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Organization of breastfeeding in the maternity hospital OR IF SOMETHING GOES NOT AT ALL, AS WOULD LIKE TO

When a pregnant woman dreams about how she will live with her baby, she always seems to have some ideal situation: easy childbirth, first attachment to the breast as described in the books, no separation, the child is always with her mother and therefore always silent. Reality often does not at all correspond to this beautiful picture. Childbirth does not always go the way it seemed. The first attachment to the chest lasts only 2 minutes or is generally postponed indefinitely. Even in shared wards, a mother and her baby sometimes connect several hours (or even days) after giving birth. Practically in all Russian maternity hospitals they practice complementary feeding of a child separated from his mother. And when, finally, the beloved child is still attached to the breast, it turns out that it does not want to suck it at all. There are fears, sometimes completely unfounded, that now nothing can be corrected. The reason for disappointments and failures often become too idealized ideas about how breastfeeding should look in a maternity hospital. Let's consider the typical disappointments of the mother and try to cope with them so as not to lose milk and successfully breastfeed the baby. Situation one. There was no breastfeeding right in the delivery room. I want to reassure right away that in this case you are not alone. Moreover, out of 10 women who say that they have had such an attachment, 9 do not really know why it is needed and what kind of attachment to the breast the child really remembers. In most cases in Russian maternity hospitals, the first hour of life is always organized with violations of the physiological norm. Then you should not worry how badly these norms are violated. For successful breastfeeding, it is not the fact of attachment to the breast directly in the delivery room that is important, but the exception of feeding the child in another way until it is properly attached to the breast. And in order for the child to really understand what a mother's breast is, he must suck it long enough for at least 30 minutes in a row. Any statistical survey will show that the majority of mothers who gave birth in the maternity hospital had such a long attachment for the first time that was not at all in the delivery room, and for many of them this did not prevent breastfeeding. Therefore, you should not worry about spilled milk, you just need to try to quickly attach the child as soon as he is with you. Situation two. The child is with the mother, but constantly crying Not every child in the first days after birth can be calmed by putting him to the chest. Stress of birth is completely different in different children. Some of them quickly realize that salvation in the constant presence of the mother and sucks her breast for hours, no matter how empty or full. Others fall into a long long sleep. Still others periodically shout. Such children, as a rule, refuse to attach themselves to the breast for a long time or quickly spit it out after a short sucking with a loud cry. Mom starts to think that the baby has something to hurt, that she has “wrong” milk and, in the end, she decides that the baby is hungry. If you feed a child like this, then blissful silence usually occurs for 3-4 hours. If you repeat these actions several times, the child will begin to prefer a bottle of the mother's breast. What to do? First, remember that the child is not crying from hunger. Most often, the loud cry of a child in the first hours or days after birth, is the experience of the very fact of birth. The child spends an excess of adrenaline due to a loud piercing scream. Until he “shouts out” the next portion, it is useless to offer the breast. The child can just shake, sympathize with him and offer his chest when he calm down. Secondly, do not necessarily strive to settle the baby and achieve complete silence. If this did not work out in 10 minutes, then your efforts are wasted! No matter how hard it is for mom to hear a baby scream, the speed at which the child calms down does not depend on whether the mom lies with the baby or runs around the ward in circles. Therefore, of course, you should not leave the baby crying alone, but you should not jump with him in the first postpartum days. You can just calmly and slowly walk with him in your arms, slightly shaking, reproducing a picture of swaying in my mother's belly - intrauterine memories. Tired of walking, you can shake and sit, and if the mother can not sit, put the child next to you, so you can also iron and shake. Thirdly, hope that this is not for long. In most cases, this behavior lasts several days and does not depend on the amount of colostrum in the mother, but there are exceptions. As a rule, by the time of discharge, this