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Principles and methods of feeding and recommendations related to feeding

Many countries in the WHO European Region do not have their own guidelines for feeding infants and young children. However, in some countries they exist: for example, in Denmark, Ireland, the Netherlands, Sweden and the United Kingdom. In the former Soviet Union, the need for such methodological recommendations has long been recognized (the last time they were updated in 1982) (25). The scientific rationale for optimal feeding of infants and young children is still a relatively new area of ​​research in which new steps are being taken all the time. Therefore, it is necessary that these guidelines be kept pace with the progress of science on which they are based.
You can see that the recommendations for feeding infants are significantly different from each other in Western and Eastern Europe. In many countries of Eastern Europe, recommendations on feeding children were influenced by the recommendations that existed in the former Soviet Union (25). The review revealed a number of recommendations related to the Soviet era that differ from international standards (26). The low status of iron and possibly high levels of prevalence of growth retardation among infants and young children in the European Region and especially in the countries of the former Soviet Union are partly due to improper feeding methods.
Regarding breastfeeding in the literature of the former Soviet Union, it was recommended:
• late start of breastfeeding (6-12 hours after birth), especially for sick women, including women suffering from anemia;
• feeding a 5% glucose solution before breast milk production is established;
• exclusively breastfeeding only during the first month (although this was not practiced universally);
• breast milk as the main food during the first 4-4.5 months;
• complete cessation of breastfeeding by the age of 1011 months;
• Breastfeeding strictly on schedule.

The importance of a night break between feedings was often emphasized. In accordance with the feeding regime 6 times a day, a break of 6 and a half hours at night was recommended; with a 5-day feeding regimen, this break increased to 8 hours. A review of Soviet literature (J. Vingraite, from personal correspondence, 1998) showed that some authoritative specialists allowed deviations from this schedule for 10-15 minutes during feedings.
Unadapted infant formula in the Soviet Union included diluted fresh or sour cow's milk with added sugar, vitamins, and minerals. At 2-3 months, it was recommended to administer cow's milk diluted with a decoction of cereals (for example, 50 ml of pure cow's milk
milk or kefir, 45 ml of a decoction of cereals and 5 ml of absolute sugar syrup).
Previous Soviet recommendations on the introduction of food for weaning included: supplemental fluids, primarily tea and water with sugar for breast-fed babies; the introduction of vegetable and “fruit” juices (jam with water) in 1 month; the introduction of unmodified cow's milk at 4 months and pure kefir at 3 months; the introduction of fruit in 2 months, hard-boiled egg yolk at 3 months and cottage cheese at 4 months; the addition of sugar and salt solutions to baby food; the introduction of cereals with sugar, syrup, salt and butter in 4 months.
Of particular concern is the fact that in cases of diagnosis of anemia (and rickets), it was recommended to introduce cereals and other solid foods before 4 months.
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Principles and methods of feeding and recommendations related to feeding

    It is recommended that each country introduce a system for monitoring the nutrition of infants and young children, which would be an integral part of the health information system. Regular monitoring of the practice of breastfeeding, feeding patterns and nutritional status of infants and young children is necessary so that it can be identified
    For possible problems associated with breastfeeding, it is important to prepare in advance. The most important thing is not to panic. There is such a phenomenon: the more organically a mother accepts her role, the less she will have problems with feeding. When she complains that she has not enough milk, she should ask: “And what does the feeding process mean to you? Is it pleasant for you or vice versa? The thought of
  3. Organization of feeding: feeding on demand, rhythms
    On-demand feeding is the cornerstone of natural feeding. This is what distinguishes it from the mode of breast-feeding that was common in the mid-20th century. However, many mothers see this principle as an appeal to anarchy and constant attachment to the child, and sometimes refuse to follow it without even experiencing it. Meanwhile, on-demand feeding is very convenient for mom, if it is
  4. Principles of rational feeding
    Although classic illnesses as a result of poor feeding can hardly be found today, most animal owners feed them more emotionally than rationally, namely: the remnants of their food, kitchen waste, offal, as well as high-quality meat and fish. However, there is a specific physiology of digestion in dogs. They do not chew, but tear food and swallow it big
  5. Guidelines for the WHO European Region with a special focus on the republics of the former Soviet Union. Feeding and nutrition of infants and young children, 2001

  6. Guidelines for the WHO European Region with a special focus on the republics of the former Soviet Union. Feeding and nutrition of infants and young children. Book 2, 2002

