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Basic rules for breastfeeding
Breastfeeding opportunity Everybody can breastfeed! Breastfeeding in the presence of a live and healthy infant is impossible only when there is no mother or she has both mammary glands removed. Biological mother can feed twins, and even triplets, without using additional feeding for up to 5 months. Even twins and triplets can grow exclusively breastfed up to 4-5 months. A foster mother can breastfeed a baby, even if she had not had her own children before. The true lack of milk, which today is so scared of modern mothers, is found only in 3% of women. The remaining 97% can breastfeed, although they often do not know about it. Quite often, women complain that they lose milk from domestic problems, insecurity, stress or nervous tension. It turns out that there is no such reason. Studies have convincingly proved that if a woman WANTS TO FEED, she will do it anyway. So, in the “absence” of milk, women themselves are usually to blame for not breastfeeding their children or fulfilling illiterate recommendations. If a young mother is introduced to the basic rules and is taught breast-feeding techniques, she successfully breast-feeds the baby for as long as desired and safely stops lactation during physiological periods. For breastfeeding to be successful, it is necessary: · the desire of the woman to breastfeed; · Training in the technique and practice of breastfeeding; · The implementation of the basic rules of breastfeeding; · Timely solution of breastfeeding problems with the help of lactation consultants; · Support for family members and experienced mothers who have a positive experience of prolonged breastfeeding for more than 1 year. Proper attachment to the breast If the child correctly captures and sucks the mother's breast, then it can suck indefinitely, without causing mom any trouble. Proper attachment to the breast protects the woman from cracks and nipple abrasions, lactostasis (blockage of the milk duct), mastitis, etc. Therefore, it is very important to learn how to properly attach the baby to the breast and follow this during the entire period of breastfeeding. As a rule, training for proper application occurs during the first month of life. However, the main period when the child needs reminders and prompts from the mother is the period from birth to 8 months. If the baby captured the breast incorrectly or changed the position during feeding, it is necessary to take away the breast and offer it to capture it again. Do not be afraid to correct the child and offer him to take the breast only in the correct position - he is waiting for the mother’s clues and is ready to learn. These expectations and readiness are inherent in his nature, because without them he cannot survive. If the child has been trained to take the breast incorrectly, then he and the mother will be forced to relearn. With confident actions of the mother, retraining occurs within 4 to 10 days. Even if the baby sulks and cries, not wanting to take the breast correctly, this is not a reason to leave retraining. In the process of sucking in the correct position, the child receives the amount of endorphins necessary to compensate for the stress. These hormones of happiness and joy are produced by him in the process of sucking, and, in addition, he gets them from mother's milk. Thus, mother's milk and the very process of sucking in the correct position are a means for the child to achieve psychoemotional comfort. That is why the stress that he will survive, relearn, is incomparably less compared to the constant stress that he receives as a result of everyday improper sucking. Sucking in the wrong position leads to chronic stress and adversely affects the formation of the child's nervous system. In addition, it can adversely affect the correctness of the formation of the maxillofacial apparatus and teeth. When properly attached: · feeding the child does not cause pain, the pain can occur only at the time the baby seizes the breast; · There are no nipple injuries, mastitis and other problems; · The baby sucks enough milk; · Duration of feeding does not matter. If applied improperly: · when feeding a child, painful sensations occur; · Nipple damage, mastitis, lactostasis and other problems occur; · There is a need to limit the time of feeding; · The baby sucks little milk and does not eat enough. Convenient posture when feeding It is very important that when feeding the mother takes a comfortable posture herself and gives a comfortable position to the child. Convenient posture when feeding provides a good outflow of milk from the breast and is the prevention of lactostasis. Mandatory for showing and learning posture lying and sitting from under his arm. Feeding in the basic position while sitting and sitting on the leg is more difficult to perform. Therefore, it is advisable to learn these two poses after mastering for 3-7 days the correct application in the “under the arm” and “lying” poses. Feeding on demand Breastfeeding is a reciprocal process, therefore, speaking about feeding on demand, they imply requirements not only from the side of the child, but also from the side of the mother. Feeding at the request of the child. Basically, the frequency of feeding is regulated by the child. Any anxiety, crying, or