the main
about the project
Medicine news
To the authors
Licensed books on medicine
<< Ahead Next >>

HOW TO TURN A LIVING MAN IN PUMPKIN


I really like old experimental works, because they are much easier to popularize than modern ones. This is due to two circumstances. First, every year molecular genetic research methods are becoming simpler and cheaper, and therefore the work of a professional biologist today is 90% reduced to polymerase chain reaction and sequencing, blotting and ELISA, mass spectrometry and gel electrophoresis. All of this is terribly interesting, but it requires long explanations before describing each experiment - or, even worse, it forces you to leave the technique behind the brackets. Secondly, with each passing year, the ethical commissions of universities are increasingly sticking over the natural sciences, which require written informed consent from each experimental Drosophila and double-blind, placebo-controlled study of any substance that the subject may have the misfortune to encounter during his stay on the faculty, whether liquid soap in the toilet or tea bag in the laboratory kitchen. I exaggerate, of course, but not too much. A great many studies of the 20th century, which have enriched experimental psychology, today would never have been allowed by ethical commissions, and people would know much less about themselves. The most obvious examples of such research are the Milgram experiment, first conducted in 1963, the Stanford prison experiment in 1971, and the unofficial “Third Wave” experiment in 1967. All of them are widely known and repeatedly described in popular literature, including in Russian, so I’ll only briefly remind you of what was said.
Stanley Milgram, a psychologist at Yale University, told subjects that he was investigating the effects of pain on learning. They had to control how the other participant in the experiment (in fact, the decoy duck) memorizes pairs of words, and punish him with a discharge of electric current, gradually increasing the voltage, every time he was wrong. Both Milgram and his colleagues were confident that most people would refuse to participate in the experiment as soon as the student said that he was in real pain. But no. It was enough for a solid experimenter in a white coat to say that it was necessary to continue, and more than 60% of the subjects, suffering and suffering, brought the voltage to 450 volts, the very end of the scale.
In the Stanford Prison Experiment, subjects were completely randomly divided into guards and prisoners. They were not given any instructions, other than a ban on physical violence, and were placed in the basement of the university, depicting a prison. The guards themselves chose a uniform, the prisoners were dressed in ugly robes. On the first day, everything was calm; on the second day, a riot broke out among the prisoners, suppressed by the guards without any involvement of the experimenters. The guards enthusiastically remained to work overtime, coming up with more and more new methods of psychological repression and humiliation of prisoners. The victims, in turn, quickly lost any idea of ​​cooperation and self-esteem and were able to think only about how to avoid punishment. The experiment was terminated on the sixth day (instead of the planned two weeks), when Christina Maslach, one of Stanford psychologists, visited the prison to interview participants, and was horrified by the conditions in which prisoners were held - for example, at the initiative of the guards they were now taken to the toilet only all together, in single file. In addition, at this time, scientists have completely watched the recordings from the cameras
observations and found that the guards especially cruelly mocked the prisoners at night - they believed that at this time, psychologists are not watching them.
The Third Wave experiment was conducted by California history teacher Ron Jones. During the lecture about Nazi Germany, the students asked him how such a thing was possible.
How could ordinary German inhabitants — teachers, doctors, railway workers, and so on — ignore or even justify the mass extermination of Jews? Why did the German people allow it? Ron promised to explain. The next week began with the fact that instead of presenting new material, he began to teach students to sit at the desk properly and told them about the importance of discipline. On the second day, the class who liked the game was already sitting right, and Ron told them about the power of community. He ordered his students to chant slogans in chorus and taught them a special gesture - the greeting of the Third Wave. On Wednesday, Ron talked about the power of action. Students were issued membership cards and ordered to conduct campaign work and identify dissenters. On Thursday, members of the Third Wave learned with pride that they were participating in a nationwide political movement. On Friday, all participants in the movement and sympathizers, already 200 people, dressed in white shirts, gathered in the assembly hall and chanted there the slogans of the Third Wave, waiting for a television program about the opening of hundreds of branches of the movement throughout the country. But the transfer was not. And then Ron made a speech. He said that there is no movement. The students thought they were favorites, but in fact they were simply used. They feel superior to those who do not belong to the Third Wave, but Ron can show what the future holds for them. And he turned on the projector with the newsreel of the Third Reich - from a military parade to concentration camps. Then Ron turned on the light. The students silently rose from their seats and dispersed. The most diligent member of the Third Wave, who had volunteered to be Ron's bodyguard in the past three days, wept bitterly.
These cruel experiments demonstrate how strongly external conditions can influence a person’s behavior and emotions. But the chain does not end there. A person's emotions, in turn, affect his physical condition. And this fact is also devoted to several excellent experiments that could still be approved by the ethical commissions in the good old days, but almost certainly would not have been resolved today - if only out of concern for lawsuits from the subjects. For example, in 1991, psychologists from Carnegie Mellon University specifically infected several hundred people with viruses that cause respiratory infections. The value of the experiment was that all 420 study participants were carefully ranked by the level of stress experienced by them during the last year, and by the number of negative epithets (uncontrollability, unpredictability, insufficiency, anger, sadness, uncertainty, etc.) used by the subjects for descriptions of yourself and your life. The results were predictable, but no less important: in the group with low stress levels, 74% of people became infected with the virus, according to laboratory tests, but only in 27% this led to a clinically severe cold with a runny nose and sneezing. The group with a high level of stress, in the same way having received a solution of viruses in the form of nasal drops, was infected by 90%, and 47% became ill.
By the way, the cold is not accidentally associated with the cold. Yes, of course, it is caused by viruses (not just one, but many different ones), but the likelihood that the infection will take root in the body increases in cold weather. This is due to the fact that hypothermia can be considered as a kind of stress factor. In practice, this means that it leads to a narrowing of peripheral blood vessels, including in the respiratory tract mucosa. This in turn prevents the immune cells from stopping the invasion in a timely manner - there are simply not enough of them at the right time in the right place. In addition, stress, in principle, a bad effect on the immune system - and this is not the only harmful effect that they have on our health.
<< Ahead Next >>
= Go to tutorial content =

