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The organization of breastfeeding in the maternity hospital OR IF SOMETHING IS NOT GOING BETWEEN AS YOU WOULD LIKE

When a pregnant woman dreams about how she will live with her baby, she always seems to have some ideal situation: mild delivery, the first attachment to the breast as described in the books, no separation, the child is always with her mother and therefore always silent. Reality often does not correspond to this beautiful picture. Childbirth does not always go the way it seemed. The first attachment to the chest lasts only 2 minutes or even postponed indefinitely. Even in wards of joint maintenance, mother and child sometimes join in a few hours (or even days) after childbirth. Almost all Russian maternity hospitals practice supplementing a child separated from their mother. And when, finally, the beloved child is still attached to the chest, it turns out that it does not want to suck at all. There are fears, sometimes completely unfounded, that now nothing can be improved. The cause of disappointments and failures often become too idealized views of the mother about how breastfeeding should look in the maternity hospital. Let's look at the typical disappointments of the mother and try to cope with them so as not to lose milk and successfully breastfeed. The situation is the first. There was no application to the breast right in the delivery room. I just want to reassure you that you are not alone in this case. Moreover, out of 10 women who say that they have such an attachment, 9 do not really know why they need it and what kind of attachment the child actually memorizes. In the overwhelming majority of cases in the Russian maternity home the first hour of life is always organized with violations of the physiological norm. It is not necessary then to experience how badly these norms are violated. For successful breastfeeding, it is not the mere fact of applying to the breast directly in the delivery room that is important, but the exclusion of feeding the child in another way until it is properly applied to the breast. And in order for a child to really understand what a mother's breast is, he must suck her long enough, for at least 30 minutes in a row. Any statistical survey will show that most mothers who gave birth in the maternity hospital, such a prolonged application for the first time, did not happen at all in the delivery room and many of them did not stop breastfeeding. Therefore, do not worry about spilled milk, you just need to try to quickly put the baby, as soon as it is with you. The second situation. The child is with his mother, but constantly cries. Not every child in the first days after birth can be comforted by attaching it to his chest. The stress of birth is reflected in different ways in different children. One of them quickly realizes that saving in the constant presence of the mother and hours sucks her breasts, no matter how empty or full. Others fall into a long, prolonged sleep. Others periodically shout. These children, as a rule, refuse to apply for a long time to the chest or quickly spit it out after a short suck with a loud scream. Mom begins to feel that the baby has something that hurts, that she has "wrong" milk and, in the end, she decides that the baby is hungry. If such a child is fed, then usually for 3-4 hours comes blissful silence. If you repeat such actions several times, the child will begin to prefer a bottle of the mother's breast. What to do? First, remember that the child is not shouting at all from hunger. Most often, a child's loud crying in the first hours or days after birth, is an experience of the very fact of birth. The child spends an excess of adrenaline due to a loud piercing scream. Until he "screams" another portion, offering a breast is useless. The child can simply shake, sympathize with him and offer a breast, when he calm down. Secondly, do not strive to properly set the baby and achieve complete silence. If this does not work out in 10 minutes, then your efforts are wasted! No matter how difficult it is for mother to hear a child's cry, the speed with which the child will calm down, does not depend on whether the mother will lie with the baby or run around with him around the ward. Therefore, of course, you should not leave the baby crying alone, but you do not need to jump with him in the first postnatal days. You can just walk calmly and slowly with him, shaking a little, reproducing the picture of rocking in the mother's belly - intrauterine memories. Tired of walking, you can shake and sitting, and if you can not sit with your mother, put the baby next to you, so you can also iron and shake it. Thirdly, hope that this will not take long. In most cases, this behavior lasts several days and does not depend on the amount of colostrum in the mother, but there are exceptions. As a rule, by the time of discharge such behavior ceases. Fourth, do not rush to "calm" the child with a dummy, dopaivaniya or supplementing. The development of adrenaline, these actions do not affect, but the formation of completely unnecessary habits contribute. The situation is third. Forced separation. The child is not given to the mother immediately, but after a few hours (and sometimes even days) after birth. We will not discuss why this is done and how justified it is. We will proceed from the fact that this happened. Regardless of the reasons for the separation, if it lasted more than 1 hour, the child is usually given to the mother disguised and fed. It is possible that he was not fed, but simply dopoili vodichkoy, but in any case, he had already received some other object for sucking, which he managed to remember. If even the medical staff denies such actions, you can not be sure that the child was not fed or watered, unless your confidant was near your child (dad, grandmother, financially interested health worker not from this department)! It is necessary to reconcile with the fact that my mother will have to retrain the child and take this situation realistically. If the mother begins to