searching behavior when the baby turns its head and catches nearby objects with its mouth is an expression of the requirement to attach itself to the chest. The babe of the first months of life should be applied to the chest for any reason, giving him the opportunity to suck on his breast whenever he wants and how much he wants. This is necessary not only for the satiation of the child, but also for his psychoemotional comfort. For psychological comfort, the baby can be applied to the breast up to 4 times per hour. In total, the baby's first months of life during the day is 12-20 feedings. Do not be afraid that with frequent stitching the baby will move. The gastrointestinal tract of the child is not adapted for feeding by the hour, but for continuous feeding! The intestines of the infant are adapted for the assimilation of breast milk in unlimited quantities. At the beginning of a child’s life, the activity of his own enzymes is low, but the constant supply of active substances of breast milk stimulates the activity of the child’s enzymes. In addition, breast milk contains enzymes that help your own absorption. Thus, breast milk is a unique food that helps itself absorb. That is why it is absorbed much better than any super-mixture. The rhythm of feeding. The requirements of the infant are not chaotic, but are distributed throughout the day in a certain rhythm. In the baby of the first 2 months of life, the approximate interval between the requirements in the daytime is 1 - 1.5 hours. Basically, sucking accompanies the infant's sleep — the stages of falling asleep and awakening. If there are reasons for discomfort, the frequency of the child’s demands increases, and he begins to suck more often and longer. As soon as the discomfort is overcome, the baby returns to the previous frequency characteristic of his age. Very often and for a long time, children who have experienced childbirth and have an increased anxiety status suck. As soon as stress is compensated, the frequency of nursing decreases to normal. Starting at 2 months, chest attachments become more rare. The interval between them increases to 1.5 - 2 hours, but feeding still surrounds the child’s dreams. Night rhythm of attachment does not change. By 4-6 months, breastfeeding becomes even rarer, but, nevertheless, their number does not fall below 12 feedings per day, and they are still associated with sleep. This is the optimal number of attachments of the baby to the breast to ensure normal lactation in the mother .. Feeding at the request of the mother. During the breastfeeding period, the mother and the child are a symbiosis, which implies the satisfaction of the desires of both parties. The mother may also need to attach the baby to the breast approximately every 1.5 - 2 hours. This need, as well as the need of the child, must be realized, since it coincides with the rhythm of the child’s needs for breast attachment. It is usually possible to detect this need when the baby sleeps for more than 1.5 hours. The mother's chest is full and she wants to attach a baby to her. When this desire arises, there are no obstacles to offer a sleeping breast to the infant. Usually, the baby responds to the mother's request: she puts it to her breast and begins to irritate the baby’s lower sponge with a nipple, in response to this call, she begins to open her mouth and catch the nipple. Every mother should be aware that breastfeeding and sleeping a baby are processes that do not interfere with each other and can be implemented in parallel. Moreover, babies prefer to sleep under the mother's breast, sucking it peacefully. Feeding at the request of the mother is especially important for weak children (sick, low-weight, premature). Guided by her internal rhythm, the mother should offer the baby herself a breast at a frequency of once every 1-2 hours. She should be bothered if the child has not been attached to the breast for a long time. This is especially important for babies of the first 3 months of life. Feeding and the feeling of hunger In the views of a newborn baby, feeding is not related to the feeling of hunger. The feeling of hunger in the form in which adults experience it, is formed in a child only by 6 months of life. Newborn instead of hunger, experiencing discomfort, which relieves sucking. This is an intrauterine habit. Long before birth, driven by the need to train the sucking reflex, the fetus sucks its handles, the umbilical loops and everything that floats past its mouth. Having come into the world, he continues to relieve discomfort by sucking. Nature and expected that after birth, the baby will experience discomfort for any reason and remove it by sucking the breast. When breast sucking, the baby receives an additional portion of endorphins - the hormones of happiness, joy and peace of mind. Therefore, only at the chest it can calm down, and at the same time it can be full. This is the only way to feed a creature that does not feel hungry. Thus, sucking on demand is sucking to achieve psycho-emotional comfort and satiety. Precisely because the child does not feel the feeling of hunger, he can oversleep feeding. In this case, it is life-saving feeding at the request of the mother, who feels the need to feed her baby and will not allow him to make too long pauses between breastfeeding.
