Licensed books on medicine
<< Previous || Next >> |
Exudative-catarrhal diathesis is the ability of hereditarily determined congenital and acquired body properties to respond with an increased reaction of the skin and mucous membranes to individual external stimuli. Exudative-catarrhal diathesis is caused by genetic factors (genetic burden in 70–80% of children), age-related features of the digestive tract enzyme system and immunological protection, as well as environmental exposure. Risk factors are unfavorable conditions for intrauterine development, fetal hypoxia, perinatal damage to the central nervous system, infectious diseases, massive drug therapy, and the nature of feeding. Risk factors for exudative-catarrhal diathesis in a child include dysbacteriosis and diseases of the gastrointestinal tract in the mother during pregnancy, gestosis, drug therapy during pregnancy, nutritional features of the expectant mother, as well as early transfer of the child to artificial feeding. Parents (or one of them) often had manifestations of exudative-catarrhal diathesis in childhood. Factors contributing to the clinical manifestation of diathesis are, as a rule, dietary proteins of cow's milk, as well as eggs, citrus fruits, strawberries, strawberries, semolina and other cereals. Eggs, strawberries, strawberries, lemons, bananas, chocolate and fish contain endogenous histamine liberals. In breast-fed infants, exudative-catarrhal diathesis may occur when the mother consumes these products. Clinic. From the first month of life, persistent diaper rash, dryness and pallor of the skin, gneiss on the scalp — intensified formation of seborrheic scales, peeling; milk scab - redness, peeling on the skin of the cheeks, increasing on the street in cold weather, strobulus - itchy nodules with serous contents; excessive increase in body weight. For children with exudative-catarrhal diathesis, prolonged conjunctivitis, blepharitis, rhinitis, catarrh of the respiratory tract with obstructive syndrome, anemia, unstable stool are characteristic. The increased vulnerability of the mucous membranes is expressed in increased and uneven desquamation of the epithelium of the tongue (“geographical tongue”), and a change in the oral mucosa (stomatitis). Hyperplasia of lymphoid tissue is also a clinical manifestation of exudative-catarrhal diathesis. Adenoids and tonsils, lymph nodes increase, less often - the liver and spleen. The course of exudative-catarrhal diathesis is wave-like, exacerbations are usually associated with dietary errors (including mothers, if the baby is breast-fed), but can be caused by meteorological factors and associated diseases. At the end of the second year of life, the manifestations of exudative-catarrhal diathesis usually disappear, but in 15-25% of children, eczema, neurodermatitis, bronchial asthma and other allergic diseases can develop in the future. In children with exudative-catarrhal diathesis, having simultaneously recurrent infections, hereditary defects of the immune system are possible; those with severe non-infectious intestinal disorders - exudative enteropathy, intestinal disaccharidase deficiency. Treatment. Treatment begins with the establishment of a balanced diet. For children of the first year of life, breastfeeding is optimal. Overweight children need to limit their caloric intake due to easily digestible carbohydrates (cereals, jelly, sugar), since excess carbohydrates in the diet enhance exudative-catarrhal skin changes. In the period of exacerbation of the disease, sugar should preferably be replaced with xylitol or sorbitol.
Part of the fat of food (about 30%) in children older than one year should be introduced at the expense of vegetable fats rich in unsaturated fatty acids. Children with exudative-catarrhal diathesis are recommended additional administration of potassium salts, restriction of salt and liquid. Food allergens are excluded from the mother’s diet, breastfeeding: eggs, strawberries, strawberries, citrus fruits, chocolate, strong tea, coffee; extractive substances - hot spices, cocoa, spices, as well as products containing preservatives, dyes, food additives. Children who are on mixed and artificial feeding, in the case of persistent diathesis, especially with proven allergy to cow's milk, are transferred to feeding with mixtures based on soy or highly hydrolyzed proteins. Porridge and mashed potatoes should be cooked not on milk, but on a vegetable broth. Instead of milk, it is better to give kefir, biolact, bifidok and other sour-milk products. The first complementary foods in the form of vegetable puree for children with exudative-catarrhal diathesis, who are on artificial feeding, should be administered earlier, at 4.5-5 months. In this case, it is better to prescribe vegetable puree, in which alkaline valencies predominate, and not porridge. Nutrition for children with manifestations of exudative-catarrhal diathesis who are breastfed is recommended to be administered later than healthy. Porridge is given from 6-6.5 months, preference is given to buckwheat, millet, pearl barley, rice cereals; oatmeal and semolina are excluded. In many children, the skin manifestations of diathesis decrease with the replacement of sugar added to food with fructose in a ratio of 1.0: 0.3, since fructose is sweeter. An important step in the treatment of children with exudative-catarrhal diathesis is the identification and correction of dysbiosis. A positive effect is exerted by ten-day courses of lactobacterin and bifidumbacterin. Treatment of exudative-catarrhal diathesis involves the use of vitamins (B6, A, B5, B15, E), adaptogens (dibazole, pentoxyl). Hypervitaminoses C, B4, B12 contribute to the maintenance of exudative lesions of the skin. Also apply antihistamine courses (suprastin, tavegil, peritol, etc.), alternating means. Preventive vaccinations for children with exudative-catarrhal diathesis are carried out at the usual time, but against the background of preliminary preparation (antihistamines 5 days before and 5 days after vaccination, B vitamins for 1-2 weeks before and 3-4 weeks after vaccination). Prevention should be comprehensive and begin antenatally (before childbirth) - obligate allergens, medicines that often cause allergic reactions are excluded in the diet of a pregnant woman from the "allergic family". In the absence of prenatal dietary prophylaxis, breastfeeding and a rational diet, regimen restrictions in the first months of life, the child has a higher likelihood of developing allergic diseases and, above all, eczema and neurodermatitis, bronchial asthma. A hypoallergenic environment should be created at home: wet cleaning is carried out at least 2 times a day, pets, fish in the aquarium, flowers are undesirable; Carpets, books in unclosed shelves, cabinets, down and feather pillows, mattresses and blankets are unacceptable; washing with synthetic detergents can have an allergic effect. For any diseases, a minimal set of medications should be used, excluding drug obligate allergens (penicillin, biological products). Early detection and active rehabilitation of foci of chronic infection, timely treatment of biliary dyskinesia, rickets, anemia, helminthiases, and dysbiosis are also shown.
