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Basic rules of breastfeeding
The possibility of breastfeeding Breastfeeding can do anything! Breastfeeding in the presence of a living and healthy baby is impossible only if there is no mother or her both mammary glands are removed. A biological mother can feed twins, and even triplets, without using pre-breastfeeding for up to 5 months. Even twins and triplets can grow exclusively breastfed for up to 4-5 months. Breastfeeding a baby can receive a foster mother, even if she did not have her own children before. The true lack of milk, which today is so scared of modern mothers, is found only in 3% of women. The remaining 97% can breastfeed, although they often do not know about it. Quite often, women complain that they lose milk from domestic problems, discomfort, stress or nervous tension. It turns out that there is no such reason. Studies have convincingly proved - if a woman WANTS FEED, she will do it anyway. So, in the "absence" of milk, women, who do not want to breastfeed or perform illiterate recommendations, usually are to blame. If a young mother is introduced to the basic rules and teaches breastfeeding techniques, she successfully breastfeeds the baby for any length of time and safely stops lactation in physiological terms. To breastfeed was successful, it is necessary: · The desire of a woman to breast-feed; · Training in breastfeeding techniques and practices; · Implementation of the basic rules of breastfeeding; · Timely solution of breastfeeding problems with the help of lactation consultants; · Support for family members and experienced mothers who have a positive experience of prolonged breastfeeding for more than 1 year. Correct attachment to the breast If the child correctly grasps and sucks the mother's breast, then he can suck as long as he likes, without causing any trouble to his mother. Correct application to the breast protects the woman from cracks and abrasions on the nipples, lactostasis (blockage of the milk duct), mastitis, etc. Therefore, it is very important to learn how to properly apply the baby to the breast and monitor it during the entire period of breastfeeding. Typically, training for the right application occurs during the first month of life. However, the main period when a child needs reminders and mother's prompts is the period from birth to 8 months. If the baby has captured the breast incorrectly or changed position during feeding - it is necessary to take away the breast and invite him to grab it again. Do not be afraid to correct the child and offer him to take the breast only in the right position - he expects the mother's prompt and is ready to learn. This expectation and willingness are inherent in his nature, because without them he can not survive. If the child has been trained to take wrong breasts, then he and his mother will have to retrain. With the confident actions of the mother, retraining takes place within 4 to 10 days. Even if the baby croaks and cries, not wanting to take the breast correctly, this is not a reason to leave retraining. In the process of sucking in the right position, the child receives the amount of endorphins necessary to compensate for stress. These happiness-joy hormones are produced by him in the process of sucking, and, in addition, he receives them from the mother's milk. Thus, mother's milk and the process of sucking in the right position are for the child a means to achieve psycho-emotional comfort. That is why the stress that he will endure, re-learning, is incomparably less compared to the constant stress that he receives as a result of everyday wrong sucking. Sucking in the wrong position leads to chronic stress and adversely affects the formation of the child's nervous system. In addition, it can negatively affect the correctness of the formation of the maxillofacial apparatus and teeth. When properly applied: · feeding the child does not cause painful sensations, pain can occur only when the baby grasps the breast; · There are no nipple injuries, mastitis and other problems; · The child sucks out enough milk; · The duration of feeding does not matter. In case of incorrect application: · when a child is nursing, painful sensations arise; · There are nipple injuries, mastitis, lactostasis and other problems; · There is a need to limit the time of feeding; · The child sucks out a little milk and does not eat. A comfortable posture when feeding It is very important that when feeding the mother takes a comfortable pose herself and gives the child a comfortable position. A comfortable posture during feeding provides a good outflow of milk from the breast and is a preventative of lactostasis. Required for showing and training poses lying down and sitting from under the mouse. Feeding in the basic posture sitting and sitting on the leg is more difficult to perform. Therefore, these two poses are advisable to learn after mastering for 3-7 days of correct application in poses "from under the mouse" and "lying". Feeding on demand Breastfeeding is a mutual process, therefore, when talking about feeding on demand, it implies demands not only on the part of the child, but also on the part of the mother. Feeding on demand of the child. Basically, the frequency of feeding is regulated by a child. Any