pretend that such a problem does not exist, she often does not attach importance to retraining the child, does not follow the correctness of applying to the breast and loses precious time. Careful attention to the quality of applying to the breast, training the child to learn the correct way to capture the breast, asking for help from lactation consultants will ensure that there are no problems in the future. However, this is the business of the future, and what is to be done to mother while she is alone. When separation is inevitable and mom can not change anything, it is worth taking a brief respite and getting enough sleep. When the child is near you, you may not have time for it. In anticipation of the child should gain strength, rest, eat normally and as little as possible worry. The kid needs a calm and healthy mother. If separation lasts more than 24 hours, you can start to express your chest, for a start no more than 3 minutes, both breasts once every 6 hours. It is better to use an electric breast pump that simulates the rhythm of sucking a baby, but it is also possible to manually express it. Ask the midwife to show you the basic ways of expressing. It should be emphasized that such a decantation serves not so much to emptying the breast as to stimulation, so do not be guided by whether something stands out from there or not. If you are decanting for more than a day, and from the chest begins to stand out, before meeting with the child you need to establish more frequent pumping. Find out what schedule feed your baby and express both mammary glands in accordance with this schedule. Start pumping with stimulation of the nipples with the palm, then decant for 5-10 minutes, no matter how much milk is allocated from the breast. If the mother regularly expresses, then, in spite of separation from the child, she can begin to feed it as soon as they meet. The situation is fourth. The child was finally brought, but he does not show any desire to eat. This is perfectly normal. Sometimes, of course, it happens that the mother will bring a hungry child, who immediately throws herself on the chest, but this can not be expected. Most often this is the result of a happy confluence of circumstances. Most of the children fall into the hands of their mother fully satisfied and content. Do not blame the nurse for feeding your baby. Neither you nor the child will feel any better. If the child is now always near you, have the patience, sooner or later he will necessarily wake up, and you will begin to communicate. While you can just look at it, admire, iron. Now it depends on you that the child will eat, so you can temper your impatience and wait for his awakening. If the child is likely to again be carried away, you can disinhibit it. To do this, try to stroke the child intensively along the body. After a few strokes, lead your nipple over the lower jaw of the child. If, in response to this proposal, he begins to open his mouth and catch something, you can put it to your chest. If the child does not make any movements with his lips and tongue, go back to stroking. Repeat until the child is ready for attachment. Your actions can be more successful if you pre-distribute the child. When the application has taken place, do not aspire to feed his fill! Until the child is with you constantly you can not affect the frequency and volume of supplementation and dopaivaniya. But you can take this opportunity to properly stimulate your breasts and teach the child how to properly take it. Therefore, always attach the child to both breasts in one feeding, for better stimulation of lactation. Focus on ensuring that the baby is correctly grasping the breast and insistently insist that he take it correctly. Do not be discouraged if you did not manage to wake the child up or you could not put the chest in his mouth correctly. Nobody expects from a beginning seamstress a chic ultrafashionable dress! Maternal science is not so simple, and you are only at its first step. On the same step, there may be a mother who has already nursed the baby, her previous experience may be completely different, and she will not necessarily have all the necessary skills! Prepare for the next date with the child, find someone who will help you. If it is not possible to verify the correctness of the application with the help of a breastfeeding consultant, ask to help you a nurse, a midwife, another mother who has had the experience of teaching the child to apply. The situation is the fifth. Separate content. The child is brought only to the "date" by the mother. When the mother and the child are separated, the child is usually brought on schedule once every 3.5 hours: 6.00, 9.30, 13.00, 16.30, 20.00, 23.30. It turns out only 6 attachments to the chest of which usually every second is ineffective due to the fact that the child is fed. In addition, the child is fed from a bottle and the amount of complementary food can not be controlled. Therefore, it will be naive to believe that by actively applying the baby to the breast during the visits, it is possible to maintain normal lactation. What should I do? Of course, to maintain normal stimulation of the breast will require regular pumping. This unnatural procedure in this case is a forced measure that will help to cope with an even more unnatural situation. Expressing should be organized in accordance with the schedule of feeding the child, so that you can rest in intervals. Before a significant milk rush, it can be done in the same way as described in the third situation: 5-10 minutes from each breast. If during the feeding the child actively sucked the breast in the right position, consider this appointment a decanting. If the child sucks languidly - express the breast after feeding. If on the 3-4 day from the birth of the child, the mother does not feel a significant tide of milk, then the regimen should be changed. To increase the stimulation of the chest, add 2 more pumping between the first and last feeds. You will get about this mode of expressing 6.00, 8.00, 9.30, 13.00, 16.30, 20.00, 22.00, 23.30.
