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Factors provoking the exacerbation of bronchial asthma or contributing to the preservation of symptoms (triggers)


The risk factors that cause asthma exacerbation are called triggers. Triggers can be most of the above factors contributing to the development of bronchial asthma, such as allergens, pollutants, infections, smoking. In addition, as triggers are the factors that by themselves can not lead to the onset of bronchial asthma, but cause its exacerbation. These triggers include exercise, inhalation of cold air, irritating gases, weather changes and excessive emotional stress.
Allergens
In a child with asthma, exacerbations of the disease can be caused by both external allergens and room allergens. Moreover, even a very small amount of the allergen is sufficient for the development of exacerbations. Exposure of household allergens is a trigger in 85% of patients with bronchial asthma.
Of great importance as triggers are allergens of cockroaches.
Smoking
It is noted that children with bronchial asthma, whose mothers smoke, require more active medical treatment and more often go to clinics with severe exacerbations of the disease. In the formation of bronchial hyperreactivity in children, smoking of mothers is important, both in the prenatal period and in the postnatal period (passive smoking). Active smoking in adolescence worsens asthma.
Pollutants
All the pollutants listed above are triggers for exacerbations of asthma.
Respiratory infections
Acute respiratory infections are undoubtedly the most important and most frequent triggers of bronchial asthma at any, but especially at an early age.
Exercise stress
Exercise is the most common trigger causing asthma attacks in children with bronchial asthma.
The basis for the development of bronchospasm, caused by physical exertion, is an increase in bronchial hyperresponsiveness, changes in temperature, humidity and osmolarity of the airway secretion with hyperventilation associated with physical exertion. Exercise-induced bronchospasm as an isolated phenomenon outside of atopy and asthma in children does not occur.
Weather changes
Adverse weather conditions (especially low temperatures, high humidity, heat, sudden changes in atmospheric pressure, thunderstorms) can cause exacerbation of bronchial asthma in children. The mechanisms of their impact are not completely clear. In some cases, meteorological factors can alter the concentration of allergens in the air and thereby provoke exacerbations of bronchial asthma.
Excessive emotional stress
Emotional stress can be a triggering factor for asthma. Laughter, crying, rage or fear through the mechanisms of hyperventilation and hypocapnia can cause a narrowing of the bronchial tree and the development of exacerbations of bronchial asthma. Recently, a significant interest of researchers focused on the study of psychological factors that have a significant impact on the course of bronchial asthma in children. Analysis of the results of psychological testing suggests that the peculiarities of the “mother-sick child” relationship correlate with the frequency of exacerbations and the severity of bronchial asthma. In this regard, the issue of the organization of psychological assistance to sick children and families with sick children is relevant.
Knowledge of various risk factors and their active identification provides invaluable assistance in carrying out preventive measures, helps to significantly reduce the frequency of exacerbations of the disease and reduce the severity of bronchial asthma.

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Factors provoking the exacerbation of bronchial asthma or contributing to the preservation of symptoms (triggers)

