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LECTURE № 12. Malabsorption syndrome in children. Clinic, diagnosis, treatment



Enteropathy is a pathological condition to which a lack or dysfunction of one or other intestinal enzymes results, due to the absence, deficiency or violation of the structure of one or other intestinal enzymes that ensure digestive processes.

Carbohydrate absorption: food carbohydrates are made up of disaccharides:

1) sucrose (regular sugar = fructose + glucose), lactose (milk sugar = galactose + glucose);

2) monosaccharides: glucose and fructose;

3) vegetable starches (polysaccharide consisting of glucose molecules).

The enterocyte is not able to transport carbohydrates more than a monosaccharide. Therefore, carbohydrates must be broken down before absorption. Malabsorption syndrome - a syndrome of impaired intestinal absorption, malabsorption syndrome can lead to: lack of pancreatic enzymes - violation of the abdominal cavity of the digestive system; cholestasis, intestinal dysbiosis - a violation of the metabolism of bile acids, lipid transport to a violation of the biliary phase of digestion; deficiency of abdominal enzymes (disaccharidases, peptidases, etc.
p.) leads to disruption of membrane digestion; atrophy of the mucous membrane of the small intestine - to a violation of absorption, i.e., the cellular phase of digestion, and membrane digestion suffers; pathology of intestinal lymph flow, mesenteric blood circulation; to - worsening of further transport of sucked substances - the outflow phase suffers; the accelerated passage of food through the intestines - to the violation of all types of digestion.

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LECTURE № 12. Malabsorption syndrome in children. Clinic, diagnosis, treatment