behavior stops. Fourth, do not be in a hurry to “calm” the child with the help of a pacifier, feeding or supplementing. These actions will not affect the production of adrenaline, but they will contribute to the formation of completely unnecessary habits. Situation three. Forced separation. The child is given to the mother not immediately, but in a few hours (and sometimes days) after birth. We will not discuss why they are doing this and how justified it is. We will proceed from the fact that it happened. Regardless of the reasons for the separation, if it lasted more than 1 hour, the child is usually given to the mother dressed and fed. It is possible that he was not fed, but simply drank with some water, but in any case he had already received some other subject for sucking, which he managed to remember. Even if the medical staff denies such actions, you cannot be sure that the child was not fed or watered, unless there was a confidant next to the child (father, grandmother, financially interested health worker is not from this department)! It is necessary to accept the fact that the mother will have to retrain the child and treat this situation really. If a mother begins to pretend that such a problem does not exist, she often does not attach importance to retraining the child, does not follow the correctness of attachment to the breast, and loses precious time. Careful attention to the quality of attachment to the chest, teaching the child how to properly grasp the breast, asking for help from lactation consultants will ensure that there are no problems in the future. However, this is a matter for the future, but what should mother do while she is alone. When separation is inevitable and the mother can not change anything, you should take a short break and get enough sleep. When the child is near you, you may not have time for this. Waiting for the child should gain strength, rest, eat normally and worry as little as possible. The baby needs a calm and healthy mother. If the separation lasts more than 24 hours, you can begin to express the chest, for a start, no more than 3 minutes, both breasts every 6 hours. It is better to use an electric breast pump that simulates the rhythm of sucking a baby, but manual pumping is also possible. Ask your midwife to show you the basic pumping techniques. It should be emphasized that such a pumping out serves not so much as emptying the breast, as stimulating it, so you shouldn’t focus on whether something stands out from there or not. If you express yourself for more than a day, and something starts to stand out from the chest, you should set up a more frequent expression before meeting with the child. Find out what schedule your baby is feeding on and express both mammary glands according to this schedule. Start pumping with nipple stimulation with the palm of your hand, then express 5-10 minutes, no matter how much milk comes out of the breast. If the mother regularly decimates, then, despite the separation from the child, she will be able to start feeding him as soon as they meet. The fourth situation. The child was finally brought, but he shows no desire to eat. And this is completely normal. Sometimes, of course, it happens that the mother will bring a hungry child, who immediately pounce on the chest, but this can not be expected. Most often this is the result of a happy set of circumstances. Most of the children fall into the hands of the mother quite well-fed and contented. Do not blame the nurse that she fed your baby. Neither you nor the child will become easier from this. If the child is now always with you, have patience, sooner or later he will definitely wake up and you will begin to communicate. While you can just look at him, admire, iron. Now it depends only on you that the child will eat, so you can temper your impatience and wait for his awakening. If the child is most likely taken away again, you can stir it up. To do this, try to intensively stroke the child along the body. After a few strokes, roll your nipple over the baby’s lower sponge. If, in response to this offer, he begins to open his mouth and catch something, he can be applied to his chest. If the child does not make any movements with his lips and tongue, go back to stroking. Repeat until the child is ready to attach. Your actions may be more successful if you pre-disperse the child. When the attachment took place, do not strive to feed him! As long as the child is not with you all the time, you can’t influence the frequency and volume of additional feeding and supplementation. But you can use this opportunity to thoroughly stimulate your breast and teach the child how to properly take it. Therefore, be sure to attach the child to both breasts in one feeding, for better stimulation of lactation. Focus on the child correctly grabbing the breast and insist on him taking it correctly. Do not be discouraged if