything outside of itself or in itself, no more than The Earth is trying to "please" someone, revolving around the sun. It is useful to assume, however, that there is a certain system of stresses which, under normal conditions, continuously pushes sentient beings in the direction of progress. We can assume the existence of such a system to explain why a person grows, why the human race tries to become better, why animals become more entrepreneurial in the process of evolution, and why the psyche is enriched with a creative love of beauty, as its energy system becomes harder - from jellyfish through frogs and monkeys - to man.
We can forget about who needs all of this, and yet assume that there is some kind of power inside us that directs us further and higher.
As we will see, neurosis provides the individual with a number of advantages.
What kind of power makes him want to recover, if in many respects it is better for him to stay with his neurosis? What is the healing power of nature, causing the patient's body and the patient's psyche to strive for health, for continued growth? What makes an embryo evolve? Why does he not remain just a germ? Growing up is hard work requiring a lot of energy. What forced some jellyfish to develop into a person? Why didn't they stay forever as jellyfish? Evolution is also hard work.
In search of an answer, let us turn to Zeno, the great Semitic, who lived more than two thousand years ago. For many years, Zeno wandered and asked questions. His wanderings ended in Athens, in ancient Greece, but he continued to ask questions. Zeno often spoke of physisis, the power of nature, which always impels all things to grow, and those who grew up speak of perfection. He was not the first to come to the idea of the Physis, but he thought a lot about it in connection with the growth and development of living beings. Since then, many philosophers have talked about the creative power of nature, which encourages all things to grow, following some correct and progressive way.
If such a desire for growth exists in the human psyche and body, how can it be included in our energy system, and how is it related to other strains of our psyche? Recall that the above was a speech about mortido, directed inward and outward, and about libido, directed outward; but so far there has been little mention of an inward-directed libido. It may be that growth energy comes from libido directed inward. This explanation seems, however, too simple; just the opposite is not excluded: libido may turn out to be only one of the aspects of growth energy. Maybe Physis does not exist at all; but for all our inability to say anything definite about this subject, very many things happen in such a way as if such a force were there; and therefore it is easier to understand a person by assuming that she really exists.
From this point on, we allow ourselves to assume that phisis is a force to be reckoned with in the study of the human psyche, while avoiding the question of whether this force is related to the inwardly directed libido and what such a link may be. We did not completely solve the problem of who this “driver” is, for the sake of which the Ego, Superego and Eid maintain a delicate balance of tensions that allows a person to grow and develop; but we realized that there are other possibilities in the human psyche that should not be neglected.
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For whom is all this done?
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