anxiety, crying, or searching behavior, when the kid turns his head and catches the mouth of nearby objects, are an expression of the requirement to attach to the chest. The baby of the first months of life must be applied to the breast for any reason, giving him the opportunity to suckle when he wants and how much he wants. This is necessary not only to saturate the child, but also for his psycho-emotional comfort. For psychological comfort, the baby can be applied to the breast up to 4 times per hour. In total, the baby of the first months of life during the day, there are 12-20 feedings. It is not necessary to be afraid, that at frequent attachments the kid will pereste. Gastrointestinal tract of a child is not adapted to feeding by the clock, but to continuous feeding! The intestine of the infant is adapted to the absorption of breast milk in unlimited quantities. At the beginning of a child's life, the activity of his own enzymes is low, but the constant intake of active substances in breast milk stimulates the activity of the child's enzymes. In addition, breast milk contains enzymes that help their own assimilation. Thus, breast milk is a unique food that helps itself absorb. That's why it is digested much better than any super mixture. Rhythm of feeding. The requirements of the infant are not chaotic, but are distributed over a 24-hour period in a certain rhythm. At the baby of the first 2 months of life the approximate interval between requirements in the daytime is 1 - 1.5 hours. Basically, sucking is accompanied by a baby's dream - the stages of falling asleep and awakening. If there are reasons for discomfort, the frequency of the child's demands increases, and he begins to suck more and more often. Once the discomfort is overcome, the baby returns to the same frequency as his age. Very often and for a long time suck the children who have hard survived childbirth and have an elevated status of anxiety. Once the stress is compensated, the frequency of sucking drops to normal. Starting from 2 months, applying to the breast becomes more rare. The interval between them increases to 1.5 - 2 hours, however, feeding continues to surround the child's dreams. The nighttime rhythm of attachment does not change. By 4-6 months of application to the breast become even rarer, but, nevertheless, their number does not fall below 12 feedings per day, and they are still associated with sleep. This is the optimal number of baby's attachments to the chest to ensure normal lactation in the mother .. Feeding on the request of the mother. In the period of breastfeeding, the mother and child are a symbiosis, which means satisfying the desires of both parties. The mother may also have a need to put the baby to the chest approximately every 1.5 to 2 hours. This need, as well as the need of the child, must be realized, since it coincides with the rhythm of the child's needs in applying to the breast. It is usually possible to detect this need when the baby sleeps more than 1.5 hours. Her mother is full of breasts and she wants to attach a child to her. When this desire arises, there are no obstacles to offer a sleeping baby a breast. Usually the baby reacts to the mother's request: she brings it to her breast and starts irritating the nipple with the nipple of the baby, in response to this call, he starts to open his mouth and catch the nipple. Every mother should know that breastfeeding and sleeping a child are processes that do not interfere with each other and can be realized in parallel. Moreover, babies prefer to sleep under the mother's breast, sucking it peacefully. Feeding at the request of the mother is especially important for weakened children (sick, small, premature). Guided by its internal rhythm, the mother must herself offer the baby a breast with a frequency of once every 1-2 hours. It should be disturbed if the child has not been applied to the breast for a long time. This is especially important for babies in the first 3 months of life. Feeding and hunger In the presentation of a newborn baby, feeding is not associated with a feeling of hunger. The feeling of hunger in the form in which it is experienced by adults, is formed in the child only to 6 months of life. Newborn instead of hunger experiences discomfort, which removes sucking. This is an intrauterine habit. Long before birth, driven by the need to train a sucking reflex, the fruit sucks its hands, the umbilical cord and anything that swims past his mouth. Having appeared in the world, he continues to remove discomfort by sucking. Nature and expected that after the birth of an infant will experience discomfort for any reason and remove it by sucking his chest. When suckling a baby, the baby receives an additional portion of endorphins - happiness hormones-joy and peace of mind. Therefore only at a breast he can calm down, and at the same time and will be sated. This is the only way to feed a creature that does not feel hunger. Thus, sucking on demand is sucking in order to achieve psycho-emotional comfort and satiety. It is because the child does not feel hungry, he can oversleep feeding. In this case, it is saving the feeding at the request of the mother, who feels the need to feed her child and will not allow him to make too many pauses between applying to the breast.
