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Willy-nilly


Our body always agrees to eat more food than it actually needs. But all right, all people would get fat, at least it was not so insulting. And in practice, each person will have friends who claim that they eat as much as they want, they do not count up calories, do not engage in sports, and still they can be called right now in a porno for skate lovers. Do not envy them: they usually have many other problems. Most likely, they really eat too little - simply because they have such a hectic life that there is absolutely no time to go to lunch at work, there is neither a caring grandmother nor a caring husband at home who would remind them that people sometimes have breakfast and dinner and in general, they have constant stress, that is, physiological reactions that dull the feeling of hunger (in fact, everything here is ambiguous, stress can not only suppress, but also stimulate the appetite - we will return to this later). And there are a lot of smokers among non-fat people, because every cigarette you smoke is also stress, and it slightly increases the level of adrenaline and cortisol, and they in turn lead to a slight rise in the concentration of glucose in the blood, and all this dulls the feeling of hunger. This effect further complicates the rejection of nicotine, especially in women: after quitting smoking, people are usually amazed at how they now feel like eating all the time. Then, however, they adapt and agree that the risk of gaining three extra pounds is still better than the risk of an early death from lung cancer.
But often the opposite situation occurs: a person has to make colossal conscious efforts to not gain weight. In some cases, this is due to genetic characteristics. For example, the ghrelin hormone, which enhances the feeling of hunger, can be artificially synthesized and introduced to volunteers - in this case they will begin to eat more. There are mutations in the gene that codes for ghrelin, which lead to an enhanced synthesis of this hormone - and indeed, in carriers of such mutations, the body mass index is usually higher. It's a shame that reverse mutations that reduce the synthesis of ghrelin do not lead to weight loss, because there are other mechanisms that cause hunger, which means that the weight loss medicine blocking ghrelin is unlikely to be highly effective (although such experiments are now underway).
The feeling of saturation is associated with the peptide YY, which is produced in the intestine. If you introduce it to volunteers, they really start to eat less. But mutations that reduce the synthesis of this peptide lead to chronic overeating. This greatly affects the Pima Indians in Arizona: two mutations are widespread in their tribe that disrupt the normal production of the YY peptide, resulting in people who are constantly experiencing hunger and whose body mass index often exceeds 45 (at a rate of up to 25 ).
There are many other molecules, the level of which affects food behavior. For example, in the hypothalamus, an agouti-related peptide is produced that enhances the feeling of hunger. It is named so because it is similar in structure to the agouti peptide, which is produced in many animals in the hair follicles and, periodically turning on and off, forms the agouti color: dark hair with yellow rings. The American scientist Randy Jirtl has deduced a line of mice in which the agouti gene works not only in the skin and sometimes, but throughout the body and all the time - the beasts turned out not only yellow, but also suffering from severe obesity, because the agouti peptide causes a feeling of hunger if it enters the hypothalamus15.
The most interesting thing in Jirtla's mice is that the abnormal work of the gene can be blocked by changing the diet of the mother-mouse during pregnancy. If you feed the expectant mother with folic acid, choline and other vitamins for pregnant women containing methyl groups (-CH3), then the cells use these methyl groups in order to hang them on the altered gene site and prevent its inadequate activation. As a result, the appearance of the offspring depends on the appearance of the offspring: at different levels of methyl groups in the diet, the whole spectrum of the whole spectrum can be born from the same mother, from normal lean mice with agouti coloring (yellow strips on woolens) to clumsy bright yellow fatties, - genetically, they will be close, like identical twins. These mice are one of the most famous experimental animals in epigenetics, a young science that studies how environment conditions affect gene activity.
Epigenetics is already being selected for people, including the problem of obesity. For example, in 2011, scientists from Southampton University published a large-scale study, in which they first observed pregnant women and analyzed the nature of their nutrition, then studied the pattern of methylation of several metabolic related genes in their newborn children, and before the publication they found 216 of the children who participated in this study and who grew up to the age of nine, and analyzed their body weight16. As a result, it was found that the lack of carbohydrates in the mother's diet at very early gestation times is associated, in particular, with an increased level of methylation of the RXRA gene (this is the receptor of the cell nucleus, that is, it is involved in the regulation of the activity of other genes), and methylation of this gene at birth , in turn, increases the likelihood of obesity at school age.
