the main
about the project
Medicine news
To authors
Licensed books on medicine
<< Ahead Next >>

Respiratory failure

Respiratory failure is a pathological condition of the body in which the normal maintenance of the gas composition of the blood is not ensured or it is achieved due to the tension of the compensatory mechanisms of external respiration.

There are five groups of factors that lead to the violation of external respiration.

1. The defeat of the bronchi and respiratory structures of the lungs:

1) lesion of the bronchial tree: increased tone of the smooth muscles of the bronchi (bronchospasm), edematous-inflammatory changes of the bronchial tree, impaired support structures of the small bronchi, decreased tone of the large bronchi (hypotonic hypokinesia)

2) damage to the respiratory structures (infiltration of the lung tissue, destruction of the lung tissue, degeneration of the lung tissue, pneumosclerosis);

3) reduction of the functioning pulmonary parenchyma (hypoplasia of the lung, compression and atelectasis of the lung, the absence of a portion of the lung tissue after surgery).

2. Damage of the musculoskeletal skeleton of the chest and pleura (restriction of the mobility of the ribs and diaphragm, pleural fusion).

3. Damage to the respiratory muscles (central and peripheral paralysis of the respiratory muscles, degenerative-dystrophic changes in the respiratory muscles).

4. Impaired blood circulation in the small circle (reduction of the vascular bed of the lungs, pulmonary arteriole spasm, blood stasis in the small circle).

Dysregulation of respiration (depression of the respiratory center, respiratory neurosis, violation of local regulatory relations).

Classification. Form: ventilating, alveolarispiratory.

Type of ventilation failure:

1) obstructive;

2) restrictive;

3) combined.


1) DN I degree;

2) DN II degree;

3) DN III degree.

Obstructive ventilation failure is associated with the difficulty of promoting the flow of gas through the airways of the lungs due to a decrease in the lumen of the bronchial tree.

Restrictive ventilation failure is the result of processes that limit the stretchability of the lungs and reduce lung volumes: pneumosclerosis, adhesions, pulmonary resection, etc.

Combined ventilation failure occurs when a combination of restrictive and obstructive disorders.

Alveorespiratory failure - a violation of pulmonary gas exchange due to a decrease in diffusion capacity of the lungs, uneven distribution of ventilation and ventilation and perfusion relations of the lungs.

<< Ahead Next >>
= Go to tutorial content =

Respiratory failure

  1. Mechanisms of respiratory failure in the pathology of the respiratory tract
    The development of DN in diseases of the respiratory tract due to increased resistance to air flow (RL). At the same time, the ventilation of the affected areas of the lung is impaired, the resistive work of breathing increases, and fatigue and weakness of the respiratory tract can be the result of an irremovable DP obstruction. Due to the fact that the resistance of the respiratory tract (according to the law of Poiseuille)
  2. Respiratory failure
    Respiratory failure is a violation of gas exchange, requiring emergency medical intervention. Definitions of respiratory failure based on arterial blood gas indicators (Table 50-2) may be incorrect for chronic lung diseases: for chronic hypercapnia, the shortness of breath and symptoms listed in the table for respiratory failure should be added to
  3. Respiratory failure
    Despite the fact that respiratory disorders can occur at any stage of gas exchange, the development of respiratory failure as a clinical syndrome is associated exclusively with the pathology of external respiration. The most simple definition was given to her by A.P. Zilber (1996): “Respiratory failure (NAM) is a condition of the body in which the ability of the lungs and the ventilation apparatus to provide normal gas
  4. Acute respiratory failure
    The generally accepted definition of "acute respiratory failure" does not exist. It seems to us the most capacious, and at the same time not cumbersome definition proposed by V.L. Kassil and co-authors. ONE - a rapidly growing serious condition caused by the discrepancy between the capabilities of the respiratory apparatus and the metabolic needs of organs and tissues, at which the maximum occurs
  5. Acute respiratory failure
    Acute respiratory failure - a violation of gas exchange between ambient air and circulating blood with the presence of hypoxemia and / or hypercapnia, which develops in a period of time from several minutes to several days. ETIOLOGY AND PATHOGENESIS, CLASSIFICATION The normal functioning of the respiratory system depends on the work of many of its components (respiratory center, nerves, muscles, chest,
  6. Acute respiratory failure
    Clinical characteristics of acute respiratory failure Acute respiratory failure (ARF) is a pathological condition in which the body cannot provide the necessary amount of oxygen to organs and tissues. A. P. Zilber (1978) defines ONE even more simply: the inability of the lungs to turn venous blood into arterial blood. The most common causes of acute respiratory
  7. Pulmonary respiratory failure
    Pulmonary respiratory failure is caused by damage to the airways or a decrease in the respiratory surface of the lungs due to exposure to the lung or damage to the lung parenchyma itself. Respiratory failure due to lesions of the airways is called obstructive-constrictive pulmonary respiratory failure. It should be noted that
  8. Acute respiratory failure
    Clinical characteristics in acute respiratory failure The most important sign of the respiratory system in children is respiratory failure. Under the respiratory failure understand the pathological condition in which external respiration does not provide the normal gas composition of the blood or supports it at the cost of excessive energy costs. Respiratory failure
  9. Acute respiratory failure
    Respiratory failure - a condition in which the respiratory system is not able to provide the flow of oxygen and the excretion of carbon dioxide, necessary to maintain the normal functioning of the body. Acute respiratory failure is characterized by rapid progression: after a few hours, and sometimes minutes, the patient may die. Main causes of acute
  10. Acute respiratory failure
    Respiratory failure is a pathological condition in which the normal gas composition of the blood is not maintained or its maintenance is achieved by increasing external respiration. In 20-30% of cases, acute respiratory failure leads to death. Pathophysiology • Respiratory failure occurs due to a violation of the structure of the alveolar-capillary membrane. • membrane changes
Medical portal "MedguideBook" © 2014-2016