home
about the project
Medical news
For authors
Licensed books on medicine
<< Previous Next >>

Agenesis, aplasia and hypoplasia of the lungs



When x-ray, a decrease in the volume of the chest on the side of the defect, intense darkening in this area, high standing of the dome of the diaphragm. The spinal column is "bare". There may be a prolapse of a healthy lung in the other half of the chest with the formation of a "pulmonary hernia."

With bronchoscopy, the absence or rudiment of the main bronchus, narrowing of the lobar bronchi.

With bronchography, if agenesis and absence of the main bronchus are noted; if aplasia has a rudimentary bronchus, large bronchi are filled with hypoplasia, in the absence of small bronchial branches - agenesis, aplasia and hypoplasia of the lungs.

With agenesis and aplasia, conservative therapy aimed at suppressing bronchopulmonary infection.

With lung hypoplasia, surgical treatment is preferred.

<< Previous Next >>
= Skip to textbook content =

Agenesis, aplasia and hypoplasia of the lungs

  1. Congenital aplasia of the skin
    DEFINITION Congenital skin defect. CODE ICD-R 83 Other changes in the external integument specific to the fetus and newborn. EPIDEMIOLOGY A rare disease. ETIOLOGY Not known. PATHOGENESIS Not known. CLINICAL PICTURE Congenital aplasia of the skin and subcutaneous tissue is possible in limited areas of the scalp, the body is already at birth (Fig. 21-8,
  2. Left Heart Hypoplasia Syndrome
    The term “left heart hypoplasia syndrome” is used to refer to a heterogeneous group of defects characterized by underdevelopment of the left heart-aorta complex, which creates obstruction of blood flow. As a result, the left heart is not able to maintain a proper level of systemic circulation. The frequency of left heart hypoplasia syndrome is 0.12-0.21 per 1000 newborns, 3.4-7.5% among all
  3. Congenital adrenal hypoplasia
    Etiology The most common hereditary form associated with the X chromosome and caused by defects in the NR0B1 gene encoding the transcription factor DAX1. Pathogenesis Factor DAX1 is necessary for laying the adrenal cortex and testicle, and is involved in the regulation of hypothalamo-gonadotrophic function. Clinical picture In boys with a factor DAX1 defect, adrenal insufficiency occurs, clinically
  4. Surgery for aplasia of the vagina
    Surgery to create an artificial vagina (colpopoiesis) is performed mainly with its congenital aplasia. This is observed in women with developed secondary sexual characteristics and a karyotype of XX, in whom the ovaries are well developed and the hypoplastic uterus with the cervix or its rudiment (Rokytansky-Küster syndrome) is often noted, as well as with the XY karyotype, in which the uterus and ovaries are absent, and in
  5. PARTIAL ("RED CELL") BONE MARROW HYPOPLASIA. ERITROBLASTOFTIS
    Of particular interest are cases of hypo-aplastic anemia occurring with selective lesion of erythropoiesis, with preserved thrombocytopoiesis and partly leukopoiesis. A similar form (incorrectly designated by some authors as "partial hypoplastic anemia" (represents a special version of hypoplastic anemia, characterized in contrast to total partial myelophthosis,
  6. LUNG DISEASES. CHRONIC DIFFUSIVE ASTHMA. INTERSTITIAL LUNG DISEASES. CANCER INFLAMMATORY LUNG DISEASES. Bronchial lung
    LUNG DISEASES. CHRONIC DIFFUSIVE ASTHMA. INTERSTITIAL LUNG DISEASES. CANCER INFLAMMATORY LUNG DISEASES. BRONCHIAL
  7. Chronic diffuse inflammatory diseases of the lungs. Bronchial asthma. Lungs' cancer. Pneumoconiosis
    1. The main types of diffuse lung lesions 1. interstitial 4. small focal 2. obstructive 5. panacinar 3. restrictive 2. Causes of death with obstructive emphysema 1. gas acidosis and coma 2. renal failure 3. left ventricular heart failure 4. right ventricular heart failure 5. collapse of the lungs with spontaneous pneumothorax 3. The most important
  8. Regular ventilation regimen with intermittent inflation
    It is well known that monotonous tidal volume during mechanical ventilation increases uneven ventilation of the lungs and contributes to their atelectasis. Indeed, even with independent breathing, a healthy person never breathes the same respiratory volume, the latter is constantly changing. In addition, a healthy person periodically takes "sighs" of increased volume and duration. To overcome
  9. Artificial ventilation of the lungs during operations on the lungs and mediastinal organs
    One-lung ventilation. A necessary condition for lung operations - switching off the operated lung from ventilation according to absolute (wet lung, pulmonary bleeding, leaky lung) or relative indications - puts the body in non-physiological conditions of functioning, leads to impaired gas exchange and blood circulation. However, a technique widely used in thoracic surgery
  10. Acute left ventricular failure - interstitial and alveolar pulmonary edema. Non-cardiogenic pulmonary edema.