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Willy-nilly

  1. A few words for fat people and bbw
    In the early days of the Program, do not limit yourself to eating! You wanted a cutlet and flavored with condensed milk and peaches an endless piece of biscuit - give yourself this! It is very likely that your Organism will be stupefied in the full sense of the word with such happiness and will allow yourself to be drunk. But, as soon as he realizes that the restrictions and punishments have really ended and you do not intend to humiliate and offend him more, your
  2. LEGS OF MONOPHONE, ANIMAL EXTRACTS AND FINE PROTEINS, OR BEHAVIOR STEREOTYPES IN A FOOD RECEPTION
    LEGS OF THE PONETVOLITE, EXPLOSIONS AND PRECURSORS, OR THE BEHAVIOR STEREOTYPES IN THE RECEPTION
  3. Breastfeeding in a public place
    In the XIX century, all babies were breastfed, since the breast milk substitute had not yet been invented. In those days, women often fed babies by sitting on the porch of the house, and at the same time looked after the children playing on the street. Then there was an artificial feeding. The myth that breastmilk substitutes "exceed" it, led to the fact that in the 60-70s of the XX century the majority of children were fed from
  4. Pre-revolutionary situation: an exception to the rules
    "War is a man's business." This assertion has always been taken for an axiom and, of course, not by chance: throughout the whole of human history this is not the most noble occupation really was the prerogative of men. And women have always acted as a passive victim, military booty, at best - a long-suffering Penelope or crying Yaroslavna. Legends of the Amazons, by the way, are common
  5. Vizer VA .. Lectures on therapy, 2011
    On the topic - almost completely cover the difficulties in the course of hospital therapy, the issues of diagnosis, treatment, in the presentation, laconic and quite affordable. Allergic diseases of the lungs Joint diseases Reiter's disease Sjogren's disease Bronchial asthma Bronchoectatic disease Hypertonic disease Glomerulonephrosfamiditis Herniasis of the esophagus Destructive lung diseases
  6. ALLERGIC DISEASES OF LUNGS
    In recent decades, there has been a significant increase in the number. patients with allergic diseases of the bronchopulmonary apparatus. Allergic lung diseases include exogenous allergic alveolitis, pulmonary eosinophilia, drug
  7. EXOGENOUS ALLERGIC ALVEOLITES
    Exogenous allergic alveolitis (syn: hypersensitive pneumonitis, interstitial granulomatous alveolitis) is a group of diseases caused by intensive and, more rarely, prolonged inhalation of antigens of organic and inorganic dusts and characterized by a diffuse, unlike pulmonary eosinophilia, lesion of alveolar and interstitial lung structures. The emergence of this group
  8. TREATMENT
    1. General measures aimed at dissociation of the patient from the source of antigen: compliance with sanitary and hygienic requirements in the workplace, technological improvement of industrial and agricultural production, rational employment of patients. 2. Drug treatment. In the acute stage - prednisolone 1 mg / kg per day for 1-3 days, followed by a decrease in dose in
  9. CHRONIC EOSINOPHILE PNEUMONIA
    It differs from the Loeffler syndrome with a longer (more than 4 weeks) and severe course until severe intoxication, fever, weight loss, the appearance of pleural effusion with a high content of eosinophils (Lera-Kindberg syndrome). The prolonged course of pulmonary eosinophilia, as a rule, is the result of an inadequate examination of the patient in order to determine its cause. In addition to the reasons,
  10. PULMONARY EOSINOPHILIA WITH ASTHMATIC SYNDROME
    This group of diseases can be attributed to bronchial asthma and diseases with a leading bronchial asthma syndrome, which are based on other etiological factors. These diseases include: 1. Allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis. 2. Tropical pulmonary eosinophilia. 3. Pulmonary eosinophilia with systemic manifestations. 4. Hypereosinophilic
  11. LITERATURE
    1. Diseases of the respiratory system: A guide for physicians: In 4 volumes. Ed. N.R.Paleeva. T.4. - M .: Medicine. - 1990. - P.22-39. 2. Silvestov VP, Bakulin MP Allergic lesions of the lungs // Klin.med. - 1987. - № 12. - P.117-122. 3. Exogenous allergic alveolitis / Ed. AG Khomenko, S. Mueller, V. Shilling. - M.: Medicine, 1987. -
  12. BRONCHOECTATIC DISEASE
    Bronchoectatic disease is an acquired (in some cases congenital) disease characterized by chronic suppuration in irreversibly altered (expanded, deformed) and functionally inferior bronchi predominantly in the lower parts of the lungs. ETIOLOGY AND PATHOGENESIS. Bronchiectasis is congenital in 6% of cases, being a defect of intrauterine development, the consequence
  13. CLASSIFICATION OF BRONCHOECTAZES
    (AI Borokhov, N.R.Paleev, 1990) 1. By origin: 1.1. Primary (congenital cysts) bronchiectasis. 1.1.1. Single (solitary). 1.1.2. Multiple. l..l-Z. Cystic lung. 1.2. Secondary (acquired) bronchiectasis. 2. By the form of bronchial dilatation: 2.1. Cylindrical. 2.2. Sacred. 2.3. Spindle-shaped. 2.4. Mixed. 3. The severity of the flow
  14. LITERATURE
    1. Diseases of the respiratory system. Manual for doctors edited by. N.R.Paleeva. - М .: Medicine, 1990. - Т.З, Т.4. 2. Okorokov A.N. Treatment of diseases of internal organs: Prakt.ru. In Зт. TI - Mn.Vysh.sh., Belmedkniga, 1997. 3. Harrison T.R. Internal illnesses. - M .: Medicine, T.7,
  15. REACHER'S DISEASE (SYNDROME)
    Reiter's disease (Reiter's syndrome, Fissinger-Leroy syndrome, urethro-oculo-synovial syndrome) is an inflammatory process developing in most cases in close chronological connection with infections of the genitourinary tract or intestine and manifested by the classic triad - urethritis, conjunctivitis, arthritis. The most often sick are young (20-40) men who have undergone urethritis. Women, children and the elderly
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