Feeding at the request of the mother is especially important up to 8-9 months of the baby's life, until he has a feeling of hunger, and he will not learn how to regulate the need for feeding independently. Duration of feeding When the child is saturated, he feels comfort, stops sucking and releases the breast. There is no need to interrupt feeding after a certain period of time and take away the baby's chest. Different children remain at the chest different in duration. Most of them are saturated in 20-40 minutes, and some babies can suck for 1 hour or more. The duration of sucking is related to the fact that milk is distributed in the breast in such a way that at the beginning of feeding the baby receives early milk, rich in water, minerals and carbohydrates, i.e. drinks, and only after 3-7 minutes of sucking it comes to late milk, rich in fats and proteins and begins to actually eat. When the baby reaches the late fat milk, he begins to fall asleep, as fatty milk causes drowsiness, and passes into the stage of sluggish sucking. It is at this point that the mother can decide that the baby is full and falls asleep and takes it from the chest. Therefore, often mothers, not knowing about this feature, just sing their children and do not allow them to eat, taking them too early. Especially valuable are the moments when a child sleeps at the chest and slowly sucks it - at this time it is fully saturated. The mother should be concerned if the baby under 2 months of age sucks only 5-10 minutes and does not want to sleep under the breast. Duration of feeding significantly depends on the age of the child. The smaller the child, the more often and sharper he experiences discomfort, and the longer and more often he is at the breast. As he grows up, the baby begins to experience discomfort less often and less acutely. In addition, it becomes strong enough and agile to quickly cope with a fairly large amount of milk. Therefore, from 2-3 months, children have short-term attachments to their breasts, which are needed to achieve psycho-emotional comfort, and persistent sucking for saturation, which are grouped around dreams, persist. Feeding from both breasts Do not shift the baby to the second breast before he sucks the first. Since the milk in the maternal breast is not uniform and is divided into earlier milk, which the baby receives at the beginning of the feeding, and later the milk that the baby receives at the end of the feeding, one should not rush to offer the baby a second breast. If the mother hurries to give the baby a second breast, then he will not get the late milk, rich in fats. As a result, he may have problems with digestion: lactase insufficiency, foamy stool, etc. When feeding on demand, it should be ensured that each breast is offered to the baby for 1-2 hours and only then changed to another. Applying to one breast for 1-2 hours will allow the baby to receive later milk and provide a full work of the intestine. In the first months of feeding, the mother alternates between 1 and 2 hours. Feeding from both breasts may be required to the child only after 5 months. Night feeding and joint sleep Night feeding is necessary to preserve full-fledged long lactation. Breastfeeding between 3 and 8 o'clock in the morning stimulates the production of milk in sufficient quantities for subsequent daily feedings. During this period, no less than 2-3 feedings should be organized. For better development, the child must necessarily receive both day and night milk. Joint sleep of mother and child facilitates night feeding and allows mother to have a better rest. The child who sleeps next to you does not need to get up, and his sleep is much calmer and longer. Therefore, the mother's dream becomes more complete in depth and duration. The view that the mother can pile on and "sleep" the baby is unreasonable. A woman can damage a newborn only if she is intoxicated or has taken sleeping pills. The risk of "sudden death" is much higher among children who sleep separately from their mother. In addition, night feeding up to 6 months protects the woman from the next pregnancy in 96% of cases. If a woman experiences anxiety for the life and health of her child, when he sleeps apart from her - then she is a real mother. Whether to put the child after feeding a column? If the child during the feeding took up air, there is no need to give him a vertical position, so that he airs up this air. The child should from the very beginning learn to cope with this problem independently, being released from excess air during the process of changing poses. If the baby falls asleep under the breast, then it can be safely left to sleep in the same position. When he wakes up and his mother takes him in his arms, he starts moving with him, changing the position of his body, he will be able to regurgitate the air that is interfering with him. The wise nature counted on this mechanism. Maternity is a very comfortable process, in which there is nothing special. Eliminating breastfeeding The breast milk is a balanced food and drink for babies. It fully meets all the vital needs of the child. With properly organized breastfeeding, including proper application, frequent and prolonged feeding of the child, joint sleep and night feeding - the baby does not need additional nutrition until 6 months of life. Breastfeeding, which is properly organized exclusively for breastfeeding, does not need supplementary feeding for up to 6 months of life. And from the age of 6 months, he should begin to introduce complementary foods. Eliminating dopaivaniya child To maintain full-fledged breastfeeding and the health of the child, the