you did not manage to wake the child or did not manage to properly put his breast into his mouth. Nobody expects a chic trendy dress from a beginner seamstress! Maternal science is not so simple, and you are only on its first step. On the same rung, the mother can be, who has already breastfed the baby, her previous experience may be completely different, and she will not necessarily have all the necessary skills! Prepare for the next date with the child, find someone who will help you. If it is not possible to verify the correctness of the attachment with the help of a breastfeeding counselor, ask your nurse, midwife, or other mother who has had the experience of teaching the child to help you to help you. The situation is the fifth. Separate content. A child is brought to the mother only for “dates”. When the mother and child are separated, usually the child is brought on a schedule 1 time per 3.5 hours: 6.00, 9.30, 13.00, 16.30, 20.00, 23.30. It turns out only 6 attachments to the breast of which usually every second is ineffective due to the fact that the child is fed. In addition, the child is fed from a bottle and the amount of the supplement cannot be controlled. Therefore, it would be naive to believe that by engaging in an active attachment of the baby to the breast during the moments of dating, it is possible to maintain normal lactation. What is worth doing? Of course, regular breastfeeding is required to maintain normal breast stimulation. This unnatural procedure in this case is a necessary measure that will help to cope with an even more unnatural situation. Straining should be organized in accordance with the schedule of feeding the child to have time to rest in between. Before a significant rush of milk, this can be done in the same way as described in the third situation: 5-10 minutes from each breast. If during feeding the baby is actively sucking the breast in the correct position, consider this date by pumping. If the baby sucks sluggishly - strain the breast after feeding. If for 3-4 days from the birth of the child, the mother does not feel a significant influx of milk, then the mode of expression should be changed. To increase breast stimulation, add 2 more expressions between the first and last feedings. You will have approximately the same pumping mode 6.00, 8.00, 9.30, 13.00, 16.30, 20.00, 22.00, 23.30.
This rhythm of breast stimulation should be followed until the first rush of milk - filling the breast. As soon as the amount of incoming milk changes, the pumping mode also needs to be changed. Now they have to play only an auxiliary and not a stimulating role. More about this will tell below. Despite the efforts of the mother, sometimes every second feeding the child will sleep. You can come to terms with this phenomenon and reassure yourself that everything is going to be settled at home. However, some mothers manage to negotiate with the medical staff that the child is not fed. That's what one friend of mine did. After she was brought in to feed a sleepy baby, she went to the pediatric ward and told her sister something like this: “I want to pay you such and such a sum for caring for my baby. I will pay it every day, but at the end of the shift, and you will receive the full amount only if my baby is hungry all day before feeding. If I get a fed baby 1 time, I withdraw 30% of the amount, if 2 - 50%, if 3 - you get 30%, if more - you do not get anything. " Understanding was reached immediately. For all the 7 days that she was forced to spend in the hospital, this mommy only once saw a sleepy baby, this new change of nurses just did not have time to navigate. Of course, this method is not suitable for everyone, but you can always try to agree. The sixth situation. Milk rush Starting from the third day after birth, a nursing mother may experience a significant change in the volume of milk production, otherwise called milk rush or breast filling. In some women, this phenomenon is observed much later, on days 6–9, already after discharge from the maternity hospital, but most of them experience this condition directly in the medical institution, and the most errors in the organization of feeding are associated with it. The easiest way to cope with the tide of milk when sharing with the child. The main measures are unlimited breastfeeding at the request of the mother and the absence of pumping. The physiological mechanisms of "fitting" the amount of milk produced by the mother to the needs of the child work precisely as a result of the fact that the breast milk remains. The amount of milk that “stands” in it for 24 hours is perceived by the breast as superfluous and includes a mechanism for its “utilization”. Therefore, in the presence of an unlimited attachment of the child to the breast, it is better to do without expressiveness. In extreme cases, one-time breast opening is allowed, but not earlier than 