This rhythm of stimulation of the breast should be adhered to before the first rush of milk - filling the breast. As soon as the amount of incoming milk changes, the mode of decantation must also be changed. Now they must perform only an auxiliary rather than a stimulating role. More about this, we'll talk just below. Despite the efforts of my mother, sometimes every second feeding the child will sleep. You can accept this phenomenon and reassure yourself that everything will be fine at home. However, some mothers manage to agree with the medical staff that they do not feed the child. That's what my friend did. After she was brought to feed a sleepy child, she went to the children's department and told her sister about the following: "I want to pay you such a sum for caring for my child. I will pay it every day, but at the end of the shift, and the full amount you will receive only if my child is hungry all day before feeding. If I get a full-time baby 1 time, I withdraw 30% of the amount, if 2 - 50%, if 3 - you get 30%, if more - you do not get anything. " Mutual understanding was achieved immediately. For all 7 days that she was forced to spend in the hospital, this mother still only once saw a sleepy child, this new change of nurses just did not have time to navigate. Of course, this method is not suitable for everyone, but you can always try to negotiate. The situation is sixth. Milk flooding Beginning on the third day after childbirth, a significant change in the amount of milk production can be observed in a nursing mother, otherwise called milk rush or breast filling. In some women, this phenomenon is observed much later, on the 6-9th day, after discharge from the hospital, but most of them experience this condition directly in the medical institution and it is with this that the greatest number of errors in the organization of feeding is associated. The easiest way is to cope with the tide of milk while sharing with the child. The main measures are unlimited breast-feeding at the request of the mother and the absence of decanting. The physiological mechanisms of "adjusting" the amount of milk produced by the mother to the needs of the child are triggered precisely as a result of the milk remaining in the chest. Just the amount of milk that "stands" in it for 24 hours, the breast perceives as superfluous and includes the mechanism of its "recycling". Therefore, in the presence of an unlimited application of the baby to the breast, it is better to dispense with absolutely no expression. In extreme cases, a one-time breast strain can be allowed, but not earlier than 24 hours from the beginning of the tide, only in the daytime and only to a sense of relief. Observance of such a schedule, as instilled, brings considerable relief to my mother after a day - two and the problems of milk rush are quickly forgotten. If the child is separated from his mother or if the child is taken away from his mother for the night, there is no possibility of using the main measure - unrestricted application of the baby to the breast. In the absence of a child, a physiological problem-the filling of the breast within 12 hours quickly turns into agitation. And this is a pathological condition. To prevent this from happening, artificial measures must be applied again. Here, in this case, there is a need for decohesions, but they must be organized competently. To begin with, you should try to use the principle of 24 hours, so in the first day of the tide, express the breast ONLY 2 times. Strain the breast is necessary to the maximum possible devastation. This is not so easy to do, so to the usual methods of expressing it is necessary to add methods that facilitate the outflow of milk - the preliminary warming up of the breast. You can warm up the chest under a warm shower, or by applying a damp warm cloth, for example, a towel for several minutes. You can express in any way, you can also seek help from midwifery midwives. The child, brought for feeding, on this day we feed each feeding with one breast. In some maternity hospitals in this case, women are offered pills and injections that reduce lactation, as well as various compresses on the chest and special warm-up procedures. Alcohol compresses and drugs significantly affect the fate of further lactation, so for those women who are going to breast-feed, the use of such methods is unacceptable at all. Breast-heating procedures (UHF, ultrasound, massage), as well as compresses without the use of alcohol, can also have an effect on further lactation, but their effect is milder, so it is permissible to use one of these procedures once, to facilitate subsequent decantation. If after a day the state of the breast does not stabilize and there are unpleasant sensations, you should express both breasts once a day (at 9.00 or 21.00) to the maximum complete devastation, then decant to a sense of relief after or instead of feeding at 6.00, 9.30, 