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Practical aspects of breastfeeding

Techniques and actions that interfere with the desire or ability of an infant to effectively suck the breast, such as, for example, the introduction of additional liquids (water, water with glucose, D-glucose or sugar, teas, herbal decoctions, juices, water from cuttings in the abdomen, milk mixtures and other liquids) are not needed, as they crowd out richer, more nutritious breast milk and prevent the baby from sucking the breast, thereby undermining the establishment and continuation of breastfeeding. Even in hot climates, subject to exclusive breastfeeding, babies can retain fluids and maintain sufficient hydration without getting any extra fluid.
In the first few months of life, irreversible milk deficiency is rare. However, mothers often lack confidence in their ability to provide enough milk to meet the needs of the child, and this fear is often reinforced by doctors and other medical professionals. Fear can act negatively on the release of milk, and therefore mothers need active and constant support so that they can breastfeed before the second year of life or even longer. When a baby gains weight poorly, this suggests the possibility that the baby does not get enough milk from the mother. However, this may indicate that it is necessary to improve the counseling and support of the mother in breastfeeding issues, and not to start using breast milk substitutes.
Methods for assessing the adequacy of a child’s physical development are largely based on the use of physical development cards, and these cards should be used with caution. Some regulatory indicators of physical development are outdated and are based primarily on data on American children fed with nutrient mixtures, and not on international data on children who are exclusively breastfed. Breastfed infants have patterns (speeds) of physical development different from their peers-artificials (65), but there is no evidence to suggest that the slowed pace of physical development of infants with exclusive breastfeeding during the first few months of life are something non-optimal or harmful. Nevertheless, the apparent unsatisfactory nutritional status and “slow” physical development are the reasons put forward for the premature termination of breastfeeding and the unreasonable introduction of infant formula or nutrition of the transitional period. New WHO standards are being drafted based on children who are exclusively and partially breastfed (see Chapter 10).
Breastfeeding after 6 months
In the first year of life, the human body goes through a phase of the fastest physical development. Most healthy children in the first 6 months double the body weight that they had at birth, and triple it in the first year. At the same time, the composition of the organism changes dramatically. Exclusive breastfeeding fully satisfies the nutritional needs of most infants until about the age of 6 months. However, as the baby grows older, larger and more active, nutritional needs can no longer be met by breast milk alone (3) (see Fig. 1). To fill the gap between what breast milk provides and the total nutritional needs of an infant, special transitional nutrition is needed - foods for complementary foods specifically designed to meet the special nutritional and physiological needs of the child (see Chapter 8).
The introduction of transitional nutrition does not mean the cessation of breastfeeding. On the contrary, in the first year of life, breast milk should remain one of the main sources of food, and it is desirable that by the end of the first year it should provide between one third and one half of the average total energy intake. The purpose of complementary foods is to provide additional energy and nutrients, but ideally it should not displace breast milk during the first 12 months. To ensure the preservation of the volume of breast milk produced and to stimulate milk production, mothers should continue to breastfeed their babies frequently during the period of complementary feeding.
If we express the contribution of complementary foods in the approximate percentage of total daily needs and take as a base some range of values ​​of breast milk intake during the introduction of complementary foods, foods for complementary foods should provide 5-30% of the need for vitamin A, 20-45% for protein, 50- 80% in thiamine, 50-65% in riboflavin, 60% in calcium, 85% in zinc and almost 100% of iron needs (3). These estimates show that there is almost no need to get vitamin B6, B12, vitamin C, and folate from complementary foods, since breast milk contains a sufficient amount of these micronutrients. Therefore, breast milk is an extremely valuable source of nutrients for a long time after it ceases to be their only source.
There are a number of external factors affecting the length of time a mother is able to breastfeed her baby. Among them, first of all, leave to care for a child and the right of working women to breastfeeding are the factors specifically emphasized in the Innocenti Declaration (66; see also Appendix 1).