24 hours have passed since the beginning of the tide, only during the daytime and only until a feeling of relief. Compliance with such a schedule, as a rule, brings a significant relief to my mother after only a day - two and the problems of milk tide are quickly forgotten. If the child is kept separate with the mother or if the child is taken away from the mother for the night, there is no possibility of applying the most important measure - unlimited attachment of the child to the breast. In the absence of a child, the physiological problem — filling the breast within 12 hours quickly turns into a heaving. And this is already a pathological condition. To avoid this, it is necessary to again apply artificial measures. Here, in this case, besomination is not enough, but they must be organized correctly. First you need to try to use the principle of 24 hours, so on the first day of the tide, we express the chest ONLY 2 times. It is necessary to drain the chest to the maximum possible emptying. This is not so easy to do, so it is necessary to add methods to simplify the outflow of milk to the usual methods of pumping - preheating the breast. You can warm your chest under a warm shower, or by applying a damp, warm cloth such as a towel for a few minutes. You can strain in any way, you can also ask for help from the midwives of the postpartum ward. The child brought to the feeding, on this day we feed each breastfeeding. In some maternity hospitals, in this case, women are offered pills and injections that reduce lactation, as well as various compresses on the chest and special warm-up procedures. Alcohol compresses and drugs significantly affect the fate of further lactation, so for those women who are going to breastfeed, the use of such methods is unacceptable at all. Breast-warming procedures (UHF, ultrasound, massage), as well as compresses without the use of alcohol, can also affect further lactation, but their action is milder, therefore it is acceptable to use any of these procedures once, to facilitate subsequent expression. If after a day the condition of the breast does not stabilize and there is an unpleasant feeling, then once a day (at 9.00 or at 21.00) both breasts should be decanted to the fullest possible emptying, then express to relieve after or instead of feeding at 6.00, 9.30, 13.00, 16.30, 20.00, 23.30 Now try each feeding to put the baby on one breast and how to feed him. Act on the basis of the following principle: there is a feeling of relief after feeding - no need to decant, no such feeling - decant! As soon as the condition of the breast has stabilized, the complete decanting of the breast is canceled, and after or instead of feeding, we express only a feeling of relief. Именно так можно постепенно отойти от сцеживаний совсем и подготовиться к тому моменту, когда ребенок постоянно будет с мамой. Применяя эти методы мама сможет, оказавшись дома вместо сцеживания просто лишний раз приложить ребенка к груди Ситуация седьмая. Врач настаивает на докорме ребенка смесью Необходимость этой меры сильно преувеличена и часто является следствием недостаточной осведомленности детского врача о современных подходах к кормлению детей. Причиной назначения докорма в первые 7 дней жизни обычно называют якобы недостаточное количество молока у мамы и большую потерю в весе у ребенка. Однако, ребенок не рассчитан на получение чего-либо иного, кроме молозива и молока. В первые дни после рождения ему вполне хватает одного молозива. Если бы ребенку сразу после рождения необходимы были бы большие объемы жидкости, то природа бы обеспечила женщину огромным количеством молозива сразу после родов, но это же не так! Молозиво — жидкость очень сложного и ценного состава. В первые дни ребенку достаточно нескольких капель этого богатства, чтобы полностью обеспечить его энергетические потребности. То, что ребенок плачет и не успокаивается, как уже было показано выше, вовсе не свидетельствует о его голоде, также как и успокоение ребенка после того как ему дали смесь, не говорит о его сытости! Потеря в весе ребенка первых суток жизни отсутствует только при естественных родах. В большинстве роддомов России естественные физиологические роды в роддоме не происходят. Поэтому все дети, рожденные в роддоме, теряют в первые два дня своей жизни до 8-10% веса при рождении... Закономерности восстановления первоначального веса достаточно подробно исследованы и описаны в большинстве пособий и для врачей, и для родителей. Как только в Европе начали пропагандировать грудное вскармливание во всем мире отменили жесткие рамки и сроки, за которые ребенок должен это сделать! Большинство детей к 5-7 дню жизни восстанавливают свой вес и начинают прибавлять в весе. Однако считается, что ребенок, порой, может восстановить свой вес только к 10 дню и это не является поводом для введения докорма. Учитывая, что большинство мам выписываются из роддома на первой неделе