Feeding at the request of the mother is especially important up to 8-9 months of the infant's life, until he has a feeling of hunger, and he does not learn how to independently regulate the need for feeding. Duration of feeding When the baby is saturated, he feels comfortable, stops sucking and releases the breast himself. There is no need to interrupt feeding after a certain period of time and take away the breast from the child. Different children remain at the breast for a different time duration. Most of them are saturated in 20-40 minutes, and some babies can suck 1 hour or more. The duration of sucking is related to the fact that milk is distributed in the breast in such a way that at the beginning of feeding the child receives early milk rich in water, minerals and carbohydrates, i.e. drinks, and only after 3-7 minutes of sucking does he reach the late milk, which is rich in fats and proteins, and begins to actually eat. When the baby reaches late fat milk, he begins to fall asleep, because fat milk causes drowsiness and enters the stage of sluggish sucking. It is at this moment that the mother may decide that the baby is full and has fallen asleep and takes it away from the breast. Therefore, often mothers, not knowing about this feature, only water their children and do not allow them to eat, taking away from the breast too soon. Especially valuable are the moments when a child sleeps at the breast and sucks it slowly - it is at this time that he is fully saturated. The mother should be concerned if the baby under 2 months sucks only 5-10 minutes and does not want to sleep under the breast. Duration of feeding significantly depends on the age of the child. The smaller the child, the more often and more acutely he feels discomfort, and the longer and more often he is at the breast. As he grows up, the baby begins to experience discomfort less and less acutely. In addition, it becomes strong and dexterous enough to quickly cope with a fairly large amount of milk. Therefore, from 2-3 months in children, short-term attachments to the chest appear, which are needed to achieve psychoemotional comfort, and prolonged suckings for saturation remain, which are grouped around dreams. Feeding from both breasts It is not necessary to shift the child to the second breast before he sucks the first one. Since the milk in the maternal breast is heterogeneous and is divided into the earlier milk that the baby receives at the beginning of feeding, and later the milk that the baby receives at the end of feeding, you should not rush to offer the child a second breast. If the mother hurries to give the baby a second breast, then he will not receive the late milk rich in fats. As a result, he may have problems with digestion: lactase deficiency, frothy stools, etc. When feeding on demand, you should ensure that each mammary gland was offered to the child for 1-2 hours and only then changed to another. Applying to one breast for 1-2 hours will allow the baby to receive milk later and ensure the full functioning of the intestines. In the first months of feeding, the mother alternates the breast in 1-2 hours. Feeding from both breasts may be necessary for a baby only after 5 months. Night feeding and joint sleep Night feeding is necessary to maintain a full-fledged long-term lactation. Sucking the breast between 3 and 8 o'clock in the morning stimulates the production of milk in sufficient quantities for subsequent daily feedings. During this period at least 2-3 feedings should be organized. For better development, the child must necessarily receive both day and night milk. The joint dream of mother and child makes night feeding easier and allows mom to rest better. To a child who sleeps beside one does not need to get up, and his sleep is much calmer and longer. Therefore, the mother's sleep becomes more complete in depth and duration. The opinion that the mother can lean on and “let her down” the baby is unreasonable. A woman can harm a newborn only if she is intoxicated or has taken a sleeping pill. The risk of "sudden death" is much higher among children who sleep separately from their mother. In addition, night feedings for up to 6 months protect women from the next pregnancy in 96% of cases. If a woman is concerned about the life and health of her child, when he sleeps separately from her, it means that she is a real mother. Should I put the baby after feeding the bar? If the child has picked up air during feeding, there is no need to give him a vertical position so that he will belch this air. From the very beginning, the child must learn to cope with this problem on his own, getting rid of excess air in the process of changing poses. If the baby fell asleep under the breast, then it can be safely left to sleep in the same position. When he wakes up and his mother takes him in her arms, starts moving with him, changing the position of his body, he will have the opportunity to burp the air that prevents him. It is precisely this mechanism that the wise nature counted on. Maternity is a very comfortable process, in which there is nothing special. Elimination of infant feeding Breast milk is a balanced food and drink for babies. It completely satisfies all vital needs of the child. With properly organized breastfeeding, including the correct attachment, frequent and prolonged feeding of the child, joint sleep and night feeding - the baby does not need additional nutrition for up to 6 months of life. An infant, who is properly organized exclusively breastfed, does not need additional feeding up to 6 months of life. And from 6 months he should begin to introduce complementary foods. The elimination of child feeding In order to maintain proper breastfeeding and child health, mothers should completely abandon child feeding not only with water, but also with various teas, dill water, etc. Previously, pediatricians