    Cardiogenic and non-cardiogenic pulmonary edema are considered as the immediate cause of death in every fourth person who died. Pathogenesis. In a healthy person, the hydrostatic pressure in the pulmonary capillaries is 7–9 mm Hg. Art., it slightly exceeds that in interstitium. The liquid is retained in the capillaries due to its viscous properties, sufficiently high figures of oncotic
  11. EXTERNAL RESPIRATION AND FUNCTIONS OF THE LUNG RESPIRATORY FUNCTION OF LUNG AND PATHOPHYSIOLOGICAL MECHANISMS OF HYPOXEMIA AND HYPERCAPNIA
    The main function of the lungs - the exchange of oxygen and carbon dioxide between the environment and the body - is achieved by a combination of ventilation, pulmonary circulation and diffusion of gases. Acute violations of one, two or all of these mechanisms lead to acute changes in gas exchange. Pulmonary ventilation. Indicators of pulmonary ventilation include tidal volume (Vt), respiratory rate (f), and minute volume
  12. CHRONIC OBSTRUCTIVE LUNG DISEASES / CHRONIC BRONCHITIS AND LUNG EMPHYSIS /
    Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease is a pathological condition characterized by the formation of chronic airway obstruction due to chronic bronchitis / chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and / or pulmonary emphysema / EL /. Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease is widespread. It is estimated that HB affects about 14–20% of the male and about 3–8% of the female adult population, but only
  13. Ventilation-induced pulmonary edema, lung damage, and “volume trauma” (volume trauma)
    Pathogenesis Even in the absence of an alveolar rupture, the use of excessive regional volumes undoubtedly damages the alveoli, regardless of whether the introduction of such volumes is caused by positive or negative pressure. Patients with acute respiratory distress syndrome appear to be at the highest risk: the prevalence of barotrauma under these conditions can exceed 50%. At
  14. Correction methods for acute respiratory failure in acute lung injury / acute respiratory distress syndrome with a proven effect on mortality and fan-induced lung damage
    • ???? Ventilation with small tidal volumes. The use of small tidal volumes can reduce the manifestations of volumotrauma and avoid high transpulmonary pressures. According to the largest multicenter randomized controlled trial conducted by ARDSnet in 41 centers and involving 861 patients, the use of small tidal volumes (6 ml / kg body weight) leads to
  15. LECTURE No. 18. Congenital and hereditary diseases of the lungs
    Malformation is an anomaly in most cases of intrauterine development, which entails gross changes in the structure and function of an organ or tissue. Classification of malformations of the bronchopulmonary system. 1. Defects associated with the underdevelopment of the organ as a whole or its anatomical, structural, tissue elements: 1) lung agenesis; 2) lung aplasia; 3) lung hypoplasia; 4) cystic hypoplasia
  16. 89. LUNG DISEASES CAUSED BY THE ACTION OF THE DUST FACTOR AND THE ACTION OF THE CHEMICAL FACTORS. PATHOGENESIS, CLINIC, PRINCIPLES OF TREATMENT AND PREVENTION. CLINIC OF TOXIC PULMONARY Edema, PRINCIPLES OF TREATMENT
    Pneumoconiosis - x-x development of fibrotic changes in the lungs as a result of prolonged inhalation of the industry. dust. According to the etiology, 6 groups of PCs are distinguished: 1) silicosis-PC from inhalation of silica dust (silicon oxide) 2) silicotosis-PC from inhalation of silica dust, soda-silica in a bound state with other elements # astestosis, talcosis. 3) metallokoniosis - PC from dust Me: Al - aluminum, iron oxides - siderosis. four)
  17. Polycystic lung disease
    Polycystic lung disease (cystic hypoplasia) is a malformation caused by antenatal underdevelopment of the pulmonary parenchyma, blood vessels and bronchial tree with the formation of many cavities (cysts) distal to subsegmental bronchi. The clinical picture. Cough, purulent sputum, sometimes hemoptysis. Almost from birth, a continuously recurring course of inflammation in the bronchopulmonary system. Children
  18. Barotrauma of the lungs
    Barotrauma in mechanical ventilation - damage to the lungs caused by the action of increased pressure in the airways. Two main mechanisms causing barotrauma should be pointed out: 1) over-bloating of the lungs; 2) uneven ventilation against the background of an altered lung structure. With barotrauma, air can enter the interstitium, mediastinum, neck tissues, cause pleural rupture and even penetrate into the abdominal cavity.
  19. LUNG BAROTRAUMA
    Barotrauma in mechanical ventilation - damage to the lungs caused by the action of increased pressure in the airways. Two main mechanisms causing barotrauma should be pointed out: 1) over-bloating of the lungs; 2) uneven ventilation against the background of an altered lung structure. With barotrauma, air can enter the interstitium, mediastinum, neck tissues, cause pleural rupture and even penetrate into the abdominal cavity.
Medical portal "MedguideBook" © 2014-2019
info@medicine-guidebook.com