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The second way - science


Strong inventors find strong solutions to individual complex problems. Superstrong, super strong come to the universal principles of solution. Science consists of a system of theories, and those of a system of universal principles. Piccar, Piri, Zander, Amundsen - super-powerful inventors. Their inventions are the results not of accidental discovery or sudden insight, but the fruits of the systematic use of the universals found.
Soviet scientist, inventor of radar P.K. Oshchepkov, speaking about the history of his invention, wrote: “It was not an accidental inspiration or desire to“ invent something ”that guided us at that time. No. We knew exactly what we were looking for. We accurately identified the internal contradictions in the airborne surveillance problem we were solving The creative application of the Marxist dialectical method was analyzed step by step, and it was the analysis that led us to use electromagnetic energy for this purpose as the fastest in propagation speed, as it penetrates through the darkness of night and the thickness of varnishes, as the most easily controlled in place of sending.
This is not a brilliant foresight, but the logical result of the analysis "*.
Separate universal principles of Pikkar, Oshchepkov, Zander, Amundsen and many other prominent inventors required unification into a single theory. General enough to accommodate them all, and at the same time instrumental enough to make it accessible and working for practitioners of production.
In 1946, the Soviet researcher G.S. Altshuller began this work with an analysis of the patent fund of technical inventions. The patterns revealed and developed by him formed the basis, the backbone of the modern theory of solving inventive problems. Today, the theory has outgrown its name, but due to tradition has not yet received a new one. TRIZ of our day is a science. The science of the laws of development of technical systems.
The impulse to create TRIZ gave the need to help inventors solve inventive problems. It is for this reason that the theory received the first materialization in the algorithm for solving inventive problems. However, today ARIZ (abbreviation of the algorithm) is more a research tool than just a decisive one. With its help it is possible not only to overcome a specific contradiction, but also to analyze the entire genealogy of the technical system and predict its further development. For the convenience of using the algorithm, a system of principles for solving certain classes of problems, the so-called system of standards, has been allocated from it. Both ARIZ and standards are based on identifying and overcoming contradictions - the main factor holding back the development of the system. But if ARIZ is built on a consistent, step by step, analysis of the problem, then in the standards
* Oshchepkov P.K. Life and a dream. M • Mosk. Worker, 1977. S. 89.

the analysis stage has been skipped, or rather, it was carried out in advance, and therefore the standards contain ready-made recommendations for solving problems.
The meaning of the combination of "inventive standards" is different from the generally accepted understanding of the word "standard". Usually, by a standard they mean something undeniable, trivial, the application of which has long been legalized. Recommendations of inventive standards, on the contrary, lead to unusual, unconventional and therefore strong solutions. Unexpected even for an inventor. True, today's inventor. It is precisely today's - this is, I think, the reason that the word "standards" has taken hold of "Wild" decisions today become habitual and self-evident tomorrow, so the system of inventive standards is a combination in the familiar sense of tomorrow's undeniable standards.
TRIZ has developed its own language - full-scale analysis. It allows you to record inventive "reactions" like chemical reactions. Naturally, as in chemistry, it would not have been possible without the relevant rules and laws.
Laws with a core basis permeate the TRIZ mechanism. They reflect the history of the development of technical systems and make it possible to predict its new stages without objective laws; the theory of solving inventive problems would be no more productive than any of the methods for activating enumeration of options.
More precisely, TRIZ would simply not exist, because it arose only as a result of the development of objective laws for the development of technology.
In addition to the laws of development of technical systems, in addition to inventive principles, an inventor needs good knowledge of physics, chemistry, mathematics, biology, etc. Even not so much the knowledge itself, but the ability to operate it. The existing system of organization of these sciences has evolved over the centuries, and generally accepted today, it perfectly contributes to their development. Actually, this is the main function of a good organization: by combining knowledge into a system, an organization must give an additional, “systemic” effect - that is, the concept of the development of science. But a practical inventor needs not only general ideas about trends, say, in solid state physics, but a specific physical effect or combination of effects that solves a very specific problem.
To help inventors apply scientific knowledge in 1972, as part of TRIZ research, Y. Gorin developed the first index of physical effects and phenomena, organizing physical knowledge in a new way so that it would be convenient for the inventor to use it. A second-generation index has now been developed, incorporating new principles. A similar work is being done on the organization of knowledge in chemistry and geometry: indexes of chemical and geometric effects are created. This work is still far from complete, and the TRIZ system will gladly accept new developers into its ranks.
TRIZ is developing not only inland, but also in breadth, clearing bridgeheads for exact science. One of the books by S. S. Altshuller is called “Creativity as an Exact Science”: the TRIZ paradox is already indicated in the title of this book. Creativity, which has always been considered the most indefinite of all phenomena, is called exact science. It is the same as arithmetic and astronomy. Creativity - a phenomenon that can not be explained, a phenomenon over which psychologists are still racking their brains - they undertake to calculate how the trajectory of the planets and satellites! So, the exact science of creativity - TRIZ - is beginning to penetrate today in scientific systems and in art systems. These are timid steps so far, but they are already yielding results in physics, botany, biology, and literature. Forty years ago, attempts to formulate principles for solving creative problems in technology seemed probably so timid, uncertain. And it took great courage to, at the age of 20 (G.S. Altshuller was so much in 1946) to accept such a heretical goal as the algorithmization of creativity. Today it’s easier for us: there are a lot of us - TRIZ developers.
TRIZ is a young but very intensively developing science. As a science, she’s just enough of strength for no more than ten years. Age is extremely infantile. But TRIZ already exists, it already solves problems, it is already spreading, it is already being investigated. Today, time works on theory. The avalanche-like increase in the number of references to TRIZ literature - both in our country and abroad - is eloquent evidence of this.
A creative person must be able to solve complex problems. Until recently, there was nowhere to learn this. I had to rely on my own experience, my own ingenuity, luck. Months, years, decades, centuries were lost. Lives went by, generations went through options, performed tests, mental and material, spent a lot of materials and energy, just to make sure that they were wrong again. Sorted out until the field of possible solutions turned out to be completely "dug up." Today a science of strong thinking has been created. The truth is created on the basis of technology. But due to the unity of the world around us, laws, rules, mechanisms, principles of TRIZ are applicable in all areas of activity. Everyone can learn to solve creative problems today. Every normal person At TRIZ schools, at seminars on literature. The most complete current state of TRIZ is set forth in the book by G. S. Altshuller "Find an Idea" *.
The opportunity to learn strong thinking, a new technology for solving creative problems greatly facilitates the process of forming a creative person. True, life greatly complicates this person ...
* Altshuller GS Find an idea Novosibirsk Science, 1986
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The second way - science

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