advised to feed the child with water, because they considered breast milk only food and were afraid of dehydration. These fears are groundless. Breast milk contains 87-90% of water, therefore, with full-fledged frequent breastfeeding, the baby’s need for fluid is fully met. Many studies have shown that even in a hot climate, mother's milk fully satisfies all the needs of the child for fluids. In addition, the centers of thirst and satiety in the brain of a newborn practically coincide and are satisfied simultaneously. When we add water, we cheat the baby, creating a false sense of satiety. This leads to sluggish sucking and reducing the need for breast milk. When feeding the baby, the mother reduces the amount of milk, and breastfeeding can end by 3-6 months. The dangers of bottle feeding and the use of pacifiers. Children suck their breasts and bottle or pacifier differently. A baby fed from a bottle or given a pacifier will not take the mother's breast correctly, so problems may arise after the bottle feeding and the use of the pacifier. Numerous examples prove that sometimes even one bottle feeding is enough for a child to refuse a breast, and a lot of complications arise with further breastfeeding. The use of a pacifier leads to the fact that the child begins to incorrectly seize the breast, which causes injuries to the nipple. Кроме этого, известно, что даже кратковременное применение пустышки может привести к недостаточному набору веса у ребенка и сокращению лактации у матери. Если женщина действительно хочет выкормить ребенка грудью, то среди предметов ухода за малышом не должно быть ни бутылочки с соской, ни пустышки. Мытье груди При мытье груди, особенно с мылом, с кожи соска и околососкового пространства удаляется защитный слой специальной смазки, которая их смягчает и содержит защитные факторы, предотвращающие проникновение в кожу груди болезнетворных микробов. Частое мытье сосков с мылом сушит кожу и приводит к образованию ссадин, трещин и мастита. Поэтому не следует мыть грудь перед каждым кормлением. Достаточно мыть грудь простой водой без мыла ежедневно или один раз в 3-7 дней при приеме обычного гигиенического душа или ванны. Сцеживание Если мать кормит ребенка по требованию, то нет необходимости в сцеживании молока после каждого кормления. При нормальной лактации сцеживание препятствует естественному вскармливанию, поскольку оно отнимает время, которое лучше посвятить ребенку или домашним делам, и доставляет неудобства. Сцеживание бывает необходимо при проблемах - при нагрубании груди, лечении лактостаза или мастита, при лечении трещин сосков, при недостатке молока для увеличения его выработки, в случае вынужденного разлучения матери и ребенка, чтобы сохранить молоко и т.д. Необходимость в сцеживании определяет консультант по грудному вскармливанию. Регулярное дополнительное сцеживание может привести к сокращению количества молока и прекращению лактации или, напротив, к гиперлактации и высокому риску возникновения лактостазов и маститов. Как проверить, что ребенку хватает молока? Чтобы убедиться в том, что ребенку хватает грудного молока, нужно регулярно проводить тест на "мокрые пеленки" и взвешивать малыша раз в 1-2 месяца, а если что-то беспокоит, то раз в неделю. Здоровый ребенок при достаточном питании каждую неделю прибавляет в весе от 120 до 500 грамм. Частые контрольные взвешивания, производимые ежедневно или даже несколько раз в день, не дают объективной информации о полноценности питания младенца. Более того, контрольные взвешивания нервируют мать и ребенка, в результате чего младенец хуже прибавляет в весе, а у матери снижается лактация. Гораздо более информативным является тест на "мокрые пеленки", который заключается в подсчете числа мочеиспусканий в течение суток. При полноценном питании за сутки малыш может производить от 10 до 20 мокрых пеленок. Подсчет мочеиспусканий необходимо проводить именно за полные сутки, например, с 11.00 до 11.00 утра, потому что их частота в течение суток меняется. Более частыми они бывают утром и более редкими становятся во второй половине дня. При наличии 6-8 мочеиспусканий можно говорить, что у ребенка нет обезвоживания, но его питание можно и улучшить. Сочетание теста на "мокрые пеленки", проводимого 2-3 раза в неделю и еженедельных взвешиваний помогут убедиться в полноценности питания младенца.
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Основные правила грудного вскармливания
- The basic rules for successful breastfeeding.
WHO / UNICEF recommendations are met. Every woman should know that her milk is the most complete food for her child in the first 6 months of life, and according to separate observations, during the first year of life. Therefore, she should strive to follow the rules of successful breastfeeding in order to ensure the health and best conditions for her baby to grow and develop his body.
- Breastfeeding: the onset, duration, and practice of exclusive breastfeeding
Due to the lack of comprehensive and comparable data and unified international definitions, it is difficult to make any general statements about the prevalence of breastfeeding in the WHO European Region. Data on the percentage of children who are breastfed are shown in Fig. 8, taken from various sources (27). These data must be approached carefully: survey methods
- Maternal breastfeeding support group in Samara. Breastfeeding the most important issues, 2014
- FEEDING SCIENCE: WHY BREASTFEEDING?
We often wonder why some mothers do not breastfeed. From our point of view, breastfeeding is a natural extension of the relationship that began in the womb. Maybe some women are convinced that breastfeeding does not really matter. Having studied Chapter 1, you will understand the benefits of breastfeeding for both the mother and the baby. We believe that if you rate
- When do babies need more than one breast milk and how long should the baby be breastfed?
