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MEN PREFERED TO CHANGES?

If we carry out a genetic analysis of ordinary families in which husbands have never doubted their paternity, then approximately 2% of the children will be strangers (ranging from 0.4% in families of religious Jews and up to 11% among residents of Mexico City). But if you include in the statistics those couples who themselves initiated the process of establishing paternity - for example, to solve the issue of maintenance - it turns out that almost 30% of children were born from lovers (in Russia, England and Finland, only 15% but in the US and Italy - more than 40%). So the conclusion is simple and pleasant: if you do not doubt that your child, then, most likely, it is.
In general, the more genetic research is conducted, the more carefully scientists use the word "monogamy" in their texts. Increasingly, the definition of "social" is added to it - that is, yes, it forms stable pairs, the male and the female take care of the offspring together, but not all children in the family are necessarily conceived from a permanent partner, and not necessarily all of its children grow in this family. Swan loyalty is an excellent myth, but in almost every second brood these birds have at least one chick, conceived from an extraneous male. Or take steppe voles, an example of monogamy, favorite by all biologists: in laboratory observations, each voles spends most of the time near its partner and very rarely approaches other males. Nevertheless, when females hung with radio transmitters are released into a fenced area of ​​meadow, where they can meet several different males, and then examine their offspring, it turns out that more than 20% of broods are young, not only from the main partner, but also from one or two extraneous males.
The concept of the energy contribution to the offspring is quite true, but one can not conclude from this that there is a certain tendency for polygamy in men and simultaneously for monogamy in women. Change everything. But due to the fact that the potential risks for women are much higher than for men, it more selectively chooses partners - and society is much more interested in making this choice as tight as possible and take under control.
It is not necessary to even give examples from people's lives. English anthropologist Robin Dunbar retells in his popular science book "The Labyrinth of Random Relations" a touching story from the life of the hamadryles, described by the zoologist Hans Kummer. Hammers form harems: one male has up to five females, he strictly monitors them and punishes them if they move too far away from him. The female, whom Kummer watched, departed from her family for 20 minutes in small steps and eventually went behind a stone where a young male from a neighboring family was waiting for her. They started grooming - caressing each other, fingering wool and looking for parasites - but the female tried to keep standing behind the stone so that her head could be seen by the male host feeding nearby, and he did not suspect anything bad.
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MEN PREFERED TO CHANGES?

  1. When I tell my husband frankly how I feel about some of his actions, he listens to me, and then calmly replies that no one has the right to interfere in his personal life, that he is what he is and can not change.
    He believes that I should not take everything so close to my heart and that I should take care of my own welfare. How can I be in this situation? Your husband, of course, is right in one thing: it's his personal life and he is not obliged to anyone, except himself, to report. On the other hand, I can not agree with his statement that he can not change. Everyone can change for the better if
  2. Stage 4. Completing the questionnaire "I am a woman / man"
    Instructions: "You have received questionnaires where unfinished sentences are written in the column, which begin with the phrase" I am a woman "or" I am a man "(the forms are distributed in accordance with the biological sex of the participants), and then an empty line is left. Please continue to offer within 10 minutes. 1. I am a woman (man), because ... 2. I am a woman (man) and I want,
  3. Differential psychology of man and woman
    The psychology of gender differences is traditionally occupied by differential psychology, gender psychology continues to study the psychological differences between the sexes, expanding the differentiation to gender types [1, 19, 25, 36, 43, 45]. Gender identity and the gender role of adults are usually recognized as more masculine in men and more feminized in women. Much of what
  4. IMPOTENCY AND INFERTILITY IN MEN
    Patrick C. Walsh, Jean D. Wilson Normally, the sexual and reproductive function in men is under the coordinated control of a whole series of physiological mechanisms: mental, hormonal, vascular and neurological. In this chapter, attention is focused on the clinical manifestations of sexual disorders in men (see also Chapters 45 and
  5. Stages of examination of men
    Elucidation of medical history (collection of anamnesis) of a man. The importance of collecting an anamnesis is dictated by the fact that on the basis of only these data in 25% of cases it is possible to put a preliminary diagnosis, and also to estimate the prognosis and determine the method of treatment. Find out whether this man was from conception before or not, on the basis of which primary and secondary male infertility is isolated. Primary infertility
  6. man-loser
    Mass media culture actively promotes the image of a successful man: physically strong, professionally held, financially independent. A businessman, a silovician, a successful journalist or a highly paid manager. In such male images the most important is their social status. Needless to say, that very many real men do not meet this standard and therefore
  7. INFECTIONS OF THE REPRODUCTIVE SYSTEM IN MEN
    The bacterial infections of the reproductive system in men include acute and chronic bacterial prostatitis, acute epididymitis, orchitis, and orchoepidymitis. THE MAIN FEATURES The peculiarity of these diseases is that along with the pathogens characteristic for MAP (E.coli, other bacteria of the Enterobacterialae family), often reproductive system infections in men, especially young,
  8. Diseases of mammary glands in men
    Rudimentary dairy (breast) glands in men are rarely subjected to pathological changes. Only two diseases are encountered in practice and worthy of consideration. This is gynecomastia and cancer. Gynecomastia. Normal mammary glands of men do not have lobulate structure. Nevertheless, like women, they are target organs for hormonal action. The most important change in this paired organ,
  9. Features of psycho-physiological characteristics of men and women
    Psychophysiological properties are considered as an intermediate link between the somatic and mental properties of the individual. There are a number of data on the psycho-physiological characteristics of men and women, among which the most reliable are the differences in the sphere of motor activity. In men, the total muscle strength and maximum strength of individual links (fingers, hands, feet, etc.) is higher than in
  10. PECULIARITIES OF DIAGNOSIS OF INFERTILITY IN MEN
    Currently, specialists dealing with the problem of male infertility have accumulated a wealth of scientific and practical experience, allowing to establish the causes of deviations and prescribe therapeutic measures that will help many men to return the lost. At the very beginning of treatment, an anamnesis is made (a medical history). As with other diseases, the doctor asks the patient about the
  11. a hard lot for a modern man
    Alternative models of the representation of gender relations in contemporary Russian culture are often associated with the creation of a new image of a man. Classical Russian literature created many images of "weak men", who were completely absorbed in the problems of personal self-determination (the so-called superfluous people - Onegin, Pechorin, Turgenev's characters), avoided family life and
  12. Immunological disorders in men
    The first and mandatory stage of the examination is a comprehensive study of sperm. Detection of antisperm antibodies by any laboratory method allows to establish the existence of autoimmune reactions against spermatozoa. If these antibodies cover more than 50% of mobile spermatozoa, the diagnosis is "male immune infertility". Often the cause of development of antispermal immunity
  13. Features of somatic characteristics of men and women
    Men and women differ in a number of morphological characteristics, including body size [16]. The height of a person varies between 150-200 cm and depends on a number of factors, among which the main ones are sex and race. Men tend to have more growth than women. For the population of Russia, the average growth is about 175 cm for men and 165 cm for women.
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