13.00, 16.30, 20.00, 23.30. Try now, every feeding to put the baby to one breast and how to properly feed it. Operate, proceeding from the following principle: there is a feeling of relief after feeding - you do not need to express, there is no such sensation - decant! As soon as the condition of the breast has stabilized, a full expression of the breast is canceled, and after or instead of feeding, we express only to a sense of relief. Именно так можно постепенно отойти от сцеживаний совсем и подготовиться к тому моменту, когда ребенок постоянно будет с мамой. Применяя эти методы мама сможет, оказавшись дома вместо сцеживания просто лишний раз приложить ребенка к груди Ситуация седьмая. Врач настаивает на докорме ребенка смесью Необходимость этой меры сильно преувеличена и часто является следствием недостаточной осведомленности детского врача о современных подходах к кормлению детей. Причиной назначения докорма в первые 7 дней жизни обычно называют якобы недостаточное количество молока у мамы и большую потерю в весе у ребенка. Однако, ребенок не рассчитан на получение чего-либо иного, кроме молозива и молока. В первые дни после рождения ему вполне хватает одного молозива. Если бы ребенку сразу после рождения необходимы были бы большие объемы жидкости, то природа бы обеспечила женщину огромным количеством молозива сразу после родов, но это же не так! Молозиво — жидкость очень сложного и ценного состава. В первые дни ребенку достаточно нескольких капель этого богатства, чтобы полностью обеспечить его энергетические потребности. То, что ребенок плачет и не успокаивается, как уже было показано выше, вовсе не свидетельствует о его голоде, также как и успокоение ребенка после того как ему дали смесь, не говорит о его сытости! Потеря в весе ребенка первых суток жизни отсутствует только при естественных родах. В большинстве роддомов России естественные физиологические роды в роддоме не происходят. Поэтому все дети, рожденные в роддоме, теряют в первые два дня своей жизни до 8-10% веса при рождении... Закономерности восстановления первоначального веса достаточно подробно исследованы и описаны в большинстве пособий и для врачей, и для родителей. Как только в Европе начали пропагандировать грудное вскармливание во всем мире отменили жесткие рамки и сроки, за которые ребенок должен это сделать! Большинство детей к 5-7 дню жизни восстанавливают свой вес и начинают прибавлять в весе. Однако считается, что ребенок, порой, может восстановить свой вес только к 10 дню и это не является поводом для введения докорма. Учитывая, что большинство мам выписываются из роддома на первой неделе жизни ребенка, оба основания для докорма в роддоме несостоятельны и любая мама может протестовать против подобного произвола. Как консультант по лактации я буду аплодировать любой маме, которая смогла с этим справиться и настоять на том, что ее ребенок не нуждается в докорме. Однако вместе с тем, мне хочется призвать мам к разумности. Характеры у всех разные, ситуации тоже. Именно исходя из реалий нашего постсоветского пространства, не всегда скандал приведет к результатам. Будьте дипломатичны и изобретательны. Если малыша от Вас уносят, то, скорее всего, его докормят, несмотря на Ваши протесты. Как правило, докорм приводит к быстрому нарастанию массы тела ребенка, что сокращает сроки пребывания в родильном доме. Может кому-то лучше поберечь силы? Если же речь идет о ребенке который находится с Вами в одной палате, Вы можете, не вступая в прямой конфликт, делать вид, что докармливаете или, в крайнем случае, докармливать ложечкой, не используя бутылочку. А что же делать дома? Многие мамы уверены, что дома все наладится само собой. Действительно, теперь никто не руководит тем, когда кормить ребенка, как только ребенок заплачет — сразу оказывается у груди, а сцеживания постепенно прекратим. Однако не все так просто! Во-первых, ребенок после роддома чаще всего не имеет опыта неограниченного прикладывания к груди, даже после палат совместного содержания. Исключая палаты семейного типа с двуспальными кроватями, в большинстве так называемых совместных палат ребенок все равно не находится постоянно с мамой в одной кровати, его регулярно откладывают. Роддомовские кровати часто неприспособленны для комфортного многочасового кормления. Если прибавить к этому, что у мамы пока просто нет опыта удобного расположения с ребенком во время кормления, то становится ясно, что в большинстве своем, даже ребенок находящийся с мамой в одной палате, не всегда оказывался у груди так долго, как мог бы это сделать в других условиях. Что же говорить о ребенке, который встречался с мамой по расписанию! Он просто не знает о том, что грудь можно сосать чаще и дольше! Во-вторых, ребенок может быть ненавязчиво приучен к режиму, за счет докорма в первые дни, или за счет раздельного содержания. Эта привычка пока очень неустойчивая, ее легко поменять, но сам ребенок это сделать не в состоянии. В-третьих, если качество прикладывания к