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Polycystic lung



Polycystic lung (cystic hypoplasia) is a malformation caused by antenatal hypoplasia of the pulmonary parenchyma, blood vessels and bronchial tree with the formation of multiple cavities (cysts) distal to the subsegmental bronchi.

Clinical picture. Cough, purulent sputum, sometimes hemoptysis. Almost from birth, a continuously recurrent course of inflammation in the bronchopulmonary system. Children lag behind in physical development, "drumsticks". Chest deformity on the side of vice.

Diagnostics. When X-ray and tomography are detected cellular formation.

When bronchography multiple rounded cavity.
Cystic formations are more often localized in the left lung or bilateral lesion takes place.

When computed tomography cystic formations, their primary localization in the left lung.

Complications. Complications of polycystic lung: suppurative pulmonary processes, pneumothorax, pulmonary hemorrhage, amyloidosis (rarely).

Treatment. Surgical

Contraindications: the prevalence of the process, severe manifestations of pulmonary heart disease.

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Polycystic lung

  1. Polycystic
    In addition to infertility, this disease is often accompanied by cosmetic defects such as hirsutism, acne, and obesity. Unfortunately, neither conservative nor operative treatment does not lead to a reduction in excessive hairiness, however, it can stop its progression. Acne in many cases disappear after the establishment of a normal menstrual cycle. Obese can be managed only
  2. LUNG DISEASES. CHRONIC DIFFUSE ASTHMA. INTERSTICIAL LUNG DISEASES. CANCER INFLAMMATORY DISEASES OF THE LUNGS. BRONCHIAL LUNG
    LUNG DISEASES. CHRONIC DIFFUSE ASTHMA. INTERSTICIAL LUNG DISEASES. CANCER INFLAMMATORY DISEASES OF THE LUNGS. BRONCHIAL
  3. Chronic diffuse inflammatory lung disease. Bronchial asthma. Lungs' cancer. Pneumoconiosis
    1. Main types of diffuse pulmonary lesions 1. interstitial 4. small-focal 2. obstructive 5. panacinal 3. restrictive 2. Causes of death in obstructive pulmonary emphysema 1. gas acidosis and coma 2. renal failure 3. left ventricular heart failure 4. right ventricular heart failure 5. lung collapse in spontaneous pneumothorax 3. Most important
  4. The mode of traditional artificial ventilation of the lungs with periodic inflation of the lungs
    It is well known that monotonous respiratory volume during mechanical ventilation increases the uneven ventilation of the lungs and contributes to their atelectasis. After all, even with independent breathing, a healthy person never breathes with the same breathing volume, the latter is constantly changing. In addition, a healthy person periodically makes "sighs" of increased volume and duration. To overcome
  5. Artificial ventilation of the lungs during operations on the lungs and mediastinal organs
    Single lung ventilation. A necessary condition for operations on the lungs — turning off the operated lung from ventilation in absolute terms (wet lung, pulmonary hemorrhage, unpressurized lung) or relative indications — puts the body in an unphysiological condition of functioning, leading to disturbances in gas exchange and blood circulation. However, the technique widely used in thoracic surgery
  6. Acute left ventricular failure - interstitial and alveolar pulmonary edema. Non-cardiogenic pulmonary edema.
    Pulmonary edema is cardiogenic and non-cardiogenic and is considered to be the immediate cause of death in every fourth deceased. Pathogenesis. In a healthy person, the hydrostatic pressure in the pulmonary capillaries is 7–9 mm Hg. st., it is slightly higher than that in the interstitium. The fluid is retained in the capillaries due to its viscous properties, rather high oncotic numbers.
  7. EXTERNAL RESPIRATION AND FUNCTIONS OF THE LUNG RESPIRATORY FUNCTION OF THE LUNGS AND PATHOPHYSIOLOGICAL MECHANISMS OF HYPOXEMIA AND HYPROCHEMISM
    The main function of the lungs - the exchange of oxygen and carbon dioxide between the external environment and the body - is achieved by a combination of ventilation, pulmonary circulation and diffusion of gases. Acute violations of one, two or all of these mechanisms lead to acute changes in gas exchange. Pulmonary ventilation. Indicators of pulmonary ventilation include tidal volume (Vт), respiratory rate (f), and minute volume
  8. CHRONIC OBSTRUCTIVE LUNG DISEASES / CHRONIC BRONCHITIS AND LUNG EMPHYSIS /
    Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease is a pathological condition characterized by the formation of chronic obstruction of the airways due to chronic bronchitis (CB) and / or pulmonary emphysema / EL /. Chronic obstructive pulmonary diseases are widespread. It is estimated that HB affects about 14–20% of the male and about 3–8% of the female adult population, but only
  9. Pulmonary edema caused by pulmonary edema, damage to the lungs and "volumatal injury" (volume trauma)