HOW TO TURN A LIVING MAN IN PUMPKIN

  1. How to find a tool for "live" drawing in POWER POINT
    Although the tablet I use allows me to draw directly on the screen (which greatly simplifies the process), you can use a regular computer mouse for this purpose. The fact that virtually any version of Power Point released in the last five years allows you to draw on the screen is nothing new. Here’s how it’s done: I. Create your own slides just like usual
  2. How should one behave with a sick person who uses his illness in order to endear himself? I feel helpless because I want to help this man, but he does not believe in anything.
    The previous answer extends to this question. Why does a person often feel the need to help others without thinking that it can harm another? A person who decides to help someone, not thinking about what he can do, thinks only about himself. He needs someone's positive result to feel their own significance. Therefore he
  3. Integral individuality as a result and as a condition of human development
    V.Serlin defined the holistic characteristic of individual human properties by the concept of individual integrality, considering it as an object of interdisciplinary research, as an object of research of all sciences of nature and society1. The theory of individual integrality arose in the course of differential psychophysiology, which predetermined its features. According to theory, the individual
  4. Integral individuality as a result and as a condition of human development
    V.Serlin defined the holistic characteristic of individual human properties by the concept of individual integrity, considering it as an object of interdisciplinary research, as an object of study of all the sciences of nature and society *. The theory of individual integrality arose in the course of differential psychophysiology, which predetermined its features. According to theory, the individual
  5. BASIC CONCEPTS OF LIVING AND VALEOLOGY
    Before we talk about a person in any aspect, and, especially about his health, it should be noted that a person is a representative of the living. The phenomenon of man, which arose in the process of evolution of the organic world, was the subject of a study of many natural sciences (physics, chemistry, biology, genetics, anthropology, etc.) and humanitarian (history, philosophy, sociology, psychology, economics and
  6. How to help a person who is going to divorce, do not feel guilty? This is a man who has been married for fifteen years and has two children, eight and fifteen years old.
    First of all, did this person turn to you for help? This is the most important point that should be checked in any form of aid relationship. You should also understand that only he himself can truly help himself. His guilt comes from his mental perception. He must choose whether he still wants to feel guilty or wants to
  7. Immunological barriers of a living organism
    Tens of thousands of books have been written about the immune protection of living organisms, thousands of institutes and laboratories are involved in its research, a lot of facts have been revealed concerning certain aspects of such protection, but we still do not have a complete picture. And the point here is not the insufficient persistence of scientists, but the complexity of the problem itself. Only recently have some data been obtained that give hope that our
  8. How can I get rid of the feeling of responsibility for a person dear to me who suffers in his soul? How do I get rid of deep sadness?
    If the sight of a suffering dear person fills you with sadness, then this is because this situation awakens something in you that has long lain under a bushel and what you have tried to avoid. It would be important for you to conduct an internal research to better determine the nature of this sadness. What makes you so sad? It is not by chance that we choose certain people who
  9. How does a person make a decision?
    There are two ways to make a decision. The first of these is thinking. We consider this or that opportunity, weigh all circumstances and make a decision more or less corresponding to the Principle of Reality. The second method goes without conscious deliberation. If we had to think about every little thing that we do during the day, indecision would turn our lives into
  10. Acmeology as a highly organized field of knowledge about a person
    The theoretical foundations of acmeology were laid in Russian philosophy, and experimental in domestic medicine, sociology and psychology. The ideas of ammic can be found in N.I. Pirogov, V.M. Bekhtereva, P.A. Sorokina and others. Particularly vividly presented in literature (N. Gumilev, A. Akhmatova, S. Gorodetsky). A. Akhmatova wrote: “I became an Acmeist ... because we felt like people in the XX
  11. Understanding the individuality of a person as a value
    To understand the essence of a person’s personality, one must try to answer a few questions. - what does a man want? The answer to this question will reveal the orientation of the individual - her needs, motives, goals, interests, ideals, beliefs, worldview, attitudes - what can a person do? This is a question about abilities (general and special, about the level of these abilities, talent - what is it? Question about
Medical portal "MedguideBook" © 2014-2016
info@medicine-guidebook.com