| << Previous || Next >> |
| = Skip to textbook content = |
- Exudative-catarrhal diathesis
Exudative-catarrhal diathesis (ECD) is a constitutional feature of the child, in which there is a tendency to recurrent infiltrative-desquamous lesions of the skin and mucous membranes, the development of allergic reactions, the prolonged course of inflammatory processes, lymphoid hyperplasia, and the lability of water-salt metabolism. E p i d e m and o logue. According to domestic authors,
- Exudative-catarrhal diathesis
Exudative-catarrhal diathesis is a peculiar state of reactivity in young children, characterized by a tendency to recurrent infiltrative-desquamous lesions of the skin and mucous membranes, the development of pseudo-allergic reactions and a prolonged course of inflammatory processes, lymphoid hyperplasia, and lability of water-salt metabolism. Etiology and pathogenesis are not completely
- Exudative-catarrhal diathesis - ECD
Diathesis in essence is not yet a disease, it is a predisposition, a special tendency of the skin and mucous membranes to inflammatory processes. This condition leads to violations of the NS and internal organs. ECD is detected most often at the age of 3-6 months, and its pronounced symptoms can be observed during the first 2 years of life. Etiology. In the occurrence of this anomaly the constitution has
- Exudative-catarrhal diathesis
-sm skin lesions: gneiss, seborrhea, milk crust, diaper rash, eczema dry and weeping, neurodermatitis, pruritus -sm lesions of the mucous membranes: "geographical language", conjunctivitis, blepharitis, rhinitis, pharyngitis, laryngitis, bronchitis, vulvovaginitis , bowel dysfunction - cm functional changes in the nervous system - hyperplastic cm: enlargement of peripheral lymph nodes - criteria
- Inflammation. Definition, essence, mediators of inflammation. Local and general manifestations of exudative inflammation, morphological manifestations of exudative inflammation. The answer is the acute phase. Ulcerative necrotic reactions with inflammation.
1. The main processes that develop in the body in response to tissue damage are 1. amyloidosis 2. inflammation 3. regeneration 4. formation of granulomas 5. hyperplasia of cell ultrastructures 2. Inflammation is 1. hyperplasia of cell ultrastructures 2. restoration of lost structures 3 uncontrolled growth of cellular elements 4. exudative-proliferative response to damage 5. cellular
- Exudative inflammation
Exudative inflammation is a type of inflammation in which the exudative phase of inflammation predominates. Depending on the nature of the exudate, it can be different. 1. SEROSE - serous fluid predominates in the exudate, flows easily, but sharply, culminates in resorption of the exudate, less often sclerosis. It is often localized in the serous or cerebral membranes, as well as in parenchymal organs. 2. Purulent -
- Exudative (pericardial) pericarditis
With effusive pericarditis, a fluid accumulates between the heart and its pericardial chemise, which makes it difficult to conduct an electrical impulse from the myocardium to the recording electrodes. An electrical impulse reaches them noticeably weakened. Therefore, an ECG is a sign of exudative pericarditis is a significant decrease in the voltage of all the teeth of the atrioventricular complex in all
- Alterative and exudative inflammation
1. What is alteration: a) the reaction of the microvasculature b) damage to tissues and cells c) proliferation of cells d) increased vascular permeability e) the formation of exudate The correct answer: b 2. What is the type of exudative inflammation: a) mucoid swelling b) interstitial inflammation c a) inflammation of the mucous membranes d) catarrhal inflammation e) turbid swelling Correct answer: g 3.
- Exudative pleurisy
The cause of exudative pleurisy - acute pleural inflammation, accompanied by an accumulation of inflammatory effusion in the pleural cavity (serous, hemorrhagic, purulent or chylous) may be pneumonia, tuberculosis, cancer of the lungs and pleura, collagenosis (rheumatism, rheumatoid arthritis, systemic lupus erythematosus) processes of the abdominal cavity (intrahepatic,
- Types of Diathesis
The Constitution is a combination of relatively stable morphological and functional properties of a person, due to heredity, age, and prolonged intense environmental influences, which determines the functionality and reactivity of the body. Diathesis is a genetically determined characteristic of an organism that determines the uniqueness of its adaptive reactions and
- Exudative inflammation
It is characterized by the predominance of exudation and the formation of exudate in tissues and body cavities. • The nature of the exudate depends on the state of vascular permeability and the depth of damage, which is determined by the type and intensity of the action of the damaging factor. • Depending on the nature of the exudate, there are: serous, fibrinous, purulent, putrefactive, hemorrhagic and mixed inflammation; on the
- Anomalies of the constitution (diathesis)
The concept of “constitutional anomalies” (diathesis) was introduced into clinical pediatrics in the late XIX - early XX centuries and corresponded to the concept of “hereditary predisposition”, which was due to insufficient information on heredity, genetic and molecular mechanisms of the development of diseases. The development of genetics and molecular biology has made it possible to decipher many aspects of heredity and
- Exudative allergic otitis media
The named disease is an exudative inflammation of the mucous membrane of the middle ear, usually allergic in nature, without the development of classical signs of acute inflammation, while the microflora does not play a significant role in the pathogenesis of the disease. In recent years, allergic otitis media (otitis media allergica), which is characterized by specific