    There are several ways to feed cats. 1) Feeding with free access to feed. 2) Time-limited feeding. 3) Feeding limited in amount of feed. With free feeding, feed is available to animals at any time. With time-limited feeding, animals are given for a certain period of time (usually 5-30 minutes) an amount of feed exceeding them
  8. Feed frequency
    How often and for how long should I feed my baby? More often, more often! These are magic words for successful breastfeeding. Both experience and scientific research show that when an infant enjoys frequent, unlimited feedings, then: - Babies grow better - they bloom. - Breast milk contains the necessary amount of fat and calories. - Mothers
  9. Tube for feeding
    A feeding tube can be a good help for a mother to restore her breast milk production. A hungry child can, of course, suck an empty breast several times, but then he may become nervous and refuse to suck at all, especially if he is used to sucking from a bottle. The feeding tube can solve this problem. How to use a feeding tube
  10. Pig feeding
    Feeding rates for sows. Only full-fledged feeding provides a good state of health for sows, obtaining high-quality offspring, and high milk production. For one farrow on the uterus, it is necessary to obtain 10-12 piglets with a live weight of 1.2-1.3 kg, which should reach a live weight of 18-20 kg by 2 months of age. Feeding rates for sows are differentiated depending on
  11. Feeding a baby from a cup
    Cups are much safer than bottles. There is no need to use feeding bottles. Never use bottle feeding in hospitals. They are offered to mothers who believe that the bottles are safe. Cup Benefits - They are easy to wash with soap and water if boiling is not possible. - The probability of bacteria multiplying in them is less than in bottles. - They cannot be left near
  12. Nursing pillows
    One of the newest products for nursing mothers is nursing pillows - solid, semi-circular support pillows designed to be placed on your knees and raised to the height of the baby to the chest. Some pillows also provide support for the lower back of the mother. Feeding pillows are especially wonderful for twin mothers because they never seem to have
  13. Feeding twins
    Many mothers who have twins are less confident in their abilities than women who have given birth to one child. In fact, you will perfectly cope with feeding your crumbs. Believe in yourself, and you will succeed. Over time, you will get used to taking care of your babies, and you will be proud of them and yourself. And despite all the difficulties, you will feel happy looking at the touching little eyes of the twins,
  14. Sheep feeding
    Feeding the ewes. The feeding rates of ewes depend on the direction of their productivity, physiological state and live weight. Feeding rates for Romanov’s ewes per head per day {foto51} Fertility, milk production and woolly productivity of ewes largely depend on the protein, mineral and vitamin usefulness of diets. By the beginning of mating, the uterus should have a medium
  15. After feeding
    After feeding the baby, it is very important to hold in an upright position for some time until the remains of the air trapped in the feeding process come out of his stomach. Another important point: after feeding the baby, it should be laid out only on its side, and the right one will prevent milk from entering the respiratory tract if the baby nevertheless burps, and, moreover, it is easier to take place in this position
  16. Hygienic rules for feeding
    Observe the daily routine. 2. Feed during the day at regular intervals, it is better 3 than 2 times, newborns - 4-5 times a day. 3. The procedure for feeding feed for herbivores, carnivores and omnivores: first, succulent feeds, better root and tubers (beets are the strongest plant activators of the pancreas and other glands of the digestive tract), then roughage,
  17. Breast Feeding
    In many maternity hospitals, it is customary to feed the children with infant formula, cow's milk or water with glucose until the mother has arrived milk. The medical staff is afraid that in the early days, until the mother has the necessary quantities of milk, the baby may become hungry or his body may become dehydrated. We currently know that this kind of breast-feeding is not necessary. Baby can from
  18. Willingness to quit feeding
    My baby is two weeks old, breastfeeding does not work out as it should. My nipples are sore, the baby does not look satisfied and friendly, I am also not satisfied. Help! Breastfeeding should be a pleasant experience, otherwise the human race would not survive. It follows from our experience that breastfeeding is almost always improving, provided that the mother receives
  19. Night feeding
    Some mothers try to teach their baby to sleep all night so as not to breastfeed. However, it is better to feed the baby at night as much as he wants. It is easiest for a mother to take her baby to bed so that he can suckle her breast without giving her unnecessary worries. Night feeding gives the baby extra time to suckle. More prolactin is released at night than during the day. Night
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