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Principles and methods of feeding and recommendations related to feeding

Many countries in the WHO European Region lack their own guidelines for feeding infants and young children. However, in some countries they exist: for example, in Denmark, Ireland, the Netherlands, Sweden and the United Kingdom. In the former Soviet Union, the need for such guidelines was recognized long ago (they were last updated in 1982) (25). The scientific rationale for optimal feeding of infants and young children is still a relatively new area of ​​research, in which new steps forward are being taken all the time. Therefore, it is necessary that these guidelines should keep pace with the progress of the science on which they are based.
It can be seen that the recommendations for infant feeding are significantly different in the countries of Western and Eastern Europe. In many countries of Eastern Europe, recommendations on feeding children were influenced by recommendations that existed in the former Soviet Union (25). In the course of the review, a number of recommendations relating to the Soviet era were identified, which differ from international standards (26). The low iron status and possibly high levels of growth retardation among infants and young children in the European Region and especially in the countries of the former Soviet Union are partly due to incorrect feeding methods.
With regard to breastfeeding in the literature of the former Soviet Union, it was recommended:
• late onset of breastfeeding (6–12 hours after birth), especially for sick women, including women with anemia;
• feeding with 5% glucose solution before the production of breast milk is established;
• exclusive breastfeeding only during the first month (although this was not universally practiced);
• breast milk as the main food for the first 4-4.5 months;
• complete cessation of breastfeeding by the age of 1011 months;
• breastfeeding strictly on schedule.

The importance of a night break between feedings was often emphasized. In accordance with the feeding regimen 6 times a day, a break of 6 hours and a half at night was recommended; at 5 times feeding mode, this break increased to 8 hours. A review of Soviet literature (J. Vingraite, from personal correspondence, 1998) showed that some authoritative experts permitted deviations from this schedule by 10-15 minutes during feedings.
Non-adapted infant formula in the Soviet Union included diluted fresh or sour cow's milk with added sugar, vitamins and minerals. In 2-3 months, it was recommended to inject cow's milk, diluted with a decoction of croup (for example, 50 ml of pure cow's
milk or kefir, 45 ml of croup broth and 5 ml of 100% sugar syrup).
The former Soviet recommendations on the introduction of weaning foods included: additional fluids, especially tea and water with sugar for breastfed babies; the introduction of vegetable and “fruit” juices (jam with water) in 1 month; the introduction of unmodified cow's milk in 4 months and pure kefir in 3 months; the introduction of fruit in 2 months, hard-boiled egg yolk in 3 months and cottage cheese in 4 months; adding sugar and salt solutions to baby food; the introduction of cereals with the addition of sugar, syrup, salt and butter in 4 months.
Of particular concern is the fact that in cases of diagnosis of anemia (and rickets) it was recommended to introduce porridge and other solid foods before 4 months.
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Principles and methods of feeding and recommendations related to feeding

    It is recommended that each country has in place a system of nutritional surveillance for infants and young children, which would be an integral part of the health information system. Regular monitoring of breastfeeding practices, feeding patterns and the nutritional status of infants and young children should be carried out so that they can be identified.
    For possible problems related to breastfeeding, it is important to prepare in advance. The most important thing is not to panic. There is such a phenomenon: the more organic mother takes her role, the less she will have problems with feeding. When she complains that she has not enough milk, you should ask: “What does the feeding process mean to you? Do you like it or vice versa? ”The idea that
  3. Organization of feeding: feeding on demand, rhythms
    Feeding on demand is the cornerstone of natural feeding. This is what distinguishes it from the breastfeeding regime that was common in the mid-20th century. However, many mothers see in this principle a call for anarchy and constant attachment to the child and sometimes refuse to follow it, even without experiencing it. Meanwhile, on-demand feeding is very convenient for mom, if
  4. Principles of rational feeding
    Although classical diseases as a result of poor feeding today can hardly be met, the majority of animal owners feed them more emotionally than rationally, namely, the remnants of their food, kitchen waste, offal, as well as high-quality meat, fish. However, there is a specific physiology of digestion in dogs. They do not chew, but tear up food and swallow it with large
  5. Guidelines for the WHO European Region, with particular reference to the republics of the former Soviet Union. Feeding and nutrition of infants and young children, 2001

  6. Guidelines for the WHO European Region, with particular reference to the republics of the former Soviet Union. Feeding and feeding infants and young children. Book 2, 2002

