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Agenesis, aplasia and hypoplasia of the lungs



During radiography, a decrease in the volume of the chest on the side of the blemish, an intense darkening in this area, a high standing of the diaphragm dome. Spine "bare." There may be a prolapse of a healthy lung in the other half of the chest with the formation of a "pulmonary hernia".

In bronchoscopy, the absence or rudiment of the main bronchus, narrowing of the lobar bronchi.

With bronchography, if there is agensia and the absence of the main bronchus; if aplasia has a rudimentary bronchus, in case of hypoplasia, the large bronchi are filled, in the absence of small bronchial branches - agenesia, aplasia and hypoplasia of the lungs.

With agenesis and aplasia, conservative therapy aimed at suppressing bronchopulmonary infections.

When lung hypoplasia preference is given to surgical treatment.

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Agenesis, aplasia and hypoplasia of the lungs

  1. Congenital aplasia of the skin
    DEFINITION Congenital defect of the skin. ICD-R software code 83 Other changes of the integuments specific for the fetus and newborn. EPIDEMIOLOGY A rare disease. ETIOLOGY Not known. PATHOGENESIS None known. KLINICHE SKAYA PICTURE Congenital aplasia of the skin and subcutaneous tissue is possible in limited areas of the scalp, the body is already at birth of the child (Fig. 21-8,
  2. Left heart hypoplasia syndrome
    The term “left heart hypoplasia syndrome” is used to designate a heterogeneous group of defects characterized by the underdevelopment of the left heart-aorta complex, which creates obstruction to the bloodstream. As a result, the left heart is unable to maintain the proper circulation of the system. The frequency of left heart hypoplasia syndrome is 0.12-0.21 per 1000 newborns, 3.4-7.5% among all
  3. Congenital adrenal hypoplasia
    Etiology The hereditary form associated with the X chromosome and caused by defects in the NR0B1 gene encoding a DAX1 transcription factor is most common. Pathogenesis DAX1 factor is necessary for laying the adrenal cortex and testicles, is involved in the regulation of the hypothalamogonadotrophic function. Clinical picture With a defect of factor DAX1 in boys, adrenal insufficiency occurs, clinically
  4. Surgery for aplasia of the vagina
    Operations on the creation of an artificial vagina (colpopoiesis) are performed mainly with its congenital aplasia. This is observed in women with developed secondary sexual characteristics and a XX karyotype, in which the ovaries are well developed and a hypoplastic uterus with a cervix or its rudiment (Rokitansky-Kuster syndrome) is often noted, as well as with the XY karyotype, in which the uterus and ovaries are absent, and
  5. PARTIAL ("RED CELL") BONE Marrow Hypoplasia. ERYTHROBLASTOPTIZ
    Of particular interest are cases of hypo-aplastic anemia that occurs with selective lesion of erythropoiesis, with intact thrombocytopoiesis and partly leukopoiesis. This form (incorrectly denoted by some authors as “partial hypoplastic anemia” (is a special variant of hypoplastic anemia, characterized, in contrast to total myelophthisis partial,
  6. LUNG DISEASES. CHRONIC DIFFUSE ASTHMA. INTERSTICIAL LUNG DISEASES. CANCER INFLAMMATORY DISEASES OF THE LUNGS. BRONCHIAL LUNG
    LUNG DISEASES. CHRONIC DIFFUSE ASTHMA. INTERSTICIAL LUNG DISEASES. CANCER INFLAMMATORY DISEASES OF THE LUNGS. BRONCHIAL
  7. Chronic diffuse inflammatory lung disease. Bronchial asthma. Lungs' cancer. Pneumoconiosis
    1. Main types of diffuse pulmonary lesions 1. interstitial 4. small-focal 2. obstructive 5. panacinal 3. restrictive 2. Causes of death in obstructive pulmonary emphysema 1. gas acidosis and coma 2. renal failure 3. left ventricular heart failure 4. right ventricular heart failure 5. lung collapse in spontaneous pneumothorax 3. Most important
  8. The mode of traditional artificial ventilation of the lungs with periodic inflation of the lungs
    It is well known that monotonous respiratory volume during mechanical ventilation increases the uneven ventilation of the lungs and contributes to their atelectasis. After all, even with independent breathing, a healthy person never breathes with the same breathing volume, the latter is constantly changing. In addition, a healthy person periodically makes "sighs" of increased volume and duration. To overcome
  9. Artificial ventilation of the lungs during operations on the lungs and mediastinal organs
    Single lung ventilation. A necessary condition for operations on the lungs — turning off the operated lung from ventilation in absolute terms (wet lung, pulmonary hemorrhage, unpressurized lung) or relative indications — puts the body in an unphysiological condition of functioning, leading to disturbances in gas exchange and blood circulation. However, the technique widely used in thoracic surgery
  10. Acute left ventricular failure - interstitial and alveolar pulmonary edema. Non-cardiogenic pulmonary edema.
