Licensed books on medicine
<< Ahead || Next >> |
Why are you hurt?
This circumstance is associated with an increased incidence of oncological diseases, especially liver cancer, with alcohol abuse.
Two stages of ethyl alcohol processing. Alcohol dehydrogenase converts alcohol into toxic acetaldehyde, causing hangover symptoms. Aldehyde dehydrogenase neutralizes acetaldehyde molecules by converting them to harmless acetic acid. It helps with headaches and nausea, but with a sense of shame for yesterday's will have to accept.
When we drink, alcohol is gradually processed into acetaldehyde, and he, fortunately, turns into acetic acid. But at the same time, the consequences of alcohol consumption depend on the activity of two enzymes involved in this process.
If the activity of both enzymes is equally high, then a person can drink a lot, almost without experiencing any intoxication or hangover. If the activity of the first link is low, then the person experiences a long time intoxicating from a small dose of alcohol and at the same time practically does not suffer from abuses, because the whole aldehyde is promptly processed into acetic acid. In fact, there is nothing good in these options, because if a person does not suffer because of the ingestion of large doses of alcohol, then he is more likely to begin to abuse it. In the long run, the third option is safest, when alcohol dehydrogenase produces aldehyde quickly, and aldehyde dehydrogenase processes it into acetic acid slowly. Yes, in this situation, a person practically does not feel pleasantly intoxicated, and instead quickly feels the unpleasant symptoms of a hangover - but then such a person is unlikely to be able to force himself to become an alcoholic. It is this effect that is reproduced during “stitching”: a person who wants to stop taking alcohol is implanted with a disulfiram capsule under the skin. This drug inhibits the activity of aldehyde dehydrogenase, so drinking alcohol becomes dangerous and very unpleasant: it turns into poisonous acetaldehyde, and this process stops.
Naturally, the activity of enzymes depends on genes. The most active form of alcohol dehydrogenase is called ADH2 * 2 - it processes ethyl alcohol into poisonous acetaldehyde very quickly, so that people who inherit this version of the gene from at least one of the parents become alcoholics twice as rare as people with other enzyme variants. The second enzyme, aldehyde dehydrogenase, works the worst for carriers of the ALDH2 * 2 allele - their accumulated aldehyde is practically not converted into acetic acid, and they don’t like to drink either. In the book of O. N. Tikhodeev, “Fundamentals of Psychogenetics,” it says that only three people were found throughout the world, who were still able to force themselves to become alcoholics, despite the fact that both genes inherited from the aldehyde dehydrogenase from both parents. Never has the phrase “mice cried, pricked, but continued to eat cactus” has not received such visual confirmation.
The effect of alcohol on the brain, of course, also depends on the individual genetic characteristics. So far, the data are mostly statistical: among the dozens of variants of genes encoding different subunits of the gamma-aminobutyric acid receptor, there are genes associated with alcoholism. Some genes involved in the control of the dopamine, serotonin and endorphin systems also demonstrate a statistical relationship with alcohol dependence. There are a lot of all these genes9, their effects are extremely diverse, each of them is significantly influenced by other genes and the external environment, so there will most likely never be an absolutely accurate genetic test for predisposition to alcoholism. Even after analyzing about fifty of your genes, not a single doctor decides to say: “One bottle of wine a week definitely will not lead you to addiction!” - there is always the risk that gene No. 42 from this set will change its activity after you enter under the rain, it will affect the gene number 38 and the unregistered gene number 61, and the bottle of wine that follows will prove to be fatal for you.
Approximate genetic tests nevertheless already exist and are widely used. As a rule, laboratories first of all analyze the activity of enzymes and sometimes even three or four genes are selected at random, which are related to the alcohol in the brain. For example, the Moscow Center for Molecular Genetics studies the DAT1 and ANKK1 genes associated with dopamine activity, and the OPRM1 gene, which encodes a mu receptor for opiates. This is quite logical: pathological dependence actually develops when alcohol is tightly embedded in the work of the reward system, which works on dopamine and endogenous opiates. The private American company 23andMe, the first in the world to introduce cheap genetic screening to identify predispositions to dozens of diseases at the same time, also analyzes the dopamine receptor and transporter genes, DAT1 and DRD2, and also draws attention to the rs7590720 segment on the long arm of the second chromosome; what it is for is not yet very clear, but a study of 3792 people showed that the nucleotide substitution at this place increases the risk of developing alcoholism by 35%.
| << Ahead || Next >> |
| = Go to tutorial content = |
Why are you hurt?