  1. External factors contributing to the development of asthma in children predisposed to it
    Allergens Exposure of allergens sensitizing the respiratory tract significantly increases the risk of developing asthma, provokes the onset of the disease and determines the variability of the clinic. In a child with early sensitization and early contact with household allergens, the development of persistent asthma and a decrease in lung function are observed. Home Allergens Home Allergens
  2. Therapy of exacerbations of bronchial asthma in children
    The goal of treating an exacerbation is to rapidly reduce (as far as possible) bronchial tree obstruction and hypoxemia, as well as to prevent further relapses. Measurement of pulse, respiratory rate and analysis of symptoms help in assessing the effectiveness of the therapy; important is the measurement of respiratory function, and in severe cases - pulse oximetry. If the patient has signs
  3. Part 5. Development of an individual treatment plan for exacerbations (attacks) of bronchial asthma
    AD aggravations (attacks) are episodes of an increase in shortness of breath, cough, wheezing, or chest tightness, or a combination of these symptoms. The underestimation of the severity of exacerbations is unacceptable; severe exacerbation can be a life-threatening condition (Table 10). Children / teenagers with a high risk of death from asthma have the following characteristics: • history of life-threatening seizures; • hospitalization or
  4. Night symptoms of bronchial asthma in children
    In case of bronchial asthma in a significant number of patients, the condition worsens at night, which is a reflection of a number of circadian rhythms with a night maximum (serum histamine concentration, bronchial sensitivity to histamine and acetylcholine, increased parasympathetic nervous system) or a minimum (concentration of cortisol and catecholamines in serum, body temperature, indicators
  5. PREVENTION OF BRONCHIAL ASTHMA
    KEY PROVISIONS: • prevention of asthma is an important system of comprehensive measures aimed at preventing the occurrence of the disease, preventing the exacerbation of the disease among those who already have it, as well as reducing the adverse effects of the disease; • the condition for the development of preventive measures is the availability of reliable prognostic markers of disease progression; •
  6. TREATMENT OF BRONCHIAL ASTHMA IN CHILDREN
    KEY PROVISIONS: • The goal of treating bronchial asthma is to achieve stable remission and a high quality of life in all patients, regardless of the severity of the disease; • the main directions in the treatment of bronchial asthma in children: elimination of the influence of causal factors (elimination measures); preventive long-term pharmacotherapy; pharmacotherapy of the acute period of the disease;
  7. EPIDEMIOLOGY OF BRONCHIAL ASTHMA
    KEY PROVISIONS: • bronchial asthma is one of the most common chronic diseases of childhood, over the past 20 years, the prevalence of this disease has increased markedly; • hypodiagnosis and late diagnosis of bronchial asthma remains a problem of modern domestic pediatrics; • childhood bronchial asthma is a serious medical and social and
  8. Bronchial Asthma Attack
    An attack of bronchial asthma (BA) is an acutely developed and / or progressively deteriorating expiratory throat, shortness of breath and / or wheezing, a spastic cough, or a combination of these symptoms by cutting off the peak expiratory flow rate. The diagnostic criteria and algorithms of emergency treatment described in the section are based on the National Program adopted in Russia in 1997.
  9. Factors that provoke colds
    Colds and colds infectious diseases are among the most common among the known groups of diseases in terms of population coverage and the number of days of disability. Most often, the main provocative condition for their occurrence is hypothermia. At the same time, not only violations of thermoregulation mechanisms, but also other
  10. Factors that provoke colds
    As already noted, colds and colds-infectious diseases are among the most common among known groups of diseases in terms of population coverage and the number of days of disability. Most often, the main provocative condition for their occurrence is hypothermia. At the same time, not only violations of thermoregulation mechanisms, but also
  11. Biological markers of bronchial asthma
    With reference to bronchial asthma, such indicators are morphological and functional changes in eosinophil. Recently, great importance has been attached to the level of nitric oxide (NO) in exhaled air as a biomarker. The source of nitric oxide is the epithelial cells involved in the inflammatory process. Measurements of the fraction of exhaled NO (FeNO) may be useful for
  12. Age evolution of bronchial asthma in children
    Information about the prognosis of bronchial asthma in children, about the possibility and frequency of its transition to adult bronchial asthma are rather contradictory. For a long time, there was an idea that in most cases bronchial asthma in children has a favorable course and ends with a spontaneous recovery in puberty. Prospective and retrospective studies
  13. CLINIC AND DIAGNOSTICS OF BRONCHIAL ASTHMA IN CHILDREN
    KEY PROVISIONS: • diagnosis of bronchial asthma in children is based mainly on the basis of anamnesis and assessment of clinical symptoms; • in children older than 6 years, the study of functional parameters of respiration and evaluation of bronchial reactivity are necessary; • evaluation of the results of allergological examinations can help in identifying cause-significant allergen, provoking
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