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Respiratory failure



Respiratory failure is a pathological condition of the body in which the normal maintenance of the gas composition of the blood is not ensured or it is achieved due to the tension of the compensatory mechanisms of external respiration.

There are five groups of factors that lead to the violation of external respiration.

1. The defeat of the bronchi and respiratory structures of the lungs:

1) lesion of the bronchial tree: increased tone of the smooth muscles of the bronchi (bronchospasm), edematous-inflammatory changes of the bronchial tree, impaired support structures of the small bronchi, decreased tone of the large bronchi (hypotonic hypokinesia)

2) damage to the respiratory structures (infiltration of the lung tissue, destruction of the lung tissue, degeneration of the lung tissue, pneumosclerosis);

3) reduction of the functioning pulmonary parenchyma (hypoplasia of the lung, compression and atelectasis of the lung, the absence of a portion of the lung tissue after surgery).

2. Damage of the musculoskeletal skeleton of the chest and pleura (restriction of the mobility of the ribs and diaphragm, pleural fusion).

3. Damage to the respiratory muscles (central and peripheral paralysis of the respiratory muscles, degenerative-dystrophic changes in the respiratory muscles).

4. Impaired blood circulation in the small circle (reduction of the vascular bed of the lungs, pulmonary arteriole spasm, blood stasis in the small circle).

five.
Dysregulation of respiration (depression of the respiratory center, respiratory neurosis, violation of local regulatory relations).

Classification. Form: ventilating, alveolarispiratory.

Type of ventilation failure:

1) obstructive;

2) restrictive;

3) combined.

Severity:

1) DN I degree;

2) DN II degree;

3) DN III degree.

Obstructive ventilation failure is associated with the difficulty of promoting the flow of gas through the airways of the lungs due to a decrease in the lumen of the bronchial tree.

Restrictive ventilation failure is the result of processes that limit the stretchability of the lungs and reduce lung volumes: pneumosclerosis, adhesions, pulmonary resection, etc.

Combined ventilation failure occurs when a combination of restrictive and obstructive disorders.

Alveorespiratory failure - a violation of pulmonary gas exchange due to a decrease in diffusion capacity of the lungs, uneven distribution of ventilation and ventilation and perfusion relations of the lungs.

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Respiratory failure

  1. Mechanisms of respiratory failure in the pathology of the respiratory tract
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  2. Respiratory failure
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