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Prevention of iron deficiency anemia



Prevention of iron deficiency in children and adolescents is a very urgent problem of pediatrics, especially in the first year of life. It is very important to raise the awareness of pediatricians and parents about possible latent iron deficiency in order to guarantee the earliest possible start of treatment in all children. Purposeful and effective prevention of IDA can be achieved if it is carried out primarily among children at high risk for the development of sideropenic states.

At the 1st year of life, children with an adverse antenatal history (pregnancy complicated by preeclampsia, iron deficiency anemia during pregnancy, extragenital pathology of the mother - chronic liver, kidney, and endocrine system diseases) are at increased risk. premature babies; children from multiple pregnancies, from poor material and living conditions; being on early mixed or artificial feeding with unadapted mixtures, receiving irrational feeding (vegetarian, flour or dairy ration, devoid of meat products); large children with a high rate of weight-height increases.

At an older age, the risk group for development of IDA includes: children after blood loss, surgery; girls in puberty after menstruation; children and teenagers are vegetarians; with rapid growth rates; with chronic diseases of the gastrointestinal tract, accompanied by malabsorption or maldigestia.

Antenatal prophylaxis of IDA in young children consists in taking iron supplements throughout the entire period of pregnancy at a dose of 40-60 mg of elemental iron per day.

Postnatal prevention of IDA

Breastfeeding is the natural prevention of anemia in children during the first months of life. During the entire period of breastfeeding a woman should take iron supplements or multivitamins enriched with iron at the rate of 40-60 mg of elemental iron per day.

When artificially fed to children at risk of anemia, mixtures enriched with iron are recommended (in the first half of the year, mixtures with an iron content of 4–8 mg / l - “Baby 1”, “Damil”, “Similac with iron”, “Gallia 1”, in the second half-year life - mixtures with an iron content of 12-14 mg / l - "Gallium 2", "Nutrilon 2", "Enfamil 2", "Baby 2".

An important direction for the prevention of iron deficiency is the proper organization of complementary foods, including the timely introduction into the diet of foods containing significant amounts of iron, and in the first place, specialized foods fortified with iron.
These products include, in particular, dry instantan porridges of industrial output, fruit juices and mashed potatoes, vegetable purees. It is also important to timely (not later than 7 months) the inclusion in the ration of meat and meat-and-vegetable puree, containing, as already noted, heme iron, which is absorbed much better than non-heme iron of grain and fruit and vegetable products of complementary foods. Moreover, meat and meat-and-vegetable canned food is often additionally enriched with iron, either in heme form (introducing liver or blood into canned food) or with non-heme iron (in the form of ferrous sulfate), which further enhances the role of these products as a source of iron.

Specific prevention of iron deficiency anemia is carried out with iron preparations at the rate of 1-2 mg / kg / day of elemental iron. Full-term children from the risk group for anemia, iron preparations are prescribed from 2 months of age during the first half of their life. Premature babies are given iron supplements from 2 months of age over 2 years of life.

The American Academy of Pediatrics (2001) recommends prescribing iron supplements at a prophylactic dose of 1–2 mg / kg / day for children aged 4–6 months who are breastfed, and after 6 months for non-enriched infants before 12-18 months of life.

The drug of choice for conducting specific prophylaxis of IDA is a representative of iron (III) - hydroxide-polymaltose complex - Maltofer.

Premature babies are threatened by the development of two types of anemia: early and late. Early anemia of prematurity develops as early as 1-1.5 months and is hemolytic in nature, associated with the acceleration of the life of red blood cells. In order to prevent early anemia in premature babies, from the 7th day of life, vitamin E is prescribed at 20 mg / kg per day, folic acid at 1 mg per day, group B vitamins for 1-2 months. Late anemia of prematurity is iron deficient and occurs at the age of 2-3 months. Its prevention is carried out after 2 months of age with iron supplements.

For the purpose of metabolic correction for the prevention and treatment of IDA in children in the first year of life, lipamide, calcium pantothenate, and vitamins of group B and E are prescribed (Appendix 4).

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Prevention of iron deficiency anemia