жизни ребенка, оба основания для докорма в роддоме несостоятельны и любая мама может протестовать против подобного произвола. Как консультант по лактации я буду аплодировать любой маме, которая смогла с этим справиться и настоять на том, что ее ребенок не нуждается в докорме. Однако вместе с тем, мне хочется призвать мам к разумности. Характеры у всех разные, ситуации тоже. Именно исходя из реалий нашего постсоветского пространства, не всегда скандал приведет к результатам. Будьте дипломатичны и изобретательны. Если малыша от Вас уносят, то, скорее всего, его докормят, несмотря на Ваши протесты. Как правило, докорм приводит к быстрому нарастанию массы тела ребенка, что сокращает сроки пребывания в родильном доме. Может кому-то лучше поберечь силы? Если же речь идет о ребенке который находится с Вами в одной палате, Вы можете, не вступая в прямой конфликт, делать вид, что докармливаете или, в крайнем случае, докармливать ложечкой, не используя бутылочку. А что же делать дома? Многие мамы уверены, что дома все наладится само собой. Действительно, теперь никто не руководит тем, когда кормить ребенка, как только ребенок заплачет — сразу оказывается у груди, а сцеживания постепенно прекратим. Однако не все так просто! Во-первых, ребенок после роддома чаще всего не имеет опыта неограниченного прикладывания к груди, даже после палат совместного содержания. Исключая палаты семейного типа с двуспальными кроватями, в большинстве так называемых совместных палат ребенок все равно не находится постоянно с мамой в одной кровати, его регулярно откладывают. Роддомовские кровати часто неприспособленны для комфортного многочасового кормления. Если прибавить к этому, что у мамы пока просто нет опыта удобного расположения с ребенком во время кормления, то становится ясно, что в большинстве своем, даже ребенок находящийся с мамой в одной палате, не всегда оказывался у груди так долго, как мог бы это сделать в других условиях. Что же говорить о ребенке, который встречался с мамой по расписанию! Он просто не знает о том, что грудь можно сосать чаще и дольше! Во-вторых, ребенок может быть ненавязчиво приучен к режиму, за счет докорма в первые дни, или за счет раздельного содержания. Эта привычка пока очень неустойчивая, ее легко поменять, но сам ребенок это сделать не в состоянии. В-третьих, если качество прикладывания к груди некому было проконтролировать, ребенок, скорее всего, захватывает грудь неправильно! Статистика неумолимо свидетельствует, что после выписки из роддома только 10% детей захватывают грудь правильно, и только 2% продолжают это делать правильно и через месяц! В-четвертых, грудь могла успеть привыкнуть к сцеживанию, а самый сильный прилив молока может быть еще впереди. Если мама пытается прекратить сцеживания, у нее начинаются уплотнения и повышается температура. Таким образом, большинство мам после роддома нуждается в помощи для налаживания нормального естественного ритма прикладывания ребенка к груди, избавления от необходимости сцеживаний, и обучения ребенка правильному захвату груди. Если этим не заниматься, то в лучшем случае ребенок просто не требует грудь слишком часто, мама уверена, что он «сам выработал» режим, и проблемы начинаются примерно через полтора-два месяца, когда из-за недостаточной стимуляции груди у мамы начинает «пропадать молоко», а прибавка веса ребенка перестает соответствовать норме. В худшем же случае, ребенок сразу начинает беспокоиться у груди, часто прикладываться и мама быстро решает, что ему «не хватает молока». Именно эти 2 сценария и приводят к тому, что в городе Москве, например, после 3 месяцев кормят грудью всего 11% женщин! Как избежать этих ошибок? · Найдите возможность обучиться правильному прикладыванию к груди и удобным позам для кормления. Попросите помочь вам в этом маму, имеющую опыт длительного кормления или пригласите консультанта по грудному вскармливанию. · В течение первых 2-ух недель после выписки из роддома предлагайте ребенку грудь по собственному почину, не дожидаясь, пока он попросит сам не реже чем 1 раз в 2 часа независимо от того, спит он или бодрствует, исключая ночной перерыв с 22-24 часов ночи до 4-ех утра. · Если через 2 недели ребенок просит грудь чаще, чем Вы ему предлагаете, значит у него восстанавливается естественный ритм и на часы можно не смотреть. · Если реже — значит, Вы что-то делаете не так и без консультации специалиста Вам не обойтись. Майорская М. Б. консультант по лактации
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Организация грудного вскармливания в родильном доме ИЛИ ЕСЛИ ЧТО-ТО ИДЕТ НЕ СОВСЕМ ТАК, КАК ХОТЕЛОСЬ БЫ

  1. When I go out for a walk alone or with a girlfriend, my husband always blames me or sulks me. Sometimes I still go out for a walk, and sometimes not. Somehow, I feel ill at ease. If I go out for a walk, I feel guilty. If I do not go out for a walk, then I feel unhappy. I know I give in to guilt, but I can't help it. Как мне быть?
