Licensed books on medicine
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Why do you need a brain?
At one time, the brain was not exactly compared with a telephone switchboard; in fact, it establishes the connection between thoughts, as well as between events and our reactions to these events. Even in this respect, the brain is much more complex than all our technical facilities.
The number of possible connections in our brain is larger than it would be on the world wide web, even if each person had a telephone. In addition, different parts of the brain, if necessary, can replace each other much better than is possible in any artificially manufactured switch. Nowadays, the brain is compared to a computer. Probably some parts of the brain actually work like a computer; and if we use such a comparison, then our brain is the smallest, most perfect, most efficient and best-self-controlled computer we know in the Universe.
The brain is enclosed in the upper part of the skull. It is partly divided in the middle, and the size resembles a large coconut. The spinal cord is shaped like a stick with a knob at the top. The brain surrounds this knob and is connected with it by millions of nerve fibers.
It is often asked what proportion of the brain is actually used and which one can be dispensed with. Brain damage occurs (before birth, during birth or after birth), allowing us to answer this question. With such damage, the affected part of the brain dissolves over time, so that it is replaced by a watery fluid. It is noteworthy that in such cases a very large part of the brain can be destroyed, and yet the person and his friends do not suspect anything.
In the brain of one person there were several large fluid inclusions, so that from birth he had only about half of the brain tissue. This did not prevent him from successfully completing high school, and at the time when he went to the doctor, he successfully performed the duties of an auto mechanic. The only reason that prompted him to seek medical help was sudden epileptic seizures. Prior to this, neither he himself nor his family members suspected any shortcoming. Something extraordinary was discovered only when he visited a specialist. Having found minor irregularities in vision and muscle development that did not interfere with the patient’s work and therefore were not noticed by him, the neuropathologist undertook a special X-ray examination that revealed holes in the patient’s brain.
Some parts of the brain have a special purpose, while others can gradually replace each other. If one of the special parts is absorbed, then the individual is not able to perform any of the functions associated with this part. If half of the back lobe disappears, then the individual does not see half of the one in front of him and turns out to be unilaterally blind (this does not mean that he is blind, for example, in his right eye: the right half of both eyes are blind). If both sides of the posterior lobe are absorbed, it is almost completely blind. In some cases, however, even the duties of these special units may be transferred to its other departments. Apoplexy is caused by the destruction of a part of the brain that controls certain muscles. If this part is destroyed, the corresponding muscles become stiff and not manageable. However, after prolonged exercise, other parts of the brain in some cases are trained to control these muscles, and some of those affected by the blow regain their power over their body. At the mechanic, which was discussed above, the destroyed parts of the brain for the most part did not have special functions, and because of this he could lead a normal life.
The reason why you can do without such a large part of the brain tissue is that the brain usually acts as one. In this respect, as in many other things, it works completely differently than a telephone switchboard or a computer. If, for example, you destroy some of the telephone switches in France, the telephone service in this country will decrease. In the same way, if one of the “memory drums” of a machine that translates from French is put out of action, its ability to translate will decrease accordingly. But if a person has learned French, then his knowledge cannot be partially destroyed by destroying any special part of his brain, because he knows French by the whole brain, and not by any part of it. There are no "bumps of language abilities". 4 It can almost be said with certainty that the absence of certain parts of the brain is no more reflected in knowledge, thinking, and other manifestations of mental life than the absence of a leg. Indeed, in life it often happens that a lack of a leg causes more mental symptoms than a lack of brain tissue.
The brain should be considered as part of a single energy system, which is man. If we approach it from this point of view, we can assume that the brain functions are not limited to activities similar to the operation of a switch or computer; it can be assumed that he is, in addition, the keeper of energy. There is evidence that the brain actually performs such a function. Recall that a cat with a remote upper part of the brain, apparently, is not able to hold any of its senses and is enraged immediately from the most insignificant irritation. She is not able, further, to remember what has happened, and also to delay other reactions, such as the movement of legs subjected to stimulation. In a person with a whole brain, the ability to maintain mental energy is highly developed. Normal adults are able to hold back their feelings in anticipation of a better moment to express them, instead of often coming into unbridled rage; they are able to hold their perceptions and later remember them; they are able to restrain the desire to move their legs in response to stimuli, as happens in a dentist’s chair.