- Why do we lose weight?
On the hidden and obvious motives for losing weight Usually a person accepts something only when he realizes or feels that he needs it for some reason. This “why?” In psychology is called motive. Speaking about the practice of losing weight, we could formulate our question as follows: why does a person want to lose weight, what is his motive? And the second question is how you want to lose weight, so that this desire
- Why go to the specialty "Psychology"?
The competition for the psychological faculties of universities at a consistently high level for about a decade. This specialty became popular at the end of the 90s, when a lot of popular literature on psychology appeared in our country, at first mostly translatable. Why go to psychologists? Consider options for motivation. What attracts people in this specialty, I think, is understandable. Psychology, in
- Why do we lose weight?
When a woman gets married, it does not mean that the work on herself is over. Dear girls, she has just begun! After all, there are a lot of interesting things ahead of you: pregnancy, childbirth, feeding a child and, quite likely, cooling relations with a spouse. So, let's talk about what pushes us every day to get up on the scales, get upset because of each new kilogram and despair because of the extra
- Why did this happen?
The end of any war stops any need to kill enemies. They are no longer “enemies”, but “partners” in post-war negotiations. It becomes necessary to move from a militant, military view of reality, from dashing journalistic descriptions of bloody victories to a peacemaking, as they say, civilized world outlook. To begin the process of “publicly forgetting” the nightmares of war (mutual
- WHY NEED A CLEANING
Most likely, now you look like a person who sits in his usual box and begging for pennies to survive, unaware that the box is fraught with a treasure that will not only ensure human survival, but also bring wealth that could not be imagined. in the wildest dreams. You are not alone. Millions of Americans, like millions of people in other countries, do the same
- Why do you need a brain?
At one time, the brain was not exactly compared with a telephone switchboard; in fact, it establishes the connection between thoughts, as well as between events and our reactions to these events. Even in this respect, the brain is much more complex than all our technical facilities. The number of possible connections in our brain is greater than it would be on the world wide web, even if each person had
- P o S le S l o V i Why do dummies need gender?
This book is not a textbook or a political manifesto, but it is written on the basis of certain beliefs shared by all authors. These convictions are that biological, psychological, social, religious, and any other differences between people should not lead to their inequality - including gender inequality. We are also convinced that every man
- Why do you need medical gloves
• Gloves reduce the risk of occupational exposure when in contact with patients or their secretions; • Gloves reduce the risk of contamination of personnel’s hands with transient pathogens and their subsequent transfer to patients; • Gloves reduce the risk of patients becoming infected with microbes, which are part of the resident flora of the hands of medical professionals. In this way, gloves protect both the patient and the health worker,
- Why do we need dietary fiber
Along with fats, proteins and carbohydrates, vitamins and minerals, our food contains the so-called non-digestible carbohydrate compounds, also called dietary fiber, or fiber. The bulk of fiber comes from plant foods. Fiber is rich in bread, cereals, vegetables, fruits and berries. Its highest content is in wheat, rye and oat bran, where it reaches 40%.
- Who needs practical psychology and why?
The activation of practical psychological work in our country began in the 80s. In just ten years, the number of practical psychologists has significantly increased, psychological services, psychological counseling have begun to appear everywhere, and psychological training has become very popular. However, this process proceeded most often spontaneously (Radzikhovsky, 1987). Social order for
- Hey, Microsoft, why buy Yahoo !? (part II)
Let's use a multifactor scheme to see more “why” questions in this story than in a situation with ice cream or a pair of fish. This is partly reminiscent of the repetition of the exercise with the Thomson Corporation, which we did this morning. However, now we have a 6x6 structure, which greatly simplifies the work. As before, we know that we are going to depict the totality of the following