home
about the project
News of medicine
Authors
<< Previous Next >>

Why are you hounding?

It is this circumstance that is associated with an increased incidence of cancer, especially liver cancer, with alcohol abuse.
Two stages of processing of ethyl alcohol. Alcohol Dehydrogenase turns alcohol into a toxic acetic aldehyde that causes hangover symptoms. Aldehyde dehydrogenase detoxifies the molecules of acetic aldehyde, converting them into harmless acetic acid. It helps with headaches and nausea, but with shame for yesterday, you have to accept.
When we drink, alcohol is gradually processed into acetic aldehyde, and it, fortunately, turns into acetic acid. But the consequences of alcohol intake depend on the activity of the two enzymes participating in this process.
If the activity of both enzymes is equally high, then a person can drink a lot, almost without experiencing alcoholic intoxication, or a hangover. If the activity of the first link is low, then a person longly experiences a pleasant intoxication from a small dose of alcohol and, at the same time, has almost no suffering due to abuse, because all the resulting aldehyde is promptly processed into acetic acid. In fact, there is nothing good in these options, because if a person does not suffer from taking large doses of alcohol, he is more likely to abuse it. In the long term, the third option is more safe, when alcohol dehydrogenase produces aldehyde quickly, and aldehyde dehydrogenase processes it into acetic acid slowly. Yes, in this situation, a person practically does not experience a pleasant intoxication, and instead quickly feels unpleasant hangover symptoms - but such a person is unlikely to be able to force himself to become an alcoholic. It is this effect that is reproduced when "sewing": a person who wants to give up alcohol is implanted under the skin with a capsule with disulfiram. This drug suppresses the activity of aldehyde dehydrogenase, so that drinking alcohol becomes dangerous and very unpleasant: it turns into poisonous acetic aldehyde, and the process stops there.
Naturally, the activity of enzymes depends on the genes. The most active form of alcohol dehydrogenase is called ADH2 * 2 - it processes ethyl alcohol into poisonous vinegar aldehyde very quickly, so people who inherited such a variant of the gene from at least one of the parents become alcoholics twice less often than people with other variants of the enzyme. The second enzyme, aldehyde dehydrogenase, works poorly in ALDH2 * 2 allele carriers - they do not practically store the accumulated aldehyde in acetic acid, and they also do not like drinking. In O. N. Tikhodeev's book "The Basics of Psychogenetics," it is said that only three people were found all over the world who still managed to force themselves to become alcoholics, despite the fact that they inherited the genes of non-functioning aldehyde dehydrogenase from both parents. Never before a phrase "mice cried, pricked, but continued to eat a cactus" did not receive so evident confirmation.
The impact of alcohol on the brain, of course, also depends on individual genetic characteristics. So far, the data are mostly statistical: among dozens of variants of genes encoding different subunits of the receptor for gamma-aminobutyric acid, there are genes associated with alcoholism. Some genes involved in the control of the dopamine, serotonin and endorphin systems also show a statistical relationship with alcohol dependence. All these genes are very numerous, 9 their effects are extremely diverse, each of them is significantly influenced by other genes and the external environment, so there will most likely never be an exact genetic test for predisposition to alcoholism. Even after analyzing fifty of your genes, no doctor decides to say: "One bottle of wine a week will not exactly lead you to addiction!" - there is always a risk that gene No. 42 from this set will change its activity after you get under the rain, will affect the gene number 38 and the unrequited gene number 61, and the following bottle of wine will still be fatal for you.
Approximate genetic tests nevertheless already exist and are widely used. As a rule, laboratories analyze enzymes activity primarily and sometimes randomly choose three or four genes related to the action of alcohol in the brain. For example, the Moscow Center for Molecular Genetics is researching the DAT1 and ANKK1 genes associated with dopamine activity, and the OPRM1 gene that codes for the mu receptor for opiates. This is quite logical: pathological dependence really develops when alcohol is tightly integrated into the work of a remuneration system that works on dopamine and endogenous opiates. Private American company 23andMe, the first in the world to introduce cheap genetic screening to identify predispositions to dozens of diseases simultaneously, also analyzes the genes of dopamine receptors and transporters, DAT1 and DRD2, and also draws attention to the site rs7590720 on the long arm of the second chromosome; for which it is needed, it is not yet very clear, but a study of 3792 people showed that the nucleotide replacement in this place increases the risk of alcoholism by 35%.
<< Previous Next >>
= Skip to the content of the tutorial =

Why are you hounding?

