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Alveolar microlithiasis

It is characterized by the formation in the pulmonary alveoli of the smallest stones, which consist of calcium carbonate and thiophosphates with a small admixture of iron salts and traces of magnesium. As a result of the deposition of calculus, an alveolar-capillary block occurs, the ventilation-perfusion relations are disturbed. Inherited by autosomal recessive type.

Pathogenesis. The formation of stones in the alveoli is associated with impaired production of alveolar fluid, as well as a disorder of the exchange of carbonic acid - alveolar microlithiasis. The disease occurs in all age groups.

Clinical manifestations. The clinical picture is diverse. The discrepancy between scanty clinical picture and radiological changes is characteristic.

Symptoms may be absent altogether; may cause shortness of breath, cyanosis, decreased tolerance to stress.
As the process progresses, signs of chronic pneumonia join: cough, sputum, fever, “drum sticks”, pulmonary heart appear.

Diagnostics. X-ray examination revealed small diffuse shadows of rocky density, located mainly in the lower and middle parts of the lungs; consolidation of the pleura is noted (differentiated with tuberculosis).

FER: restrictive respiratory disorders.

In lung biopsy, calcifications are found in the lumen of the alveoli, sometimes located in the lumen and the wall of the bronchi.

Treatment. Symptomatic.

Forecast. Adverse; death from pulmonary heart disease.

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Alveolar microlithiasis

  1. Violation of alveolar ventilation
    Alveolar hypoventilation is a typical form of SVD disorders, in which minute alveolar ventilation (MAV) is less than the gas exchange requirement of the body. At the heart of the development of ventilation failure are 2 main mechanisms? a) violation of respiratory biomechanics (determined by pressure in the pleural cavity, alveoli, airways, gradients of these pressures, tracheobronchial
  2. Alveolar CO2 Voltage
    The alveolar voltage of carbon dioxide (РлСО2) reflects the balance between the total carbon dioxide production (production) (VCO2) and alveolar ventilation (CO2 elimination): PdCO2 = VCO2 / VA, where VA is alveolar ventilation (Fig. 22-21). RlCO2 depends much more on the elimination of carbon dioxide than on its production. Although in a stable state, the production and elimination of CO2 are equal, with acute
  3. Alveolar Proteinosis
    Alveolar proteinosis is caused by the accumulation of protein-lipoid substance in the alveoli. The histological picture is characterized by the presence in the lumen of the alveoli granular exudate with a CHIC-positive reaction. Transmitted by an autosomal recessive type. Pathogenesis. A genetic defect that leads to the synthesis of a defective surfactant that does not have surface-active properties; this lipoprotein
  4. Pulmonary alveolar proteinosis
    This is a rare disease, the cause and pathogenesis of which are unknown. Some patients have professional contact with various types of irritating (in particular, silicon) dust. On radiographs there is a diffuse darkening of the lung tissue. Macroscopically, in the non-falling lungs, massive dense areas are found, whitish-gray in the incision, emitting turbid liquid. Under
  5. Alveolar oxygen tension
    With each breath, the inhaled gas mixture is moistened in the upper respiratory tract at 37 ° C. Consequently, the partial pressure of oxygen in the respirable mixture (PiO2) is reduced due to the addition of water vapor. The saturated vapor pressure depends only on temperature and is equal to 47 mm Hg at 37 ° C. Art. In humid air at sea level, PiO2 is 149.3 mmHg. St.: (760-47) x 0.21 = 149, 3 mm
  6. Alveolar gopovtilyatsіya vnasldok porushennya activnost_ dikhalny m'yaz_v
    Tsya pathologia is zoomed by the nezdatnіstyu mezyazovogo aparata sterno klіtki heydznyuvati povnotsіnne dikhannya. Hypopathy is the main reason for retailing out of ailments with polyneuropathy, mysthenia, poliomacular, botulism, pravtsem, otrannymi phosphorus organisms. In diseases of the pathologic pathology, the poultice can be buried on the backslash of these relaxants in the early days
  7. Acute left ventricular failure - interstitial and alveolar pulmonary edema. Non-cardiogenic pulmonary edema.
    Pulmonary edema is cardiogenic and non-cardiogenic and is considered to be the immediate cause of death in every fourth deceased. Pathogenesis. In a healthy person, the hydrostatic pressure in the pulmonary capillaries is 7–9 mm Hg. st., it is slightly higher than that in the interstitium. The fluid is retained in the capillaries due to its viscous properties, rather high oncotic numbers.
  8. Mounier-Kun syndrome
    Clinical picture. From an early age cough with sputum, repeated exacerbations of bronchopulmonary disease, increase in respiratory failure during the period of exacerbation and with age. Deformation of the nail phalanxes in the form of "drum sticks". Radiographic signs: deformation of the pulmonary pattern with areas of consolidation. The expansion of the lumen of the trachea and large bronchi. Bronchiectasis in the inferior
  9. Typical disorders of gas exchange lung function.
    Are the following typical violations of gas exchange lung function? 1. Violation of alveolar ventilation? a) alveolar hypoventilation b) alveolar hyperventilation c) uneven ventilation 2. Disturbance of lung perfusion. 3. Violation of ventilation and perfusion relationships. 4. Violation of diffusion capacity of the lungs. Mixed
  10. Voltage of carbon dioxide in the blood of the terminal pulmonary capillaries
    Fig. 22-21. Effect of alveolar ventilation on alveolar PCO2 at two rates of formation of CO2. (With permission. From: Nunn JF Applied Respiratory Physiology, 3rd ed. Butterworths, 1987.) The voltage of CO2 in the blood of the terminal pulmonary capillaries (Pc'CO2) is almost identical to РлСО2, which is due to the same reasons as for {foto48} oxygen. In addition, we indicate that the rate of diffusion of CO2
  11. Carbon dioxide tension in the final portion of the exhaled gas
    The final portion of the exhaled gas is practically an alveolar gas, and РлСО2 is practically identical to PaCO2, therefore the CO2 voltage in the final portion of the exhaled gas, РктСО2, is used clinically to evaluate PaCO2 (Chapter 6). The difference between РлСО2 and РктСО2 normally does not exceed 5 mm Hg. Art. and due to dilution of alveolar gas by gas from non-perfused alveoli that do not contain CO2 (t.
  12. Interstitial pneumonia
    • Inflammation develops predominantly in the alveolar septa with secondary accumulation of exudate in the alveolar lumens. Synonyms: alveolitis, pneumonitis. • The process may be diffuse or limited. • Caused by certain pathogens: viruses, fungi, mycoplasmas, chlamydia (ornithosis), rickettsia (Q fever-pneumorickettsiosis), pneumocysts. but. Viral pneumonia. •
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