груди некому было проконтролировать, ребенок, скорее всего, захватывает грудь неправильно! Статистика неумолимо свидетельствует, что после выписки из роддома только 10% детей захватывают грудь правильно, и только 2% продолжают это делать правильно и через месяц! В-четвертых, грудь могла успеть привыкнуть к сцеживанию, а самый сильный прилив молока может быть еще впереди. Если мама пытается прекратить сцеживания, у нее начинаются уплотнения и повышается температура. Таким образом, большинство мам после роддома нуждается в помощи для налаживания нормального естественного ритма прикладывания ребенка к груди, избавления от необходимости сцеживаний, и обучения ребенка правильному захвату груди. Если этим не заниматься, то в лучшем случае ребенок просто не требует грудь слишком часто, мама уверена, что он «сам выработал» режим, и проблемы начинаются примерно через полтора-два месяца, когда из-за недостаточной стимуляции груди у мамы начинает «пропадать молоко», а прибавка веса ребенка перестает соответствовать норме. В худшем же случае, ребенок сразу начинает беспокоиться у груди, часто прикладываться и мама быстро решает, что ему «не хватает молока». Именно эти 2 сценария и приводят к тому, что в городе Москве, например, после 3 месяцев кормят грудью всего 11% женщин! Как избежать этих ошибок? · Найдите возможность обучиться правильному прикладыванию к груди и удобным позам для кормления. Попросите помочь вам в этом маму, имеющую опыт длительного кормления или пригласите консультанта по грудному вскармливанию. · В течение первых 2-ух недель после выписки из роддома предлагайте ребенку грудь по собственному почину, не дожидаясь, пока он попросит сам не реже чем 1 раз в 2 часа независимо от того, спит он или бодрствует, исключая ночной перерыв с 22-24 часов ночи до 4-ех утра. · Если через 2 недели ребенок просит грудь чаще, чем Вы ему предлагаете, значит у него восстанавливается естественный ритм и на часы можно не смотреть. · Если реже — значит, Вы что-то делаете не так и без консультации специалиста Вам не обойтись. Майорская М. Б. консультант по лактации
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Организация грудного вскармливания в родильном доме ИЛИ ЕСЛИ ЧТО-ТО ИДЕТ НЕ СОВСЕМ ТАК, КАК ХОТЕЛОСЬ БЫ

  1. When I go out alone or with a friend, my husband always condemns me or sulks at me. Sometimes I still go out for a walk, but sometimes I do not. Anyway, I feel not at ease. If I go out for a walk, then I feel guilty. If I do not go out for a walk, I feel unhappy. I know that I give in to guilt, but I can not help myself. What do i do?
    It is clear that your husband only expresses openly what is already happening in you. He is part of you, who says that a good wife should not go out without her husband. However, there is another part of you that sometimes wants to go out with someone else. Apparently, the first part - stronger and more often wins. Make contact with these two parts in you and ask them to come to an agreement and
  2. Как узнать, что ваш доктор не поддерживает грудное вскармливание.
    Джек Ньюмен, MD, FRCPC Перевод с французского Елены Волковой, Все специалисты в области здравоохранения заявляют, что поддерживают грудное вскармливание. Но многие его поддерживают только тогда, когда это происходит успешно, а некоторые не поддерживают вовсе. Как только у молодой матери появляются проблемы с грудным вскармливанием, или в ее жизни что-то не ладится, слишком многие специалисты
  3. Ten steps to successful breastfeeding (for hospitals and maternity hospitals)
    1. Have a written description of breastfeeding, which is usually reported to all staff. 2. Train all staff to the skills necessary to implement a policy of breastfeeding. 3. Inform all pregnant women about the benefits and skills of breastfeeding. 4. Help mothers start breastfeeding immediately after birth (in half an hour).
  4. My wife goes to work. She never liked to do household chores, I know it and I always knew it. I also go to work. Since we got married, I'm constantly being kept in the house. It starts to bore me. We both go to work, and how can I explain to her what maintenance of cleanliness in the house she bears the same responsibility as I do?
    Did you make a clear commitment before you decided to live together? Maybe you made a commitment to do household chores, telling her, for example: "No problem. Will I do this? And now you are responsible for the consequences of the decision you made. However, if this is now too difficult for you, it is necessary to tell your wife about it. Ask her,
    Mothers always work and breast-feed. Women at the pioneers did a lot of things on the prairie, in addition to feeding their children, and even modern mothers who are at home during the day doing household chores often supplement the family budget, despite caring for their babies. Martha fed our first child, Jim, and at the same time worked as a nanny for a part of the day. В 1967 г.
