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The liver of the newborn is the largest organ, occupying 1/3 of the volume of the abdominal cavity. At 11 months, its mass doubles, by 2-3 years it triplets, by 8 years it increases 5 times, by 16-17 years, the mass of the liver - 10 times. The liver performs the following functions: 1) produces bile involved in intestinal digestion; 2) stimulates intestinal motility due to the action of bile; 3) deposits nutrients; 4) carries out a barrier function; 5) is involved in the metabolism, including - in the conversion of vitamins A, D, C, B12, K; 6) in the prenatal period is a blood-forming organ. After birth, further formation of lobules of the liver occurs. The functional capabilities of the liver in young children are low: in newborns, the metabolism of indirect bilirubin is not completely carried out.
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- Diseases of the liver and biliary system. Hepatitis. Cirrhosis of the liver. Liver cancer. Cholelithiasis.
1. A 40-year-old woman complains of weakness, jaundice. A history of 2 months. before the disease - blood transfusion. An examination revealed an increase in the liver, an increase in the level of hepatic transaminases. Conclusion 1. liver steatosis 3. obstructive jaundice 2. Botkin’s disease 4. acute viral hepatitis 2. Viral hepatitis C is characterized by 1. high frequency of chronicity 2. parenteral transmission 3.
- Weakness of the liver, blockages in it and everything related to pain in the liver
Weakness of the liver Galen says: “The liver is a person whose liver acts weak in the absence of an external cause - a tumor or abscess.” In fact, liver weakness accompanies liver disease and [comes] either from a disorder of simple nature without matter, or from a [disorder] with matter. The source of the [disorder] is either the liver itself or others
- Hepatic cirrhosis (“shrinking” of the liver)
Causes Inflammation or poisoning of the liver, as a result of which healthy cells degenerate into scar tissue. With the development of pathology, the liver decreases in volume, the number of healthy cells decreases, the portal vein, which transports blood from the digestive tract, narrows. As a result, blood pressure in the liver rises, fluid accumulates in the abdominal cavity and possibly varicose veins in the esophagus.
- Liver biopsy
A percutaneous liver biopsy is very important for a preliminary diagnosis of liver pathology, as well as for the analysis of chronic changes in liver biochemism (more than 6 months). This technique is also used in unclear cases of detection in patients with hepatomegaly, with suspected systemic disease, sarcoidosis, tuberculosis, with fever of unknown origin, with suspected primary or metastatic
- LIVER PHYSIOLOGY AND ANESTHESIA
The liver is the largest organ of the body: its weight in an adult is 1500-1600 g. The liver performs many complex and interrelated functions. Due to the large functional reserve, clinically significant liver dysfunction rarely occurs after anesthesia and surgery - mainly with concomitant liver diseases, as well as with idiosyncrasy to a halogen-containing inhalation
- Liver surgery
The most common operations on the liver include suturing injuries, drainage of abscesses and resection in tumors (primary and metastatic). In many patients, up to 80-85% of the liver can be removed. Many clinics perform liver transplantation. Surgery on the liver is often accompanied by massive blood loss. Liver cirrhosis greatly complicates anesthesia and increases
- Cirrhosis of the liver
General information Cirrhosis of the liver is a serious progressive disease leading to liver failure. In the United States, alcohol abuse is the most common cause of cirrhosis. Other causes of liver cirrhosis include CAH (post-necrotic cirrhosis), cholestatic liver disease (biliary cirrhosis, biliary obstruction), chronic right ventricular
- Liver tumor
Causes Not fully understood. There is a strong association between benign liver tumors in women and hormonal contraceptives. Malignant liver tumors are more common in men. As a rule, the cause is hepatitis B or C virus, cirrhosis of the liver. Afla-toxins (a result of the vital activity of one of the molds) can have a similar effect.
- LIVER CIRROSIS
The term cirrhosis of the liver was first proposed by T. N. Laenec (1819), who applied it in his classic monograph containing a description of the pathological picture and some clinical features of the disease. According to the WHO definition (1978), liver cirrhosis should be understood as a diffuse process characterized by fibrosis and a restructuring of the normal architectonics of the liver, leading to
- Liver disease
Diseases can develop in the liver, which are mainly based on dystrophic and necrotic changes in the parenchyma (hepatosis), inflammatory changes (hepatitis), dysregenerative processes with sclerosis and liver tissue remodeling (cirrhosis), against which liver cancer often develops. Hepatosis is a liver disease characterized by degeneration and necrosis of hepatocytes. Can
- LIVER DISEASES
Liver diseases are classified into congenital and acquired, as well as primary and secondary, i.e. developing for various human diseases. By etiology, liver diseases are divided into infectious (among which the predominant role belongs to viruses), toxic (can be caused by endotoxins, for example, with toxicosis of pregnant women, and exotoxins - most often
- DIETOTHERAPY OF LIVER DISEASES
Hepatobiliary diseases are common in small pets. In the early stages, they are quite difficult to recognize because of the tremendous regenerative ability of the liver. In recent years, a lot of new information has appeared regarding the metabolic changes that sss occurs in animals with liver diseases. This knowledge once again emphasizes the importance of proper nutrition for reversing these
- Pathology of the liver
Surgery that creates operational stress reduces hepatic blood flow and affects liver function. All medications used in anesthesia medication are directly or indirectly detoxified by the liver. In case of hepatic pathology, one must have an idea of the degree of damage to the liver functions in order to choose the method of anesthesiology medication and take measures to prevent
- LIVER DISEASES
Diseases of the liver (hepatopathy) can have a variety of symptoms, as the liver is the most important intermediate organ of metabolism. In 80% of cases of hepatopathy are associated with diseases of the kidneys, intestines, pancreas and central nervous system. Of the liver diseases in cats, according to Strombeck DR, Guilford WD, 1990) the most common: hepatitis (22.9%), hepatopathy
- Liver (problems)
Physical blocking The liver is the most voluminous gland of the human body. Her functions make her one of the most important and most complex organs of our body. She secretes her secrets, including bile, into the intestines, thus participating in the digestion process. The liver also affects the processes of metabolism of carbohydrates, proteins and fats. She is also responsible for coagulation.
- LIVER. Gallbladder
The liver (hepar) is the largest gland of the human body (Fig. 78). Its weight is about 1500 g. It performs several main functions: digestive, forms protein, detoxifies, hematopoietic, carries out metabolism, etc. The liver is located in the right hypochondrium and in the epigastrium. In shape, it resembles a wedge, has an upper and lower surface. Upper (diaphragmatic)
- Liver test
The organocomplex is placed on a preparation stoshka on the lower surface of the liver with a convex surface up and the right lobe to the prosector. The shape and size of the liver are noted, its length, width and thickness are measured; examine the edges of the liver, which are acute, leathery (as with atrophy) or rounded (as with parenchymal degeneration or fatty infiltration). The consistency is determined:
- Blood circulation of the liver
The liver has a unique blood circulation, since most of its parenchymal cells are supplied with mixed venous (portal) and arterial blood. At rest, the oxygen consumption of the liver is almost 20% of the oxygen consumption of the whole body, the oxygen supply is provided by the hepatic artery, which delivers 25-30% of the blood entering the liver, and 40-50% of the oxygen consumed