    It is clear that your husband only openly expresses what is already happening in you. He is part of you, who says that a good wife should not go out without her husband. Однако существует другая часть вас, которая хочет иногда выходить с кем-то другим. Apparently, the first part is stronger and wins more often. Make contact with these two parts in you and ask them to come to an agreement and
  2. How to find out that your doctor does not support breastfeeding.
    Jack Newman, MD, FRCPC Translated from French by Elena Volkova, All health care professionals say they support breastfeeding. But many people support it only when this happens successfully, and some do not support it at all. As soon as a young mother has problems with breastfeeding, or something goes wrong in her life, too many specialists
  3. Десять шагов к успешному грудному вскармливанию (для больниц и родильных домов)
    1. Имейте письменное описание грудного вскармливания, которое обычно сообщается всему персоналу. 2. Обучите весь персонал навыкам, необходимым для осуществления политики грудного вскармливания. 3. Информируйте всех беременных женщин о преимуществах и навыках кормления грудью. 4. Помогайте матерям начинать грудное вскармливание сразу после родов (через полчаса).
  4. My spouse goes to work. She never liked doing household chores, I know that and I always knew it. I also go to work. Since we got married, the maintenance of order in the house constantly rests on me. It starts to bother me. We both go to work, and how can I tell her that she has the same responsibility for maintaining cleanliness in the house as I do?
    Have you made a clear commitment before you made a decision about living together? Maybe you are committed to doing household chores, telling her, for example: “No problem. Will I do this? And now you are responsible for the consequences of your decision. However, if at the present time it has become too difficult for you, you need to tell your spouse about it. Ask her
    Mothers always work and breastfeed. Women among the pioneers on the prairie did so many things, in addition to feeding their children, and even modern mothers who are at home during the day doing housework often replenish the family budget, despite the fact that they care for their babies. Martha fed our first child, Jim, and at the same time part of the day worked as a nanny. In 1967
    Ольга Коротоножкина эксперт AB RUI, ветеринарный врач Кошка очень плодовита. В 8 - 10 месяцев она уже может принести первое потомство. Два, три и даже четыре раза в год она способна рожать котят, в среднем по пять в каждом помете. Через год молодое поколение тоже включается в процесс продолжения рода. Американские ученые подсчитали, что одна кошка и все ее потомство за семь лет могут произвести
  7. How to do so not to feel guilty for the fact that sometimes I leave the spouse alone at home with the children, while I go to my girlfriend, to the store, or just walk, breathe fresh air and think about myself?