    Olga Korotonozhkina expert AB RUI, veterinarian The cat is very prolific. In 8 - 10 months she can already bring the first offspring. Two, three and even four times a year she is able to give birth to kittens, an average of five in each litter. A year later, the younger generation is also included in the procreation process. American scientists have calculated that one cat and all of its offspring in seven years can produce
  7. Как сделать так, чтобы не чувствовать вины за то, что иногда я оставляю супруга дома одного с детьми, а сама иду к подруге, в магазин или просто гуляю, дышу свежим воздухом и думаю о себе?
    Чувство вины — главное препятствие на пути эволюции человека. Поскольку оно возникает из наших верований, то есть на ментальном уровне, то единственный способ избежать чувства вины — изменить свои верования. Вы можете почитать о верованиях в книжке, но прежде всего вы должны внутренне убедиться: действительно ли вы виноваты? Лишь умышленное причинение зла кому-либо может служить
  8. Exclusive or partial breastfeeding
    Exclusive breastfeeding means that the child does not receive any other food, except breast milk, does not even take a pacifier. If a child is given vitamins or ritual food in small quantities, either water or juice, this is almost exclusive breastfeeding. Partial breastfeeding means that the child is partially on the breast, partly on the artificial
  9. Organization of breastfeeding after cesarean section
    If the mother is going to have a caesarean section, she usually worries about how she will develop further with breastfeeding. In our society there is a firm belief that after cesarean breastfeeding is much more difficult to adjust than after normal births, problems often occur, milk goes away, etc. However, breastfeeding consultants know that breastfeeding
  10. Breastfeeding, or natural, feeding
    Breast milk. At natural feeding the child receives optimum quality and quantity both the basic nutrients, and micronutrients, which are important for high-grade growth and development. The composition of milk nutrients dynamically adapts to the child's changing needs during growth. Adequacy of collateral can be violated only if there are enough gross changes in the food
  11. Рекомендации по самостоятельной работе студентов IV курса на дежурстве в родильном доме
    Время дежурства: с 20.00 до 8.00. Место дежурства: Родильный дом: приемное отделение, отделение патологии беременности, родблок, операционный блок, детское отделение. Студент должен прийти на ночное дежурство в чистом халате, колпачке, сменной одежде и кожаной обуви: иметь чистую маску, бахилы, сантиметровую ленту, фонендоскоп, календарь и направление на дежурство, подписанное ассистентом.
  12. When do children need more than one breast milk and how long should the baby be breastfeeding?
    Feed the baby exclusively with breast milk up to 6 months of age. Approximately at the age of 6 months, all children, along with breast milk, need additional food, but ideally continue to breast-feed for up to a year and
  13. A long story, or why prolonged breastfeeding becomes more common
    The American Academy of Pediatrics in 1997, in the recommendations for breastfeeding, stated that breastfeeding should be continued "at least twelve months, after which by mutual agreement as much as necessary." This statement not only speaks about the importance of breastfeeding for a child in the first year of life, but also reminds parents and pediatricians in the same way that breastfeeding
  14. What does this mean for the baby - breastfeeding?
    How do you like the fact that you are giving your child a gift that can raise his IQ by about 10 points; can improve the work of the heart, intestines and almost all other organs of your child; Reduce the risk of life-threatening and debilitating diseases, such as diabetes; and help your child avoid many of the usual problems for infants, such as ear infections, disorders
  15. Breastfeeding: the beginning, duration and practice of exclusive breastfeeding
    Due to the lack of comprehensive and comparable data and unified international definitions, it is difficult to make any general statements about the prevalence of breastfeeding in the WHO European Region. Data on the percentage of children who are breastfeeding, shown in Fig. 8, are taken from various sources (27). These data should be approached with caution: survey techniques
  16. Как происходит грудное вскармливание?
    Свою роль должны сыграть и вы, и ваш ребенок. Each woman who gave birth to a child produces colostrum, and then breast milk. As soon as the mother gave birth to the baby and moved off the placenta (the latter), the process of producing breast milk begins. Это происходит независимо от того, здоровы вы или больны, имеете вы избыточный или недостаточный вес, нормальные роды были у вас или вам оказывали
  17. Как увеличить продолжительность и распространенность грудного вскармливания
    На то, как женщины кормят своих детей и в течение какого времени они кормят их грудью, влияет много факторов. These include traditional methods of medical care, the influence of family and friends, the living environment (urban or rural), socio-economic status, employment and place of work, pressure from commercial interests, knowledge of breast milk substitutes and their availability. On
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