  1. Prevention of iron deficiency anemia
    Antenatal prophylaxis of IDA is reduced to the observance of the correct mode and nutrition of the pregnant woman, measures against premature birth, elimination of toxicosis, timely detection and treatment of anemia in pregnant women. Iron preparations are prescribed to women from risk groups: ¦ women of reproductive age who suffer from heavy and prolonged menstrual blood loss; ¦ staffing
  2. Iron deficiency anemia and methods of their prevention
    Health so far outweighs all the other benefits of life, that a truly healthy beggar is happier than a sick king. Arthur Schopenhauer. Anemia. Hemoglobin. Erythrocytes. Iron exchange. Iron rich foods. Anemia (from the Greek. An + haima - lack of + blood) or anemia - a pathological condition of the body, which reduces the amount of hemoglobin per unit volume of blood, which
  3. Clinic of iron deficiency anemia
    The development of iron deficiency in the body has a clear staging. The following consistently developing stages of iron deficiency are distinguished: • prelarent iron deficiency, • latent iron deficiency, • iron deficiency anemia. Prelactive iron deficiency is the first stage of development of the iron deficiency state, characterized by depletion of iron reserves in the bone marrow and liver. The patient
  4. Laboratory criteria for the diagnosis of iron deficiency anemia
    Diagnosis of IDA is based on the establishment of laboratory signs of anemia itself and iron deficiency in the body. Iron deficiency anemia is hypochromic, microcytic anemia. During the analysis of peripheral blood on a hematology analyzer, the following disorders are noted in IDA: • a decrease in hemoglobin of less than 110 g / l to 6 years, less than 120 g / l over 6 years, • a decrease in average
  5. Iron deficiency anemia
    Iron deficiency anemia (IDA) is a clinical and hematological syndrome, based on a violation of hemoglobin synthesis due to iron deficiency. IDA is the most common anemic syndrome and accounts for approximately 80% of all anemias. According to WHO, the number of people suffering from iron deficiency reaches 200 million people. Most often, IDA is detected in young children,
  6. IRON DEFICIENCY ANEMIA
    Iron deficiency anemia is the most common type of anemia (more than 80% of all forms), caused by a deficiency of serum iron, bone marrow and depot, which leads to trophic disorders in the tissues. Normally, the iron content in the plasma is 14-32 µmol / l. The lack of iron in the blood plasma is sideropenia, the lack of it in the tissues is called hyposiderosis. Depletion of tissue
  7. IRON DEFICIENCY ANEMIA
    The group of iron deficiency anemia combines numerous, different etiologies of anemic syndromes, the main pathogenetic factor of which is the lack of iron in the body (sideropenia, hyposiderosis). Hyposiderosis in the broad sense of the word means not only anemia on the basis of impaired hemoglobin formation. Depletion of tissue reserves of iron leads to frustration
  8. SYMPTOMATIC IRON DEFICIENCY ANEMIA, CHLORANEMIA
    Symptomatic iron deficiency anemia develops against the background of a specific etiologic factor: chronic enteritis, chronic nephritis (hloranemiya "braytikov"), in relation to gastric resection (agastricheskaya hloranemiya), occult blood loss (with hiatal hernia, "hernial" disease), malignant neoplasms ( cancrosis hyposiderosis), chronic infection
  9. Treatment of iron deficiency anemia
    The goal of treatment of iron deficiency is to eliminate iron deficiency and restore its reserves in the body. Etiological treatment involves the elimination of causes leading to the development of iron deficiency. Mode. An important link in the treatment of IDA is the proper organization of the regime and nutrition. An effective treatment and preventive measure is a long stay in the fresh air. Children
  10. Risk factors for iron deficiency anemia and contraindications for pregnancy
    Prevention of anemia is primarily necessary for pregnant women with a high risk of its development. The following main etiological factors for the development of iron deficiency anemia are distinguished. 1. Alimentary factor: • reduction of iron intake in the body with food (veggie diet, anorexia). 2. Burdened somatic history: • chronic diseases of internal organs (rheumatism, heart defects,
  11. Treatment of iron deficiency anemia
    Treatment of IDA should be comprehensive. Etiological treatment involves the elimination of causes leading to the development of iron deficiency. Regime The important links in complex therapy are proper organization of the regimen and nutrition. An effective treatment and preventive measure is a long stay in the fresh air. Children need sparing mode: physical exercise restriction,
  12. The role of the nutritional factor in the development of iron deficiency anemia
    Nutritional disorders occupy an important place among the causes of iron deficiency anemia. These disorders can lead to a decrease in iron intake in the child’s body, a breakdown in iron absorption, or an increase in its elimination from the body. When considering the issue of iron intake with food in the body of children, a separate analysis is necessary in children who are on the chest and artificial
  13. Treatment and prevention of anemia
    The most common is iron deficiency anemia. Pregnant women with iron deficiency anemia, in addition to drug therapy, are prescribed a special diet. Developed certain rules for the treatment of iron deficiency anemia. 1. The inefficiency of using only dietary diet. It is a well-known fact that 2.5 mg of iron per day is absorbed from food, while from medicinal
  14. ANEMIA UNDER CONDITIONS OF FUNCTIONAL AGASTRY (AGASTRAL ANEMIA)
    In contrast to the actual agastric anemia associated with partial or complete anatomical removal of the stomach, we distinguish anemia that develops in conditions of functional agastria, when the anatomically preserved stomach partially or completely turns off from the physiological process of digestion and, in particular, loses the ability to assimilate the external antianemic factor - Vitamin B12.
  15. ANEMIA DUE TO TOXIC EXPOSURE OF THE BONE MARROW (MYETHOXICAL ANEMIA)
    THYROORTHEUS ANEMIA Thyroid stimulation anemia is anemia that develops on the basis of hypothyroidism. Experimental work confirms the important role of thyroid hormone - thyroxin - in stimulating normal blood formation. Animals deprived of the thyroid gland, quickly anemiziruyutsya, the introduction of the same thyroid drugs to thyroidectomized animals cures them from the effects of thyroid-induced
  16. Anemia associated with impaired synthesis of DNA and RNA (megaloblastic anemia)
    Megaloblastic anemia unites a group of acquired and hereditary anemias, a common feature of which is the presence of megaloblasts in the bone marrow. Regardless of the etiology of the patients, hyperchromic anemia with characteristic changes in the erythrocyte morphology is revealed - oval red blood cells, large (up to 12-14 microns or more). There are red blood cells with basophilic cytoplasm, in many of
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