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Respiratory failure

Respiratory failure is a pathological condition of the body in which the normal maintenance of the gas composition of the blood is not ensured or it is achieved due to the tension of the compensatory mechanisms of external respiration.

There are five groups of factors leading to impaired external respiration.

1. The defeat of the bronchi and respiratory structures of the lungs:

1) damage to the bronchial tree: increased tone of the smooth muscles of the bronchi (bronchospasm), edematous-inflammatory changes in the bronchial tree, violation of the supporting structures of the small bronchi, decreased tone of the large bronchi (hypotonic hypokinesia);

2) damage to the respiratory structures (lung tissue infiltration, lung tissue destruction, lung tissue dystrophy, pneumosclerosis);

3) a decrease in the functioning pulmonary parenchyma (underdevelopment of the lung, compression and atelectasis of the lung, absence of part of the lung tissue after surgery).

2. Damage to the musculoskeletal framework of the chest and pleura (limiting the mobility of the ribs and diaphragm, pleural adhesions).

3. Damage to the respiratory muscles (central and peripheral paralysis of the respiratory muscles, degenerative-dystrophic changes in the respiratory muscles).

4. Circulatory disturbance in the small circle (reduction of the vascular bed of the lungs, pulmonary arterioles spasm, stagnation of blood in the small circle).

Violation of the regulation of respiration (oppression of the respiratory center, respiratory neurosis, violation of local regulatory relations).

Classification. Form: ventilating, alveolorespiratory.

Type of ventilation failure:

1) obstructive;

2) restrictive;

3) combined.


1) Day I degree;

2) DN II degree;

3) DN III degree.

Obstructive ventilation failure is associated with difficulty in promoting the flow of gas through the airways of the lungs due to a decrease in the lumen of the bronchial tree.

Restrictive ventilation insufficiency is a consequence of processes that limit the extensibility of the lungs and reduce pulmonary volumes: pneumosclerosis, adhesions, lung resections, etc.

Combined ventilation failure occurs with a combination of restrictive and obstructive disorders.

Alveorespiratory insufficiency is a violation of pulmonary gas exchange due to a decrease in the diffusion capacity of the lungs, uneven distribution of ventilation and ventilation-perfusion relations of the lungs.

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Respiratory failure

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