mother should completely abandon the dopaivaniya baby not only water, but also different teas, dill water, etc. Earlier pediatricians advised to milk the child with water, because they considered breast milk to be an exceptionally food and were afraid of dehydration of the body. These fears are groundless. In breast milk contains 87-90% of water, therefore, with full frequent breastfeeding, the baby's need for a liquid is fully provided. Many studies have shown that even in a hot climate, mother's milk completely satisfies all the baby's needs for fluids. In addition, the centers of thirst and satiety in the brain in a newborn virtually coincide and are satisfied simultaneously. When dopaivanii water we deceive the baby, creating a false sense of satiety. This leads to sluggish sucking and a decrease in the need for breast milk. When dopaivanii baby mother reduces the amount of milk, and breastfeeding can end by 3-6 months. The danger of bottle feeding and the use of pacifiers Children in different ways suck breast and bottle or pacifier "dummy". A child who was fed from a bottle or given a pacifier would be wrong to take a mother's breast, so after a bottle feeding and using a pacifier, a mother may have problems. Многочисленные примеры доказывают, что порой даже одного кормления из бутылочки достаточно, чтобы ребенок отказался от груди, и возникла масса осложнений с дальнейшим грудным вскармливанием. Применение пустышки приводит к тому, что ребенок начинает неправильно захватывать грудь, что провоцирует травмы соска. Кроме этого, известно, что даже кратковременное применение пустышки может привести к недостаточному набору веса у ребенка и сокращению лактации у матери. Если женщина действительно хочет выкормить ребенка грудью, то среди предметов ухода за малышом не должно быть ни бутылочки с соской, ни пустышки. Мытье груди При мытье груди, особенно с мылом, с кожи соска и околососкового пространства удаляется защитный слой специальной смазки, которая их смягчает и содержит защитные факторы, предотвращающие проникновение в кожу груди болезнетворных микробов. Частое мытье сосков с мылом сушит кожу и приводит к образованию ссадин, трещин и мастита. Поэтому не следует мыть грудь перед каждым кормлением. Достаточно мыть грудь простой водой без мыла ежедневно или один раз в 3-7 дней при приеме обычного гигиенического душа или ванны. Сцеживание Если мать кормит ребенка по требованию, то нет необходимости в сцеживании молока после каждого кормления. При нормальной лактации сцеживание препятствует естественному вскармливанию, поскольку оно отнимает время, которое лучше посвятить ребенку или домашним делам, и доставляет неудобства. Сцеживание бывает необходимо при проблемах - при нагрубании груди, лечении лактостаза или мастита, при лечении трещин сосков, при недостатке молока для увеличения его выработки, в случае вынужденного разлучения матери и ребенка, чтобы сохранить молоко и т.д. Необходимость в сцеживании определяет консультант по грудному вскармливанию. Регулярное дополнительное сцеживание может привести к сокращению количества молока и прекращению лактации или, напротив, к гиперлактации и высокому риску возникновения лактостазов и маститов. Как проверить, что ребенку хватает молока? Чтобы убедиться в том, что ребенку хватает грудного молока, нужно регулярно проводить тест на "мокрые пеленки" и взвешивать малыша раз в 1-2 месяца, а если что-то беспокоит, то раз в неделю. Здоровый ребенок при достаточном питании каждую неделю прибавляет в весе от 120 до 500 грамм. Частые контрольные взвешивания, производимые ежедневно или даже несколько раз в день, не дают объективной информации о полноценности питания младенца. Более того, контрольные взвешивания нервируют мать и ребенка, в результате чего младенец хуже прибавляет в весе, а у матери снижается лактация. Гораздо более информативным является тест на "мокрые пеленки", который заключается в подсчете числа мочеиспусканий в течение суток. При полноценном питании за сутки малыш может производить от 10 до 20 мокрых пеленок. Подсчет мочеиспусканий необходимо проводить именно за полные сутки, например, с 11.00 до 11.00 утра, потому что их частота в течение суток меняется. Более частыми они бывают утром и более редкими становятся во второй половине дня. При наличии 6-8 мочеиспусканий можно говорить, что у ребенка нет обезвоживания, но его питание можно и улучшить. Сочетание теста на "мокрые пеленки", проводимого 2-3 раза в неделю и еженедельных взвешиваний помогут убедиться в полноценности питания младенца.
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Основные правила грудного вскармливания
- Основные правила успешного грудного вскармливания.
Meets WHO / UNICEF recommendations. Every woman should know that her milk is the most nutritious food for her baby in the first 6 months of life, and for individual observations and for the first year of life. Therefore, she should strive to fulfill the rules of successful breastfeeding in order to provide her baby with health and the best conditions for the growth and development of his body.
- Breastfeeding: the beginning, duration and practice of exclusive breastfeeding
Due to the lack of comprehensive and comparable data and unified international definitions, it is difficult to make any general statements about the prevalence of breastfeeding in the WHO European Region. Data on the percentage of children who are breastfeeding, shown in Fig. 8, are taken from various sources (27). These data should be approached with caution: survey techniques
- The mother group of breastfeeding support in Samara. Breastfeeding the most important issues, 2014
- THE SCIENCE OF FEELING: WHY IS BREASTFEEDING?
