Licensed books on medicine
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Our body always agrees to eat more food than it actually needs. But all right, all people would get fat, at least it was not so insulting. And in practice, each person will have friends who claim that they eat as much as they want, they do not count up calories, do not engage in sports, and still they can be called right now in a porno for skate lovers. Do not envy them: they usually have many other problems. Most likely, they really eat too little - simply because they have such a hectic life that there is absolutely no time to go to lunch at work, there is neither a caring grandmother nor a caring husband at home who would remind them that people sometimes have breakfast and dinner and in general, they have constant stress, that is, physiological reactions that dull the feeling of hunger (in fact, everything here is ambiguous, stress can not only suppress, but also stimulate the appetite - we will return to this later). And there are a lot of smokers among non-fat people, because every cigarette you smoke is also stress, and it slightly increases the level of adrenaline and cortisol, and they in turn lead to a slight rise in the concentration of glucose in the blood, and all this dulls the feeling of hunger. This effect further complicates the rejection of nicotine, especially in women: after quitting smoking, people are usually amazed at how they now feel like eating all the time. Then, however, they adapt and agree that the risk of gaining three extra pounds is still better than the risk of an early death from lung cancer.
But often the opposite situation occurs: a person has to make colossal conscious efforts to not gain weight. In some cases, this is due to genetic characteristics. For example, the ghrelin hormone, which enhances the feeling of hunger, can be artificially synthesized and introduced to volunteers - in this case they will begin to eat more. There are mutations in the gene that codes for ghrelin, which lead to an enhanced synthesis of this hormone - and indeed, in carriers of such mutations, the body mass index is usually higher. It's a shame that reverse mutations that reduce the synthesis of ghrelin do not lead to weight loss, because there are other mechanisms that cause hunger, which means that the weight loss medicine blocking ghrelin is unlikely to be highly effective (although such experiments are now underway).
The feeling of saturation is associated with the peptide YY, which is produced in the intestine. If you introduce it to volunteers, they really start to eat less. But mutations that reduce the synthesis of this peptide lead to chronic overeating. This greatly affects the Pima Indians in Arizona: two mutations are widespread in their tribe that disrupt the normal production of the YY peptide, resulting in people who are constantly experiencing hunger and whose body mass index often exceeds 45 (at a rate of up to 25 ).
There are many other molecules, the level of which affects food behavior. For example, in the hypothalamus, an agouti-related peptide is produced that enhances the feeling of hunger. It is named so because it is similar in structure to the agouti peptide, which is produced in many animals in the hair follicles and, periodically turning on and off, forms the agouti color: dark hair with yellow rings. The American scientist Randy Jirtl has deduced a line of mice in which the agouti gene works not only in the skin and sometimes, but throughout the body and all the time - the beasts turned out not only yellow, but also suffering from severe obesity, because the agouti peptide causes a feeling of hunger if it enters the hypothalamus15.
The most interesting thing in Jirtla's mice is that the abnormal work of the gene can be blocked by changing the diet of the mother-mouse during pregnancy. If you feed the expectant mother with folic acid, choline and other vitamins for pregnant women containing methyl groups (-CH3), then the cells use these methyl groups in order to hang them on the altered gene site and prevent its inadequate activation. As a result, the appearance of the offspring depends on the appearance of the offspring: at different levels of methyl groups in the diet, the whole spectrum of the whole spectrum can be born from the same mother, from normal lean mice with agouti coloring (yellow strips on woolens) to clumsy bright yellow fatties, - genetically, they will be close, like identical twins. These mice are one of the most famous experimental animals in epigenetics, a young science that studies how environment conditions affect gene activity.
Epigenetics is already being selected for people, including the problem of obesity. For example, in 2011, scientists from Southampton University published a large-scale study, in which they first observed pregnant women and analyzed the nature of their nutrition, then studied the pattern of methylation of several metabolic related genes in their newborn children, and before the publication they found 216 of the children who participated in this study and who grew up to the age of nine, and analyzed their body weight16. As a result, it was found that the lack of carbohydrates in the mother's diet at very early gestation times is associated, in particular, with an increased level of methylation of the RXRA gene (this is the receptor of the cell nucleus, that is, it is involved in the regulation of the activity of other genes), and methylation of this gene at birth , in turn, increases the likelihood of obesity at school age.
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1. Diseases of the respiratory system: A guide for physicians: In 4 volumes. Ed. N.R.Paleeva. T.4. - M .: Medicine. - 1990. - P.22-39. 2. Silvestov VP, Bakulin MP Allergic lesions of the lungs // Klin.med. - 1987. - № 12. - P.117-122. 3. Exogenous allergic alveolitis / Ed. AG Khomenko, S. Mueller, V. Shilling. - M.: Medicine, 1987. -
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