In most European countries, women represent a significant proportion of workers, and many of them face economic hardships to return to work while they are still breastfeeding. Returning to work forces mothers, and thus babies, to adapt to a schedule in which they are likely to have limited flexibility that is needed for breastfeeding on demand. The frequency of breastfeeding is thus likely to decrease, and, therefore, the volume of breast milk may decrease. Milk pumping (by hand or using a breast pump), which is then given to the baby, and breastfeeding at night, helps maintain the production of milk, and due to this, the opportunity to continue to breastfeed at least two or three times a day during the late period of infancy and longer. Providing conditions for keeping a baby in nurseries and / or rooms to continue lactating, where mothers can express and store their milk, helps mothers to continue to breastfeed and allows for increased frequency of breastfeeding. In addition, the creation of nurseries in the workplace has a beneficial effect on the entire system of relations between the mother and the infant, regardless of whether the child is breastfed or not.
Currently, WHO and UNICEF recommend breastfeeding for up to 2 years, and maybe longer. Data confirming the need to continue breastfeeding even after the first year of life is most convincing in conditions of low hygiene and high infection rates. Under such conditions, it was found that continued breastfeeding (up to 2 or 3 years old) protects against infectious diseases and is positively associated with child survival (16, 17). In industrialized countries, the benefits of prolonged breastfeeding are less obvious (67). As a result, the American Academy of Pediatrics (5) recommends breastfeeding for at least 12 months and continuing as much as the mother and child wish, while European countries such as Denmark and the United Kingdom tend not to make any recommendations regarding the duration of breastfeeding. after the first 6 months. Therefore, for the WHO European Region, breastfeeding is recommended to continue after the first year of life, and in populations with a high prevalence of infection, it will be useful for the child’s health if breastfeeding continues for the second year of life and even longer.
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Practical aspects of breastfeeding

  1. Ecological aspect of breastfeeding
    In the 80–90s of the 20th century, scientists in Japan, and then in Germany and Switzerland paid attention to the accumulation in the body and the subsequent transmission of nitromuskus with mother’s milk to the baby and sounded the alarm. This synthetic compound was used in cosmetics instead of expensive natural musk. Experiments on mammals have shown that substances of this type can cause allergies, nervous disorders,
  2. Breastfeeding: the onset, duration, and practice of exclusive breastfeeding
    Due to the lack of comprehensive and comparable data and unified international definitions, it is difficult to make any general statements about the prevalence of breastfeeding in the WHO European Region. Data on the percentage of children who are breastfed are shown in Fig. 8, taken from various sources (27). These data must be approached carefully: survey methods
  3. Maternal breastfeeding support group in Samara. Breastfeeding the most important issues, 2014

  4. FEEDING SCIENCE: WHY BREASTFEEDING?
    We often wonder why some mothers do not breastfeed. From our point of view, breastfeeding is a natural extension of the relationship that began in the womb. Maybe some women are convinced that breastfeeding does not really matter. Having studied Chapter 1, you will understand the benefits of breastfeeding for both the mother and the baby. We believe that if you rate