    Pulmonary edema is cardiogenic and non-cardiogenic and is considered to be the immediate cause of death in every fourth deceased. Pathogenesis. In a healthy person, the hydrostatic pressure in the pulmonary capillaries is 7–9 mm Hg. st., it is slightly higher than that in the interstitium. The fluid is retained in the capillaries due to its viscous properties, rather high oncotic numbers.
  11. EXTERNAL RESPIRATION AND FUNCTIONS OF THE LUNG RESPIRATORY FUNCTION OF THE LUNGS AND PATHOPHYSIOLOGICAL MECHANISMS OF HYPOXEMIA AND HYPROCHEMISM
    The main function of the lungs - the exchange of oxygen and carbon dioxide between the external environment and the body - is achieved by a combination of ventilation, pulmonary circulation and diffusion of gases. Acute violations of one, two or all of these mechanisms lead to acute changes in gas exchange. Pulmonary ventilation. Indicators of pulmonary ventilation include tidal volume (Vт), respiratory rate (f), and minute volume
  12. CHRONIC OBSTRUCTIVE LUNG DISEASES / CHRONIC BRONCHITIS AND LUNG EMPHYSIS /
    Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease is a pathological condition characterized by the formation of chronic obstruction of the airways due to chronic bronchitis (CB) and / or pulmonary emphysema / EL /. Chronic obstructive pulmonary diseases are widespread. It is estimated that HB affects about 14–20% of the male and about 3–8% of the female adult population, but only
  13. Pulmonary edema caused by pulmonary edema, damage to the lungs and "volumatal injury" (volume trauma)
    Pathogenesis Even in the absence of an alveolar rupture, the use of excessive regional volumes undoubtedly damages the alveoli, regardless of whether the introduction of such volumes is caused by positive or negative pressure. Patients with acute respiratory distress syndrome appear to be at the highest risk: the prevalence of barotrauma in these conditions may exceed 50%. Have
  14. Correction methods for acute respiratory failure in acute lung injury / acute respiratory distress syndrome with a proven effect on mortality and ventilator-induced lung damage
    • ???? Ventilation with small respiratory volumes. The use of small respiratory volumes allows to reduce the manifestations of volutrauma and to avoid high transpulmonary pressures. According to the largest multicenter randomized controlled study conducted by ARDSnet in 41 centers and involving 861 patients, the use of small tidal volumes (6 ml / kg body weight) leads to
  15. LECTURE № 18. Congenital and hereditary lung diseases
    A malformation is an anomaly in most cases of fetal development, resulting in gross changes in the structure and function of an organ or tissue. Classification of malformations of the bronchopulmonary system. 1. Defects associated with the underdevelopment of the body as a whole or its anatomical, structural, tissue elements: 1) lung agenesis; 2) aplasia of the lungs; 3) lung hypoplasia; 4) cystic hypoplasia
  16. 89. LUNG DISEASES CAUSED BY THE ACTION OF THE DUST FACTOR AND THE ACTION OF CHEMICAL FACTORS. PATHOGENESIS, CLINIC, TREATMENT PRINCIPLES AND PREVENTION. CLINIC OF TOXIC PULMONARY SWEAT, PRINCIPLES OF TREATMENT
    Pneumoconiosis is the development of fibrotic changes in the lungs as a result of prolonged inhalation. dust. According to etiology, 6 grams-PCs are distinguished: 1) silicosis-PC from inhalation of quartz dust (silica) 2) silicosis-PC from inhalation of silicate dust, silicon dioxide in a bound state with other elements #stostosis, talcosis. 3) metalloconioses - PC from dust Me: Al –aluminosis, iron oxides - siderosis. four)
  17. Polycystic lung
    Polycystic lung (cystic hypoplasia) is a malformation caused by antenatal hypoplasia of the pulmonary parenchyma, blood vessels and bronchial tree with the formation of multiple cavities (cysts) distal to the subsegmental bronchi. Clinical picture. Cough, purulent sputum, sometimes hemoptysis. Almost from birth, a continuously recurrent course of inflammation in the bronchopulmonary system. Children
  18. Barotrauma of the lungs
    Barotrauma during mechanical ventilation - damage to the lungs caused by the action of increased pressure in the respiratory tract. Two main mechanisms causing barotrauma should be indicated: 1) lung over-inflation; 2) uneven ventilation against the background of a modified lung structure. With barotrauma, air can enter the interstitium, mediastinum, neck tissue, cause pleural rupture, and even penetrate the abdominal cavity.
  19. LUNG BAROTRAVMA
    Barotrauma during mechanical ventilation - damage to the lungs caused by the action of increased pressure in the respiratory tract. Two main mechanisms causing barotrauma should be indicated: 1) lung over-inflation; 2) uneven ventilation against the background of a modified lung structure. With barotrauma, air can enter the interstitium, mediastinum, neck tissue, cause pleural rupture, and even penetrate the abdominal cavity.
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