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Ascariasis



The causative agent is roundworm, parasitic in the adult stage in the small intestine. Ascaris life expectancy is about a year. At the stage of migration (the first 6-8 weeks after infection), Ascaris larvae exert a mechanical and sensitizing effect, causing eosinophilic infiltrates in the tissues of various organs and causing hemorrhages. In the intestinal phase (8 weeks after the lesion), adult roundworms cause toxic-allergic and neuro-reflex reactions of the body, a variety of local mechanical influences.

Clinic. The migration phase often proceeds under the guise of acute respiratory infections, bronchitis (malaise, dry cough or scanty sputum, low-grade fever, dry and wet rales in the lungs). Hives, vesicular rash on the hands and feet are possible, volatile infiltrates in the lungs may occur.

In the intestinal phase, the gastrointestinal form is distinguished, manifested by salivation, nausea, loss of appetite, cramping pains around the navel, sometimes upset stool and gastric secretion; hypotonic form, manifested by a decrease in blood pressure, weakness; neurological form, manifested by dizziness, headache, fatigue, sleep disturbance, vegetative-vascular disorders.

Complications Ascaridous bowel obstruction, ascariasis appendicitis; perforated peritonitis; ascariasis of the liver with the occurrence of jaundice, subphrenic abscess; pancreatic ascariasis with clinical manifestations of acute pancreatitis, ascarias creeping into the respiratory tract with the development of asphyxia.

Diagnosis.
Based on laboratory data, it is based on the detection of nematode larvae in sputum, antibodies in the blood, late intestinal phase of ascaris eggs in feces.

Treatment. For the expulsion of young individuals and adult roundworms, piperazine, levamisole, and combantrine are used. Piperazine is prescribed after meals 2 times a day, the interval between taking the drug is 2-3 hours, for 2 days, the recommended dose is 1.5-2 g per reception (3-4 g / day). Effectiveness increases with piperazine after dinner before bedtime. Decaris (levamisole) is prescribed after meals in a dose of 150 mg once, pyrantel is prescribed once after eating at a rate of 10 mg / kg body weight.

Oxygen treatment is carried out on an empty stomach or 3-4 hours after eating, preferably in the morning, 2-3 days in a row.

Forecast and prevention. The prognosis in the absence of complications that require surgical treatment is favorable.

Prevention: mass screening of the population and treatment of all individuals infected with ascariasis. Protection of the soil of vegetable gardens, orchards, berry plants from contamination with feces. Thorough washing and boiling with boiling water of vegetables, fruits. Personal hygiene measures.

