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First aid for snake bites
Despite the fact that the number of victims of snake bites is small, it is necessary to take certain precautions, you should carefully monitor shoes, avoid walking barefoot in areas where poisonous snakes are found, because most often the bite is applied to the leg. It is necessary to be able to distinguish poisonous snakes from harmless, to be able to provide first aid to victims if necessary. You can distinguish a poisonous snake from a non-toxic snake not only by the appearance of a reptile, but even by the nature of the bite applied. The poisonous snake leaves a mark on the skin in the form of two large roundish wounds where poison was injected, between which in two rows there are small dots - marks from small teeth. Unlike the wounds left by a poisonous snake, the marks after bites of non-poisonous snakes (snake, strangler) look like four rows of very small dots. According to the mechanism of action, all snake venoms are divided into 2 groups: 1) poisons acting on the blood (muzzle, steppe viper, gyurza) - severe pain occurs, the affected area of the body turns red, swelling develops, the temperature rises or falls, fever can occur, urine appears in the urine, feces, the patient is suffering from vomiting. In severe cases, the victim is permanently incapacitated, and sometimes dies; 2) poisons acting on the central nervous system (cobra): acute pain and swelling at the site of the bite is not observed. Soon, weakness sets in, muscle stiffness develops, limbs, lips and throat muscles paralyze; tongue is taken away, breathing is difficult, vision loss is possible. The bites of poisonous snakes are accompanied by various consequences: decisive factors that determine the severity of the condition are the composition of the poison and its amount, which got into the tissue. Often after a bite, deep, hard to heal wounds form at the site of the lesion, the edges of which later ulcerate. In addition, even a few months after recovery, a person may experience severe pain in the affected area. The place of the bite also matters. It is dangerous if the bite is applied to the chest or face. Serious danger is the ingress of poison directly into a large blood vessel, since in this case the speed of spread of poison throughout the body will increase several times, and the patient’s condition will deteriorate sharply. The main tool in the treatment of snake bites is the introduction of a special serum, which is prepared from the blood of a horse.
However, it is far from always possible to use it, so first aid is of utmost importance: 1) to pull the affected arm or leg with a tourniquet, the tourniquet is applied much higher than the bite site, it is necessary to have time to twist it over a maximum of 20 minutes, otherwise its effectiveness decreases sharply; 2) rinse the wound, rinse off the poison on its edges with alcohol, vodka or water, cut the bite site with a cross-shaped incision so that the poison leaves the wound, first the razor or penknife should be calcined on a match; 3) suck blood, squeeze out the poison by squeezing the edges of the wound between the fingers. You should not suck blood from a wound if there are any wounds, scratches, sores, mucosal injuries, etc. in the mouth, since in this case the victim himself or the person who came to his aid will be poisoned; 4) bandage the wound, remove the tourniquet. Then the victim should ensure complete physical and emotional peace. In order to remove the remnants of the poison from the body, you should give the patient tea or coffee, this also supports the activity of the heart. In a medical institution, it is necessary to administer anti-snake serum to the victim as soon as possible, its injection is effective within 8 hours from the moment of the bite. Drug therapy includes maintaining the work of the heart, breathing. Subcutaneous injections of a 0.1% solution of adrenaline with a 1% solution of novocaine are performed. Sometimes used for subcutaneous injection of a 5% solution of ephedrine. It is also possible the introduction of intravenous 1% solution of pilocarpine, 10% solution of calcium chloride. In severe poisoning with snake venom, blood transfusion is indicated. Researcher G.I. Ishunin reports that, in addition to the above medicines, 500-1000 cubic centimeters of an isotonic sodium chloride solution must be injected under the skin or intravenously - this will enhance urination and, therefore, remove poison from the body. Of great importance in the treatment of bitten by poisonous snakes is a kind of psychotherapy, which consists in reassuring the patient and assuring a favorable outcome.
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First aid for snake bites
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