    There are several ways to feed cats. 1) Feeding with free access to feed. 2) Time-limited feeding. 3) Feeding, limited in feed quantity. With free feeding, feed available to animals at any time. With time-limited feeding, animals are given for a certain period of time (usually 5-30 minutes) the amount of feed that exceeds them.
  8. Feeding frequency
    How often and how long should I feed my baby? More often, more often! These are magic words for successful breastfeeding. Both experience and scientific studies show that when a baby enjoys frequent, unlimited feedings, then: - Infants grow better - they bloom. - Breast milk contains the necessary amount of fat and calories. - Mothers
  9. Feeding tube
    A feeding tube can be a good help to the mother to restore milk production in the breast. A hungry child may, of course, suck the “empty” breast several times, but then he may become nervous and refuse to suck at all, especially if he is used to bottle-sucking. A feeding tube can solve this problem. How to use the feeding tube
  10. Feeding pigs
    Feeding rates for sows. Only full feeding ensures good health of sows, obtaining high-quality offspring, high milk production. For one farrowing on the uterus, it is necessary to obtain 10–12 piglets with a living weight of 1.2–1.3 kg, which, by 2 months of age, should reach a live weight of 18–20 kg. Feeding rates for sows are differentiated depending on
  11. Feeding baby from the cup
    Cups are much safer than bottles. Feeding bottles are not necessary. Never use feeding bottles in hospitals. They are offered to mothers who believe that the bottles are safe. Advantages of cups - They are easy to wash with soap and water if boiling is not possible. - The probability of reproduction of bacteria in them is less than in bottles. - They can not be left near
  12. Feeding Pillows
    One of the newest products for nursing mothers is nursing pillows — solid, semi-circular support pillows designed to be placed on your knees and lift your baby up to chest level. Some pillows also provide support for the lower back of the mother. Feeding pillows are especially wonderful for twin mothers, because it seems like they never
  13. Feeding the twins
    Many mothers who have twins are less confident in their abilities than women who have given birth to one child. In fact, you will do an excellent job with feeding your crumbs. Believe in yourself, and you will succeed. Over time, you will get used to taking care of your babies, and you will be proud of them and yourself. And despite all the difficulties, you will feel happy, looking at the touching little little twins,
  14. Feeding the sheep
    Feeding ewes. Feeding rates for ewes depend on the direction of their productivity, physiological state and body weight. Feeding rates for Romanov breed ewes, per head per day {foto51} Fertility, milkiness and wool productivity of ewes largely depends on the protein, mineral and vitamin full value of diets. By the beginning of the mating uterus should have an average
  15. After feeding
    After feeding the baby, it is very important to hold in an upright position for a while until the remnants of the air that has entered the feeding process come out of his stomach. Another important point: after feeding the baby should be laid out only on the side, and the right one will prevent milk from getting into the respiratory tract, if the child nevertheless burp, and, moreover, in this position it happens easier
  16. Hygiene rules
    Follow the feeding schedule. 2. To feed in the afternoon in regular intervals, it is better 3 than 2 times, newborns - 4-5 times a day. 3. The order of feeding the feed for herbivores, carnivorous and omnivorous animals: first juicy food, better root crops (beets - the most powerful plant activator of the pancreas and other glands of the digestive tract), then coarse food,
  17. Pre-breastfeeding
    In many maternity hospitals, it is customary, before the mother has milk, to feed the children with infant formula, cow's milk or water with glucose. The medical staff is afraid that in the first days, until the mother has milk in the required quantities, the child may get hungry or his body may be dehydrated. We now know that this kind of pre-breast feeding is not necessary. Child can from
  18. Willingness to stop feeding
    My baby is two weeks old, breastfeeding is not getting better. My nipples are inflamed, the baby does not look satisfied and friendly, I am also not satisfied. Help! Breastfeeding should be enjoyable, otherwise the human race would not have survived. From our experience it follows that breastfeeding is almost always improved, provided that the mother receives
  19. Night feeding
    Some mothers are trying to teach the child to sleep all night so as not to breastfeed him. However, it is better to feed the child at night as much as he wants. The easiest thing for a mother is to take the baby to his bed so that he can suckle without giving her too much care. Night feeding gives the baby extra time to suck breast. At night, more prolactin is released than during the day. Night
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