The behavior of such people leads to the conclusion that their ability to restrain feelings and impulses decreases as compared with the former, when their brain was one. The person who has undergone such an operation acts impulsively and often shows his feelings rather than before the operation.
If we assume that the brain serves as a repository of energy, then it is possible to explain many phenomena, from other positions that seem mysterious. From this point of view, the brain is an organ of expectation.
One of the most important things in family and social life and in general in relations between people is the ability to restrain their energy, without falling into despair, when the individual's mind tells him that it is reasonable to postpone the action. If our assumption is correct, then it is the brain that stores up to the proper moment the energy released by the glands and other sources; thus, the brain plays its part in preventing nonsense that people could do simply under the influence of accumulated tension. You can even imagine that the brain in everyday life is charged and discharged like a living battery, as can be seen in the "History of a ten-dollar clutter."
Midas King, owner of the Olympic Cannery, was a fat, restless, somewhat irritable viscerotonic. That summer things at the factory went at random. Everyone worked at the limit of endurance, the staff often changed, every now and then there were mistakes, sometimes even serious ones. Every day was for Mr. King a continuous series of grievances, but all the time he tried to control himself. And he turned to Dr. Tris for psychiatric treatment for increased blood pressure.
Mrs. King, accompanying her husband, told the doctor about the incident that happened the night before. After returning home from the office, Mr. King behaved rather calmly until their three-year-old kid did something wrong; and then Mr. King cracked him in the head with terrible force. Mr. King believed that he had acted fairly, but his wife told him that he had gone too far, took the boy in her arms and calmed him. The anger of Mr. King was caused by the fact that his son tore up a paper dollar to shreds. Now Mr. King has repented of his deed.
“I think I understand what happened,” Dr. Tris said. “The boy tore a piece of paper into one dollar, but instead of punishing him for a dollar, you gave him a ten-dollar slice, isn't it?”
Mr King and his wife found this description correct.
“The question is,” said the doctor, “where did the rest of the annoyance, worth nine dollars, come from?”
"Well, of course, he brought it, poor thing, from his office," replied Mrs. King. “Emotions have accumulated in his office, and are discharged at home,” the doctor said. “This goes on for several years, and now, after a quiet weekend, his pressure is not reduced as easily as before. So you need to think about how to reduce his irritability in throughout the day. " Meanwhile, he thought: “Something is wrong here. She calls him“ poor thing ”even after he hit the boy on the head. The first thing I have to do is not let him beat the boy on the head. quiet weekend! "
We note in passing that the child, just like a criminal, knows from experience, what punishment he should expect for each specific crime. Within these limits, he usually takes the punishment, not holding a grudge. But if he is punished for ten dollars for a one-dollar crime, then he remains offended at the price of nine dollars, because with all his inexperience he somehow guesses that he is being made a scapegoat for the sins of others, and is offended by such injustice.
In this example, we see the enormous importance of energy storage and the way it is released for the body to work properly and for relationships with other people, in the service and at home. Not only feelings, but also knowledge and experience are stored in memory. Mentally retarded people are less capable of this type of storage, it is difficult for them to remember certain things. There are thus two types of storage. The ability of a person to keep knowledge is not directly connected with his ability to keep feelings. For this reason, some "able" people behave badly towards others, and this partly explains why slowly thinking people can get along with other people. We admire the person for his abilities, but we love him for his peculiar way to express his feelings. One who wants to develop his personality must, therefore, decide whether he wants to develop one of its sides, or both. If he develops only the ability to preserve images in his memory, then he will probably be admired, but he will not necessarily like it. If he wants not only admiration, but also affection, then it is useful for him to develop the ability to keep his feelings and express them in an acceptable form.
Both belong to the psyche, the bodily organ that directly performs these functions should be considered the brain. The brain is an organ of learning and expectation that keeps in mind the images and feelings; at the same time, it is the central body that establishes the connection between our ideas, as well as between external events and our reactions to these events.
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Why do you need a brain?
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