Feed your baby exclusively with breast milk up to 6 months of age. At about 6 months of age, all babies, along with breast milk, need extra food, but ideally continue to breastfeed for up to a year and
- Breastfeeding support
POLICIES AIMED AT SUPPORTING BREASTFEEDING In 1989, the World Health Organization and the United Nations Children's Fund issued a joint statement on the role of mother services in protecting, promoting and supporting breastfeeding. This statement provides the most up-to-date scientific knowledge and practical experience in organizing the EB in the form of accurate, universally acceptable recommendations.
During the first 6 months of life, babies should be exclusively breastfed. This means that a practically healthy child should receive breast milk and no other food or liquid, such as water, tea, juice, cereal decoction, animal milk or infant formula. Exclusively breastfed babies or babies in
- BREASTFEEDING AND HIS ALTERNATIVES
All babies should be exclusively breastfed from birth to approximately 6 months of age, but in any case during the first 4 months of life. It is preferable to continue breastfeeding after the first year of life, and in populations with a high prevalence of infections, the continuation of breastfeeding for the whole second
- Breastfeeding Alternatives
Usually breastfeeding is the best way to feed infants. Nevertheless, there are situations when it may be preferable or it is necessary to replace breast milk with any alternative. In addition to the contraindications briefly described above, circumstances arise where, despite all efforts to continue breastfeeding, the mother cannot maintain lactation for
- HEALTHY BREASTFEEDING
The food you eat affects your milk. Breastfeeding can be an incentive that will help improve eating habits or continue the healthy diet that you started during pregnancy. In this section, you will receive information about nutrition and nutrition-related issues. We want you to be healthier and thinner after you’re finished breastfeeding. Many mothers say
- Exclusive or partial breastfeeding
Exceptional breastfeeding means that the baby does not receive any other nutrition than breast milk, does not even take a pacifier. If a child is given vitamins or ritual food in small quantities, either water or juice, this is almost exclusive breastfeeding. Partial breastfeeding means that the baby is partially on the breast, and partially on the artificial
- Консультант по грудному вскармливанию
Breastfeeding counselors have always existed. It was just that their functions were performed by mothers, older sisters, or midwives — midwives who took birth in poor women and aristocratic women. The skill of the midwives was handed down from generation to generation, was kept secret and included not only the skills of giving birth, but also elements of modern osteopathy, knowledge of medicinal herbs and,
- Практические аспекты грудного вскармливания
How to start breastfeeding Immediately after birth, a healthy baby instinctively searches for food. В первые несколько часов жизни вне чрева матери ребенок оживлен, активен и готов к кормлению, поэтому в идеале грудное вскармливание следует начинать в течение первого часа. To facilitate this process, it is necessary to maintain the skin contact of the child with the mother directly from the moment of birth until
- ГРУДНОЕ ВСКАРМЛИВАНИЕ В СОВРЕМЕННОМ МИРЕ
Работать и кормить грудью? Мы покажем вам как. Хотите совместить грудное вскармливание и кормление из бутылочки? No problems! В 1998 году зафиксированы наивысшие показатели уровня грудного вскармливания, поскольку стали известны его преимущества, и все больше и больше матерей находят возможность кормить грудью свое дитя, несмотря на сложности жизни в XXI веке. В этом разделе вы узнаете, как
- Противопоказания к грудному вскармливанию
Абсолютных противопоказаний к грудному вскармливанию мало, хотя в прошлом таких противопоказаний приводилось множество. В литературе, опубликованной в бывшем Советском Союзе, к ним относились почечная недостаточность, сердечная недостаточность, рак, психиатрические заболевания, тиреотоксикоз, острая вирусная и бактериальная инфекция, высокая температура неизвестного происхождения и гемолитическая
- РОЛЬ ОТЦА В ГРУДНОМ ВСКАРМЛИВАНИИ
Может быть, это не очевидно, но роль отцов в том, чтобы кормление матери было успешным, крайне важная. Печально, но большинство отцов ходят на все дородовые занятия, кроме занятий по грудному вскармливанию. Многие отцы чувствуют себя вне тесного кружка кормящих грудью. Они наблюдают, как матери строят близкие симбиотические взаимоотношения с новорожденным, и хотят знать, есть ли здесь какоенибудь
С первого дня после рождения основой здорового питания детей является грудное материнское молоко, а основным принципом здорового питания должно быть исключительно грудное
- Значимость грудного вскармливания
Breastfeeding is deeply embedded in the human consciousness as a natural-fundamental phenomenon of life, as a miracle almost equal to the birth itself. Оно также отражено в истории и искусстве и запечатлено в них наряду с вечными темами Любви, Жизни, Рождения и Смерти. Подлинным гимном материнству является воссоздание на полотнах величайших художников мира образа мадонны с младенцем и нередко