    Pathogenesis Even in the absence of an alveolar rupture, the use of excessive regional volumes undoubtedly damages the alveoli, regardless of whether the introduction of such volumes is caused by positive or negative pressure. Patients with acute respiratory distress syndrome appear to be at the highest risk: the prevalence of barotrauma in these conditions may exceed 50%. Have
  10. Correction methods for acute respiratory failure in acute lung injury / acute respiratory distress syndrome with a proven effect on mortality and ventilator-induced lung damage
    • ???? Ventilation with small respiratory volumes. The use of small respiratory volumes allows to reduce the manifestations of volutrauma and to avoid high transpulmonary pressures. According to the largest multicenter randomized controlled study conducted by ARDSnet in 41 centers and involving 861 patients, the use of small tidal volumes (6 ml / kg body weight) leads to
  11. 89. LUNG DISEASES CAUSED BY THE ACTION OF THE DUST FACTOR AND THE ACTION OF CHEMICAL FACTORS. PATHOGENESIS, CLINIC, TREATMENT PRINCIPLES AND PREVENTION. CLINIC OF TOXIC PULMONARY SWEAT, PRINCIPLES OF TREATMENT
    Pneumoconiosis is the development of fibrotic changes in the lungs as a result of prolonged inhalation. dust. According to etiology, 6 grams-PCs are distinguished: 1) silicosis-PC from inhalation of quartz dust (silica) 2) silicosis-PC from inhalation of silicate dust, silicon dioxide in a bound state with other elements #stostosis, talcosis. 3) metalloconioses - PC from dust Me: Al –aluminosis, iron oxides - siderosis. four)
  12. LECTURE № 18. Congenital and hereditary lung diseases
    A malformation is an anomaly in most cases of fetal development, resulting in gross changes in the structure and function of an organ or tissue. Classification of malformations of the bronchopulmonary system. 1. Defects associated with the underdevelopment of the body as a whole or its anatomical, structural, tissue elements: 1) lung agenesis; 2) aplasia of the lungs; 3) lung hypoplasia; 4) cystic hypoplasia
  13. Barotrauma of the lungs
    Barotrauma during mechanical ventilation - damage to the lungs caused by the action of increased pressure in the respiratory tract. Two main mechanisms causing barotrauma should be indicated: 1) lung over-inflation; 2) uneven ventilation against the background of a modified lung structure. With barotrauma, air can enter the interstitium, mediastinum, neck tissue, cause pleural rupture, and even penetrate the abdominal cavity.
  14. LUNG BAROTRAVMA
    Barotrauma during mechanical ventilation - damage to the lungs caused by the action of increased pressure in the respiratory tract. Two main mechanisms causing barotrauma should be indicated: 1) lung over-inflation; 2) uneven ventilation against the background of a modified lung structure. With barotrauma, air can enter the interstitium, mediastinum, neck tissue, cause pleural rupture, and even penetrate the abdominal cavity.
  15. Lung features
    The lungs in children, as in adults, are divided into shares, shares into segments. The lungs have a lobular structure, the segments in the lungs are separated from each other by narrow grooves and septa of connective tissue. The main structural unit is the alveoli. Their number in a newborn is 3 times less than in an adult. Alveoli begin to develop from 4-6 weeks of age, their formation
  16. Restrictive lung diseases
    Causes of restrictive lung disease Causes of acute restrictive disease: • ????? pulmonary edema; • ???? ARDS; •????aspiration; • ???? neurogenic edema; • ????? opioid overdose; • ???? congestive myocardial insufficiency; • ???? pleural effusion; •????pneumothorax; • ???? increase mediastinum; • ???? pneumomediastinum. Chronic lung disease leading to restrictive
  17. Vascular pathology of the lungs.
    Vascular pathology of the lungs occurs in various diseases of the lungs, heart and blood vessels, liver, and is described by various syndromes. The most important variants of lung vascular pathology are represented by the following groups of diseases: pulmonary edema; adult respiratory distress syndrome; pulmonary thromboembolism syndrome; syndromes of primary and secondary pulmonary hypertension;
  18. Pulmonary adenomatosis
    Chronic, long-lasting viral disease of sheep, cattle, horses and dogs, characterized by progressive metaplasia of the bronchial and alveolar epithelium, proliferation of glandular-like tumors in the lungs, becoming malignant. Adenomatosis of the lungs and a person gets sick. The causative agent is a filterable virus. Pre-slaughter diagnosis. Clinically
  19. Restrictive lung diseases
    Restrictive diseases are characterized by a decrease in lung compliance. Lung volumes are below normal, while the volumetric flow rate on the exhalation is not reduced. Thus, FEV1 and FZHEL are reduced, but the value of the OFVch / FZHEL ratio remains normal. Restrictive diseases include many acute and chronic pathological conditions of the lungs, as well as lesions of the pleura, chest wall, diaphragm and
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