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Hero on heroin


The main cause of death from overdose is respiratory depression. If a person has time to get to the doctors, he is given naloxone, a drug that also binds to opioid receptors, making it difficult for heroin to reach them, but at the same time it does not have a suppressive effect on the respiratory center.
Overdose may occur due to an error in the calculations, due to the purchase of more pure heroin than usual, but it can also be caused simply by taking the drug in an unusual situation. This effect was described in the early eighties by Canadian neurophysiologist Shepard Siegel. He demonstrated that rats develop a high tolerability of the drug, if administered every time in the same setting. If, however, we take drug addicts and inject them with drugs in another room, then the probability of dying from an overdose increases significantly. In addition, he conducted a series of interviews with people who survived an overdose, and found out that in many cases they also took the usual dose, but in an unusual place10. The reason for this phenomenon is the usual Pavlovsky conditioned reflex. The man is busy with the preparation of the drug, and his brain already knows that now there will be many, many opiates. This is a reason to launch molecular feedback mechanisms in advance to minimize sensitivity to incoming heroin. If heroin is not injected at home, as usual, but in the station toilet, the brain will not have time to prepare its respiratory center for this solemn event, and this injection may be the last.
In 1962, scientists from the University of California began observing a group
of 581 heroin addicts. At the time of the end of the study, in 1997, 282 people died in this group, on average at the age of 46.9 years. The leading cause of death was an overdose - 49 people died from it. Fatal liver diseases turned out to be almost as effective - 42 people died from them. 23 died in accidents (for example, in car accidents), 33 from cardiovascular diseases, 32 from cancer, 20 were killed, 12 committed suicide, the rest died from lung diseases, stroke, infectious diseases, etc. considering the survivors, it turned out that heroin brings death on average to 18 years.
This happens in a prosperous California. In Russia, the structure of mortality is markedly different.
When processing data on 670 drug addicts who died in Primorsky
region12, it turned out that the average age of death for them was 27.6 years. The cause of death of 277 people - poisoning by psychoactive substances (not only heroin overdose, but also, for example, the result of the simultaneous consumption of a bizarre mixture of drugs), 176 drug addicts died from diseases (myocardial infarction, cirrhosis, tuberculosis and other infections), 82 people were killed, 70 committed suicide and 65 died in accidents.
The authors of the American study, explaining the high, as they believe, mortality rate among Californian drug addicts, emphasize the low availability of methadone substitution therapy programs. These programs, they write, use only 14% of heroin addicts, although it has long been proven that replacement therapy dramatically reduces the level of crime, returns addicts to normal work and almost completely prevents the spread of HIV and hepatitis.
Methadone is also a drug, it acts on opioid receptors and prevents withdrawal in addicts. But at the same time, it does not cause euphoria, is taken as a mixture, and not as an injection, and the need for a dose when using methadone does not increase endlessly. That is why the UN and WHO recommend that narcologists use methadone and other
similar drugs in the treatment of heroin addiction. The idea is this: if a person cannot defeat drug addiction, you should at least make it socially safe. Let him come to the doctor, get his daily dose of methadone by prescription, prevent it from breaking and go to work normally, and do not rummage through the doorways trying to find heroin, diluted by God knows what, and inject it into a vein. The last few decades, such therapy has been used not only in the United States, but also in France, Germany, Italy and most other European countries. In Russia, methadone has been used for some time in experimental programs, but is now completely banned. Gennady Onishchenko, until recently the chief sanitary inspector of Russia, explained this by the inability to fight abuse, and Tatyana Golikova, the former Minister of Health, argued that the methadone program was not effective enough. In general, Russia, as always, has its own special path.


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Hero on heroin

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  2. Stage 2. Analysis of the images of women in classical fiction
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  6. Practical guide. Top 10 mistakes in first aid, 2011
    Imagine that you are walking in the woods and suddenly a rattlesnake bites you. What are you going to do? Perhaps you have often seen in films how a brave hero takes out his penknife, makes an incision at the bite site, sucks out poison and ties up a tourniquet. However, this method is only suitable for the scene in the film. What mistakes do we most often make when we try to give ourselves first aid for bites,
  7. 10 mistakes in first aid
    Imagine that you are walking in the woods and suddenly a rattlesnake bites you. What are you going to do? Perhaps you have often seen in films how a brave hero takes out his penknife, makes an incision at the bite site, sucks out poison and ties up a tourniquet. However, this method is only suitable for the scene in the film. What mistakes do we most often make when we try to give ourselves first aid for bites,
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