    Guilt feelings are the main obstacle to human evolution. Since it arises from our beliefs, that is, on the mental level, the only way to avoid the feeling of guilt is to change your beliefs. You can read about the beliefs in the book, but first of all you must internally make sure: are you really to blame? Only intentionally causing harm to anyone can serve
  8. Исключительное или частичное грудное вскармливание
    Исключительное грудное вскармливание означает, что ребёнок не получает никакого другого питания, кроме грудного молока, даже не берёт пустышку. Если же ребёнку дают витамины или ритуальную еду в небольших количествах либо воду или сок, это уже почти исключительное грудное вскармливание. Частичное же грудное вскармливание значит, что ребёнок частично находится на грудном, частично на искусственном
  9. Organization of breastfeeding after cesarean section
    If the mother has to undergo a cesarean section, she usually worries about how she will develop further with breastfeeding. В нашем обществе складывается устойчивое убеждение, что после кесарева грудное вскармливание наладить гораздо сложнее, чем после обычных родов, чаще случаются проблемы, уходит молоко и т.п. Однако консультанты по грудному вскармливанию знают, что наладить грудное вскармливание
  10. Грудное, или естественное, вскармливание
    Грудное молоко. При естественном вскармливании ребенок получает оптимальное качество и количество как основных нутриентов, так и микронутриентов, имеющих значение для полноценного роста и развития. Состав нутриентов молока динамично приспосабливается к изменяющимся в процессе роста потребностям ребенка. Адекватность обеспечения может нарушаться лишь при достаточно грубых изменениях в пищевом
  11. Recommendations for the independent work of IV year students on duty in the maternity hospital
    Время дежурства: с 20.00 до 8.00. Place of duty: Maternity hospital: emergency department, department of pathology of pregnancy, rodblok, operational unit, children's department. Студент должен прийти на ночное дежурство в чистом халате, колпачке, сменной одежде и кожаной обуви: иметь чистую маску, бахилы, сантиметровую ленту, фонендоскоп, календарь и направление на дежурство, подписанное ассистентом.
  12. When do babies need more than one breast milk and how long should the baby be breastfed?
    Feed your baby exclusively with breast milk up to 6 months of age. Примерно в возрасте 6 месяцев все дети, наряду с грудным молоком, нуждаются в дополнительной пище, но в идеале продолжайте кормить ребенка грудью до года и
  13. Длинная история, или почему продолжительное грудное вскармливание становится более общепринятым
    In 1997, the American Academy of Pediatrics, in its recommendations on breastfeeding, stated that breastfeeding should be continued “for at least twelve months, after which by mutual consent as much as you like.” This statement not only speaks about the importance of breastfeeding for a child in the first year of life, but also reminds parents and pediatricians that breastfeeding
  14. Что это значит для ребенка – грудное вскармливание?
    Как вам понравится тот факт, что вы делаете своему ребенку подарок, который может поднять его IQ примерно на 10 пунктов; может улучшить работу сердца, кишечника и почти всех других органов вашего ребенка; уменьшить риск сокращающих жизнь и ослабляющих заболеваний, таких как диабет; и помочь вашему ребенку избежать многих обычных для младенцев проблем, таких как ушные инфекции, расстройства
  15. Breastfeeding: the onset, duration, and practice of exclusive breastfeeding
    Due to the lack of comprehensive and comparable data and unified international definitions, it is difficult to make any general statements about the prevalence of breastfeeding in the WHO European Region. Data on the percentage of breastfed babies, shown in Fig. 8, taken from various sources (27). These data must be approached carefully: survey methods
  16. How is breastfeeding?
    Both you and your child must play their part. Every woman who gives birth to a child produces colostrum, and then breast milk. As soon as the mother has given birth to a child and the placenta has departed (afterbirth), the process of making breast milk begins. This happens regardless of whether you are healthy or sick, if you are overweight or underweight, you have had normal births or you have been given
  17. How to increase the duration and prevalence of breastfeeding
    Many factors influence how women feed their children and how long they breastfeed them. These include traditional methods of medical care, the influence of family and friends, the living environment (urban or rural), socio-economic situation, employment and place of work, pressure from commercial interests, knowledge of breastmilk substitutes and their availability. On
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