  5. When do babies need more than one breast milk and how long should the baby be breastfed?
    Feed your baby exclusively with breast milk up to 6 months of age. At about 6 months of age, all babies, along with breast milk, need extra food, but ideally continue to breastfeed for up to a year and
  6. Breastfeeding support
    POLICIES AIMED AT SUPPORTING BREASTFEEDING In 1989, the World Health Organization and the United Nations Children's Fund issued a joint statement on the role of mother support services in the protection, promotion and support of breastfeeding. This statement provides the most up-to-date scientific knowledge and practical experience in organizing the EB in the form of accurate, universally acceptable recommendations
  7. Breast-feeding
    During the first 6 months of life, babies should be exclusively breastfed. This means that a practically healthy child should receive breast milk and no other food or liquid, such as water, tea, juice, cereal decoction, animal milk or infant formula. Exclusively breastfed babies or babies in
  8. BREASTFEEDING AND HIS ALTERNATIVES
    All babies should be exclusively breastfed from birth to approximately 6 months of age, but in any case during the first 4 months of life. It is preferable to continue breastfeeding after the first year of life, and in populations with a high prevalence of infections, the continuation of breastfeeding for the whole second
  9. Breastfeeding Alternatives
    Usually breastfeeding is the best way to feed infants. Nevertheless, there are situations when it may be preferable or it is necessary to replace breast milk with any alternative. In addition to the contraindications briefly described above, circumstances arise where, despite all efforts to continue breastfeeding, the mother cannot maintain lactation for
  10. HEALTHY BREASTFEEDING
    The food you eat affects your milk. Breastfeeding can be an incentive that will help improve eating habits or continue the healthy diet that you started during pregnancy. In this section, you will receive information about nutrition and nutrition-related issues. We want you to be healthier and thinner after you’re finished breastfeeding. Many mothers say
  11. Breastfeeding Importance
    Breastfeeding is deeply embedded in human consciousness as a natural-fundamental phenomenon of life, as a miracle almost equal to the birth itself. It is also reflected in history and art and captured in them along with the eternal themes of Love, Life, Birth and Death. A real hymn to motherhood is the re-creation on canvases of the greatest artists of the world of the image of Madonna and Child, and often
  12. Exclusive or partial breastfeeding
    Exceptional breastfeeding means that the baby does not receive any other nutrition than breast milk, does not even take a pacifier. If a child is given vitamins or ritual food in small quantities, either water or juice, this is almost exclusive breastfeeding. Partial breastfeeding means that the baby is partially on the breast, and partially on the artificial
  13. Breastfeeding Consultant
    Breastfeeding counselors have always existed. It was just that their functions were performed by mothers, older sisters, or midwives — midwives who took birth in poor women and aristocratic women. The skill of the midwives was handed down from generation to generation, was kept secret and included not only the skills of giving birth, but also elements of modern osteopathy, knowledge of medicinal herbs and,
  14. Basic rules for breastfeeding
    Breastfeeding opportunity Everybody can breastfeed! Breastfeeding in the presence of a live and healthy infant is impossible only when there is no mother or she has both mammary glands removed. Biological mother can feed twins, and even triplets, without using additional feeding for up to 5 months. Even twins and triplets can grow exclusively breastfed up to 4-5 months.
  15. BREASTFEEDING IN THE MODERN WORLD
    Work and breastfeed? We will show you how. Want to combine breastfeeding and bottle feeding? No problems! In 1998, the highest rates of breastfeeding were recorded, as its advantages became known, and more and more mothers find it possible to breastfeed their baby, despite the difficulties of living in the 21st century. In this section, you will learn how
  16. THE ROLE OF THE FATHER IN FOOD FEEDING
    Maybe this is not obvious, but the role of fathers in ensuring that mother feeding is successful is extremely important. Sadly, most fathers go to all antenatal classes, except for breastfeeding. Many fathers feel out of a tight breastfeeding cup. They observe how mothers build close symbiotic relationships with the newborn, and they want to know if there is any
  17. Breastfeeding termination
    There is no need to stop breastfeeding if the child does not want to, even after the child turns 3 years old. However, some children after a year themselves refuse to breast. Breast milk is the most important source of nutrition during the second year of a child’s life, especially in families that find it difficult to provide children with enough nutritious food. Breast milk continues
  18. About the importance of breastfeeding
    Breast milk is the best nutrition for infants, as it provides the baby with all the nutrients that he needs in the first 6 months (26 weeks) of life. In addition, it contains nutrients that satisfy the unique needs of a small person — some essential polyunsaturated fatty acids, some milk proteins, and iron — easily
  19. Contraindications to breastfeeding
    There are few absolute contraindications to breastfeeding, although there have been many such contraindications in the past. The literature published in the former Soviet Union included kidney failure, heart failure, cancer, psychiatric diseases, thyrotoxicosis, acute viral and bacterial infection, high fever of unknown origin and hemolytic
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