  1. Why do we grow thin?
    About hidden and obvious motives for losing weight Usually a person starts to do something only when he realizes or feels that he needs it for some reason. This "why" in psychology is called the motive. Speaking about the practice of weight loss, we could formulate our question as follows - why a person wants to lose weight, what is his motive? And the second question is how to want to lose weight, what would this desire
  2. Why do they apply for the specialty "Psychology"?
    Competition for the psychological faculties of universities at a consistently high level for about a dozen years. This specialty became popular in the late 90s, when a lot of popular literature on psychology appeared in our country, at first, mainly, in translation. Why go to psychologists? Let's consider variants of motivation. What attracts people in this specialty, I think, is understandable. Psychology, in
  3. Why do we grow thin?
    When a woman marries, this does not mean that the work on yourself has ended. Lovely girl, she just started! After all, there are many interesting things ahead of you: pregnancy, childbirth, feeding a child and, quite likely, cooling the relationship with the spouse. So, let's talk about what pushes us every day to stand on the scales, get upset because of every new kilogram and despair because of extra
  4. Why did this happen?
    The end of any war stops any need to kill enemies. They are no longer "enemies", but "partners" for postwar negotiations. It becomes necessary to move from a militant, military view of reality, from dashing journalistic descriptions of bloody victories to a peacekeeping, as they say, civilized worldview. To begin the process of "social forgetting" of the nightmares of war (mutual
  5. WHY CLEANSING
    Most likely, now you are like a person who sits on his usual box and begs a pittance to survive, unaware that the box contains a treasure that will not only provide a person with survival, but also bring wealth that it was impossible to imagine in the wildest dreams. You are not alone. Millions of Americans, like millions of people around the world, are doing the same
  6. Why do we need a brain?
    Once upon a time, the brain was not exactly compared with a telephone switchboard; in fact, he establishes the connections between thoughts, as well as between the events taking place and our reactions to these events. Even in this respect, the brain is much more complicated than all of our technical facilities. The number of possible connections in our brain is greater than what would have been in the worldwide network, even if every person had
  7. P O S S E L E L E F I R Why does gender need "dummies"?
    This book is not a textbook or a political manifesto, but it is written based on certain beliefs shared by all authors. These convictions are that biological, psychological, social, religious and any other differences between people should not lead to their inequality - including gender inequality. We are also convinced that every man
  8. Why do I need medical gloves
    • Gloves reduce the risk of occupational exposure when contacting patients or their secretions; • Gloves reduce the risk of contamination of the hands of personnel by transient pathogens and their subsequent transfer to patients; • Gloves reduce the risk of infection of patients with microbes that are part of the resident flora of the hands of health workers. Thus, the gloves protect both the patient and the paramedic,
  9. Why do we need dietary fiber
    Along with fats, proteins and carbohydrates, vitamins and minerals, our food contains so-called indigestible carbohydrate compounds, which are also called dietary fiber, or fiber. The bulk of the cellulose comes from plant food. Cellulose is rich in bread, cereals, vegetables, fruits and berries. Its highest content in wheaten, rye and oat bran, where it reaches 40%.
  10. Who needs practical psychology and why?
    The intensification of practical psychological work in our country began in the 80s. In just ten years, the number of practical psychologists has increased significantly, psychological services, psychological counseling have become widespread, psychological training has become very popular. However, this process was most often spontaneous (Radzikhovsky, 1987). Social order for
  11. Hey, Microsoft, why buy Yahoo !? (Part II)
    Let's use the multifactor scheme to see more "why" questions in this story than in the situation with ice cream or a pair of fish. In part, this is reminiscent of the repetition of the exercise with the Thomson Corporation, which we were doing this morning. However, now we have a 6x6 structure that greatly simplifies the work. As before, we know that we are going to represent the aggregate of the following
Medical portal "MedguideBook" © 2014-2016
info@medicine-guidebook.com