We often wonder why some mothers do not breast-feed. From our point of view, breastfeeding is a natural continuation of the relationship that began in the womb. Perhaps some women are convinced that breastfeeding does not really matter. Having studied the first chapter, you will understand the benefits of breastfeeding for both the mother and the baby. We believe that if you appreciate
- When do children need more than one breast milk and how long should the baby be breastfeeding?
Feed the baby exclusively with breast milk up to 6 months of age. Approximately at the age of 6 months, all children, along with breast milk, need additional food, but ideally continue to breast-feed for up to a year and
- Support of breastfeeding
POLICY FOR SUPPORTING BREASTFEEDING In 1989, the World Health Organization and the United Nations Children's Fund issued a joint statement on the role of services to help mothers protect, promote and support breastfeeding. This statement brings the most up-to-date scientific knowledge and practical experience on the organization of the EB in the form of precise, universally acceptable recommendations
During the first 6 months of life, babies should be exclusively breastfed. This means that a practically healthy child should receive breast milk and no other food or liquid, such as water, tea, juice, cereal decoction, animal milk or infant formula. Infants exclusively breastfed or infants in
- BREASTFEEDING AND ITS ALTERNATIVES
All children should be exclusively breastfed from birth to about 6 months of age, but in any case during the first 4 months of life. It is preferable to continue breastfeeding after the first year of life, and in groups with a high prevalence of infections, the child can benefit from continued breastfeeding throughout the second
- Alternatives to breastfeeding
Breastfeeding is usually the best way to feed infants. Nevertheless, there are situations when it may be preferable or it is necessary to replace breast milk with an alternative. In addition to the contraindications briefly described above, there are circumstances where, despite all efforts to continue breastfeeding, the mother can not maintain lactation on
- HEALTHY BREASTFEEDING
The food you eat affects your milk. Breastfeeding can be a stimulus that will help improve eating habits or continue a healthy diet that you started during pregnancy. In this section you will get information about nutrition and nutrition-related questions. We want you to become healthier and more lean after you have finished breastfeeding. Many mothers say,
- Exclusive or partial breastfeeding
Exclusive breastfeeding means that the child does not receive any other food, except breast milk, does not even take a pacifier. If a child is given vitamins or ritual food in small quantities, either water or juice, this is almost exclusive breastfeeding. Partial breastfeeding means that the child is partially on the breast, partly on the artificial
- Breastfeeding counselor
Consultants for breastfeeding have always existed. Simply their functions were performed by mothers, older sisters or midwives - midwives, who took delivery from poor women, and from aristocrats. The skill of the midwives was passed from generation to generation, was kept secret and included not only the skills of taking birth, but also elements of modern osteopathy, knowledge of medicinal herbs and,
- Practical aspects of breastfeeding
How to start breastfeeding Immediately after birth, a healthy baby instinctively looks for food. In the first few hours of life outside the mother's womb, the baby is alive, active and ready to feed, so ideally breastfeeding should begin within the first hour. To facilitate this process, it is necessary to keep the skin contact of the child with the mother directly from birth to
- BREASTFEEDING IN THE CONTEMPORARY WORLD
Work and breastfeed? We'll show you how. Do you want to combine breastfeeding and bottle feeding? No problems! In 1998, the highest rates of breastfeeding were recorded, as its benefits became known, and more and more mothers are able to breastfeed their child, despite the challenges of life in the 21st century. In this section, you will learn how to
- Противопоказания к грудному вскармливанию
Абсолютных противопоказаний к грудному вскармливанию мало, хотя в прошлом таких противопоказаний приводилось множество. В литературе, опубликованной в бывшем Советском Союзе, к ним относились почечная недостаточность, сердечная недостаточность, рак, психиатрические заболевания, тиреотоксикоз, острая вирусная и бактериальная инфекция, высокая температура неизвестного происхождения и гемолитическая
- The Role of the Father in Breastfeeding
Maybe it's not obvious, but the fathers' role in the mother's feeding was successful, extremely important. It's sad, but most fathers go to all antenatal classes, except for breastfeeding. Many fathers feel outside a close mug breast-feeding. They observe how mothers build close symbiotic relationships with the newborn, and want to know if there is any here
From the first day after birth, the basis of a healthy diet for children is breastmilk, and the main principle of healthy nutrition should be exclusively breastfed
- Значимость грудного вскармливания
Грудное вскармливание глубоко заложено в человеческом сознании как естественно-фундаментальный феномен жизни, как практически равное самому рождению чудо. Оно также отражено в истории и искусстве и запечатлено в них наряду с вечными темами Любви, Жизни, Рождения и Смерти. Подлинным гимном материнству является воссоздание на полотнах величайших художников мира образа мадонны с младенцем и нередко