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Ascariasis

  1. Ascariasis
    The disease is caused by a nematode parasitizing in the small intestine of the intestines of chickens, turkeys, guinea fowl, sometimes geese and ducks. The causative agent of ascariasis is a fairly large parasite of a yellowish-white color. It has a spindle-shaped body, the length of which is 3-12 cm. Their eggs are oval in shape, 0.08 mm long and 0.05 mm wide. The development of roundworm occurs without the participation of an intermediate host. Fertilized Female
  2. Parasitic diseases in children (enterobiosis, ascariasis)
    Of all the registered parasitoses in people in the republic, enterobiosis, ascariasis are the most significant. Enterobiosis - helminthiasis, challenge. round pinworm. Etiology and epidemiology. Pinworm - a small white nematode parasitic in the human intestines. Helminth life expectancy is from 1 to 3 months; at the end of life, the female helminth creeps out and postpones
  3. Ascaridosis.
    The causative agent is roundworm. The transmission path is feck-op. Anthroponosis, geohelmintosis - for the maturation of eggs, their stay in the soil at 24 ° C is necessary. Pathogenesis. Eggs enter the intestine, larvae are released from them, which enter the portal vein through the wall of the intestine, then into the liver (by the 5th day). By the 10th day - hematogenously into the lungs, where they molt 2 times, break through the wall of the alveoli and through the respiratory tract
  4. Epizootological data
    Cattle: 1. fasciosis - infection 30%; 2. dictiocauliasis - 25%; 3. telaziosis - 100%; MRS: 1. fasciosis - 20%; 2. fleas - 50% 3. lice - 40% 4. ticks - 10% Pigs: 1. esophagostomiasis - 30% 2. metastrongylosis - 20% 3. ascariasis - 60% Horses: 1. oxyurosis - 20% 2. ascariasis - 30% 3.strongilatoses -
  5. Helminthiasis
    Helminthiasis is a group of diseases caused by parasitic worms - helminths. Over 250 types of helminths have been described in humans, of which in Russia representatives of the class of roundworms are of greatest importance: causative agents of ascariasis, hookworm infections, trichinosis, enterobiasis; trichocephalosis; class of tapeworms: teniosis, diphyllobothriasis, echinococcosis; class of flukes:
  6. Geohelminthiasis
    Ascaridosis - caused by roundworm parasitizing in the small intestine of a person. These are round worms with pointed ends. The body length of the female is 25–40 cm, the male is 15–20 cm. The only source of causative agents of ascariasis is a sick person. A roundworm female lays up to 200-240 thousand immature eggs per day (their size is 0.06 x 0.04 mm), which enter the environment with human feces. Eggs
  7. Crib. Infectious diseases, 2010
    Typhoid fever. Paratyphoid A and B. cholera. Amoebiasis. Yersiniosis. Ascaridosis. Trichinosis. Typhus fever, Brill-Zinsser batch. Echinococcosis. Enterobiosis. Q fever. Lime borreliosis. Leptospirosis. Tularemia. Anthrax. Meningococcal infection. Plague. Tetanus. Rabies. Ornithosis. Legionellosis. Erysipelas. Influenza. Food.
  8. NEMATODOSES
    Ascaridosis Ascaridosis is a human helminthiasis caused by round helminth Ascaris lumbricoides. It is characterized by an allergic syndrome in the early phase of the disease and a violation of the gastrointestinal tract in the late phase. Choice of antimicrobial agents. Drugs of choice: pyrantel, 10 mg / kg once. Alternative drugs: levamisole, mebendazole, albendazole. ANKILOSTOMIDOSIS Ankylostomidosis -
  9. Levamisole
    It is characterized by a narrow spectrum of activity. Acts only on some round helminths. It is one of the drugs of choice for the treatment of ascariasis. The mechanism of action The anthelmintic effect is due to a violation of the bio-energy of helminths and a paralyzing effect. The spectrum of activity of roundworm, pinworms and some other nematodes. Pharmacokinetics is well and rapidly absorbed in
  10. Dispersion and circulation of parasitosis pathogens in the environment
    Helminth eggs and larvae The main "suppliers" (sources) of helminth eggs to the environment are sick people, domestic and wild animals, and birds. The power of the source of invasion, and therefore the amount of invasive material released into the environment, depends on the type of invasion, fecundity, number and life of helminths. It has been established that a female roundworm excretes about
  11. Urbanization
    Urbanization is the process of concentration of industry and population in large cities. The population from the private sector moves to comfortable apartments in multi-storey buildings (only in 1984, 113.7 million m2 of living space was commissioned in our country, which improved housing conditions for more than 10 million people). This eliminates personal plots, the soil of which is often
  12. Roundworms.
    Roundworms. Morphology and anatomy. Some features of the nutrition and metabolism of nematodes. Reproduction and life cycles. Parasitic roundworms are causative agents of many dangerous diseases (nematodes) in humans and domestic animals. The economic damage caused by nematodes in agriculture is very large. They pose a serious threat to human health. Nematodoses. Ascariasis
  13. Differential diagnosis
    The above-mentioned tissue helminthiases must be differentiated from each other, and in some cases (toxocariasis, trichinosis) - with the acute phase of other helminthiases (ascariasis, schistosomiasis, opisthorchiasis) and diseases, including allergic nature, accompanied by high eosinophilia. Toxocariasis, depending on the prevailing organ changes, differentiates with bronchial asthma,
  14. IRIT AND IRID CYCLES
    Iritis is inflammation of the iris, and iridocyclitis is inflammation of the iris and ciliary body. As a rule, iridocyclitis (uveitis) is observed in cats. The disease occurs as a result of injuries, viral, bacterial or toxoplasma infections, systemic fungal diseases, ascariasis, severe intoxication or metabolic disorders. In severe cases, iridocyclitis may
  15. DISCIPLINE TEST
    1. What diseases can be transmitted to humans with meat from sick animals? a) brucellosis; c) tuberculosis; e) hepatitis; h) tularemia; i) cholera. b) syphilis; d) anthrax; g) foot and mouth disease; j) plague; 2. Which animal meat can cause trichinosis infection? a) cattle; d) a ram; b) pigs;
  16. Helminthiasis in children. Practical skills
    Questions for repetition: 1. Cycles of development of roundworms, whipworms, pinworms; pork, bovine and dwarf tapeworms. Test questions: 1. The prevalence and ways of infection with helminths in children. 2. Clinical manifestations of ascariasis, depending on the stage of development. Diagnosis and treatment. 3. Clinical manifestations of enterobiosis. Diagnosis and treatment. 4. Clinical manifestations of trichocephalosis.
  17. TREATMENT
    1. General measures aimed at disconnecting the patient from the source of antigen: compliance with sanitary and hygienic requirements at the workplace, technological improvement of industrial and agricultural production, rational employment of patients. 2. Drug treatment. In the acute stage, prednisone 1 mg / kg per day for 1-3 days, followed by a dose reduction in
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