  1. LECTURE № 17. Broncho-obstructive syndrome. Clinic, diagnosis, treatment. Respiratory failure. Clinic, diagnosis, treatment
    Broncho-obstructive syndrome is a clinical symptom complex observed in patients with generalized impaired bronchial tract patency, its leading manifestation is expiratory dyspnea, asthma attacks. Diseases accompanied by airway obstruction. The main causes of airway obstruction in children. 1. Obstructions of the upper respiratory tract: 1) acquired: a)
  2. LECTURE № 3. Cardiomyopathy in children. Clinic, diagnosis, treatment
    Classification of cardiomyopathy: 1) dilated (DCMP); 2) hypertrophic (hcmp); 3) restrictive (RCMP); 4) arrhythmogenic right ventricle
  3. LECTURE No. 4. Diseases of the pericardium in children. Clinic, diagnosis, treatment
    Clinical and morphological classification of pericardial lesions (A. A. Gerke, Z. M. Volynsky, E. E. Gogin). 1. Pericardial malformations (abnormalities): 1) complete defects; 2) partial defects; 3) pericardial flaking defects (diverticula and cysts). 2. Pericarditis: 1) acute (dry fibrinous, exudative); 2) chronic (duration - 3 months); 3) adhesive (asymptomatic, squeezing, with
  4. LECTURE № 7. Systemic vasculitis in children. Clinic, diagnosis, treatment
    Systemic vasculitis is a heterogeneous group of diseases with primary inflammatory and necrotic changes in the vascular wall. Etiology of systemic vasculitis: viruses (cytomegalovirus, hepatitis virus), bacteria (streptococcus, staphylococcus, salmonella), parasitic diseases (roundworm, filariasis). Classification of vasculitis. 1. Primary vasculitis with granulomas
  5. LECTURE № 10. Chronic colon diseases in children. Clinic, diagnosis, treatment
    Chronic nonspecific diseases of the colon. 1. Functional disorders: 1) chronic constipation; 2) irritable bowel syndrome; 3) diverticular disease. 2. Organic disorders: 1) chronic colitis; 2) ulcerative colitis; 3) Crohn's disease; 4) intestinal amyloidosis. Classification of functional bowel disorders. 1. Intestinal upset: 1) irritable syndrome
  6. LECTURE № 16. Rheumatism in children and adolescents. Clinic, diagnosis, treatment
    Rheumatism is a systemic inflammatory disease of the connective tissue with a characteristic lesion of the heart. Etiology, pathogenesis. The main etiological factor in acute forms of the disease is b-hemolytic streptococcus group A. In patients with prolonged and continuously recurring forms of rheumatic heart disease, it is often not possible to establish the relationship of the disease with streptococcus. In the development of rheumatism special
  7. LECTURE № 15. Helminthiasis in children. Clinic, diagnosis, treatment, prevention
    Helminthiasis is a disease that develops when the parasitic worms-worms and their larvae are localized in the body. Classification of helminthiasis: 1) according to the biological principle: nematodoses (roundworms), cestodoses (tape), trematodoses (flukes); 2) epidemiological: geohelminthiasis, biohelminthoses,
  8. LECTURE № 1. Immunodeficiency states in children. Clinic, diagnosis, treatment
    Immunity is a way to ensure and maintain antigenic homeostasis. Immunodeficiencies - a decrease in the functional activity of the main components of the immune system, leading to disruption of the body's antigenic homeostasis and, above all, to a decrease in the body's ability to defend against microbes, manifested in increased infectious morbidity. Classification of immunodeficiency states: 1) primary
  9. LECTURE № 13. Differential diagnosis of liver diseases in children. Clinic, diagnosis, treatment
    Stage I: inspection. Anamnesis: established the presence of damage to the liver. Laboratory methods: (AlAT, AsAT, alkaline phosphatase, proteinogram, thymol, prothrombin index, bilirubin and urine urobiligen) - the assumption of the diagnosis. Hepatic parenchymal clearance of blood with technetium is the only or early sign of the disease (hepatitis, cirrhosis, amyloidosis). Ultrasound and liver scintigraphy with technetium (confirmation
  10. LECTURE № 11. Modern problems of dysbacteriosis in children. Clinic, diagnosis, treatment
    Three phases of microbial colonization of the gastrointestinal tract in a child: 1) the first is aseptic, lasting from 10 to 20 hours; 2) the second - the initial settlement of microorganisms, the duration of from 2 to 4 days depending on external environmental factors, the nature of nutrition and time of attachment to the chest; 3) the third - stabilization of microflora (up to 1 month). Intestinal microflora is complex, dynamically
  11. LECTURE № 6. Heart rhythm disturbance in children. Clinic, diagnosis, treatment
    Arrhythmias are disorders of heart rhythm and conduction, occur in congenital heart defects, acquired heart diseases, and dysfunction of the central and autonomic nervous system. Classification of cardiac arrhythmias. 1. Violation of the function of automatism - is to change the number of pulses rotating in the sinus node (violation of the formation of an excitation pulse): 1) nomotope violations
  12. LECTURE № 5. Chronic heart failure in children. Clinic, diagnosis, treatment
    Heart failure is a condition in which the heart, despite an adequate flow of blood, does not provide for the body’s need for blood supply. Causes of chronic circulatory failure: direct effects on the myocardium (toxic, infectious, traumatic), cardiovascular diseases. Classification. Classification of chronic heart failure (by
  13. LECTURE № 9. Differential diagnosis of diffuse connective tissue diseases in children. Clinic, diagnosis, treatment
    Classification of rheumatic diseases. 1. Rheumatism. 2. Juvenile rheumatoid arthritis. 3. Ankylosing spondylitis. 4. Other spondyloarthropathies. 5. Systemic lupus erythematosus. 6. Vasculitis: 1) hemorrhagic vasculitis (Shekleyn — Genokh); 2) periarteritis nodosa (polyarteritis in young children, Kawasaki disease, Wegener's disease); 3) Takayasu arteritis. 7. Dermatomyositis. 8. Scleroderma. 9.
  14. LECTURE № 19. Respiratory diseases. Acute bronchitis. Clinic, diagnosis, treatment, prevention. Chronical bronchitis. Clinic, diagnosis, treatment, prevention
    LECTURE № 19. Respiratory diseases. Acute bronchitis. Clinic, diagnosis, treatment, prevention. Chronical bronchitis. Clinic, diagnosis, treatment,
  15. LECTURE № 8. Renal failure. Clinic, diagnosis, treatment
    The main functions of the kidneys are excretion of metabolic products, maintaining the constancy of the water-electrolyte composition and the acid-base state, carried out by the renal blood flow, glomerular filtration and tubules (reabsorption, secretion, concentration). Renal failure - this syndrome develops with severe disorders of the renal processes, leading to disorder
  16. LECTURE № 2. Vegetative-vascular dystonia. Arterial hypertension. Clinic, diagnosis, treatment
    LECTURE № 2. Vegetative-vascular dystonia. Arterial hypertension. Clinic, diagnosis,
  17. Antonov MM. Tissue helminthiasis in adults and children (epidemiology, clinic, diagnosis, prophylaxis treatment), 2004

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