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Contraindications to breastfeeding


There are few absolute contraindications to breastfeeding, although there have been many such contraindications in the past. The literature published in the former Soviet Union included kidney failure, heart failure, cancer, psychiatric diseases, thyrotoxicosis, acute viral and bacterial infection, high fever of unknown origin, and hemolytic disease of the newborn, but now it is no longer considered a contraindication. The main contraindications are infection of the mother with certain viruses, especially HIV, and some medications that are taken by women during breastfeeding.
HIV infection
It is now recognized that if an HIV-infected woman breastfeeds, there is a risk that her baby will become infected with HIV through her milk. Therefore, it is extremely important to develop strategic measures to reduce or eliminate this route of transmission.
In countries where industrial nutrients are available and affordable, and where sanitary conditions are such that an artificially fed baby is not exposed to an excessive risk of bacterial contamination, it is not recommended for HIV-infected mothers to breastfeed. But in many countries, and especially in countries with a high prevalence of HIV, the situation is quite different, and there is an urgent need to develop policy measures to solve this problem.
In September 1999, WHO, UNICEF and the United Nations Program on AIDS (UNAIDS) published a joint policy statement on HIV and infant feeding (Appendix 2), which takes into account available scientific evidence of transmission through breast milk and It supports the freedom of HIV-infected mothers to choose on the basis of complete information the methods of feeding babies. In 1998, these three institutions issued a series of guidelines (78) designed to help decision makers determine what actions should be taken in their countries or areas. First and foremost, health care workers should ensure that the policy measures developed are in accordance with human rights agreements and above all stipulate that:
All men and women, regardless of their HIV status, have the right to determine the course of changes in their reproductive health and have access to information and services that allow them to protect their health and that of their families. When it comes to the welfare of children, decisions must be made that best suit the interests of the children.
The overall goal is to prevent the transmission of HIV infection in breast milk, but at the same time continue to protect, promote and support breastfeeding in women who are not infected with HIV, and women whose HIV status is unknown. These issues are diversified and concern decision-makers in many areas of activity, such as health care, nutrition, family planning, education, social security. More details on ways to prevent mother-to-child transmission of HIV, as well as key elements necessary for adopting policies on HIV infection and infant feeding, are discussed in Appendix 2.
Environmental contamination
Concerns have already been raised about the threat posed to infants by breast milk contaminated with pollutants in the environment. However, the risk of sustained exposure to a chemical through breastfeeding must be matched with the risk of infection or deprivation of the opportunity to receive full nutrition, which occurs when breastfeeding is limited or stopped (79). Thus, despite the presence of polychlorinated biphenyls, dioxins and furans in breast milk, breastfeeding should be encouraged and promoted, since there is strong evidence of breast milk benefits for general health and development of infants (80).
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Contraindications to breastfeeding

  1. Breastfeeding: the onset, duration, and practice of exclusive breastfeeding
    Due to the lack of comprehensive and comparable data and unified international definitions, it is difficult to make any general statements about the prevalence of breastfeeding in the WHO European Region. Data on the percentage of children who are breastfed are shown in Fig. 8, taken from various sources (27). These data must be approached carefully: survey methods
  2. Maternal breastfeeding support group in Samara. Breastfeeding the most important issues, 2014

  3. FEEDING SCIENCE: WHY BREASTFEEDING?
    We often wonder why some mothers do not breastfeed. From our point of view, breastfeeding is a natural extension of the relationship that began in the womb. Maybe some women are convinced that breastfeeding does not really matter. Having studied Chapter 1, you will understand the benefits of breastfeeding for both the mother and the baby. We believe that if you rate
  4. When do babies need more than one breast milk and how long should the baby be breastfed?
    Feed your baby exclusively with breast milk up to 6 months of age. At about 6 months of age, all babies, along with breast milk, need extra food, but ideally continue to breastfeed for up to a year and
  5. Breastfeeding Alternatives
    Usually breastfeeding is the best way to feed infants. Nevertheless, there are situations when it may be preferable or it is necessary to replace breast milk with any alternative. In addition to the contraindications briefly described above, circumstances arise where, despite all efforts to continue breastfeeding, the mother cannot maintain lactation for
  6. Breastfeeding support
    POLICIES AIMED AT SUPPORTING BREASTFEEDING In 1989, the World Health Organization and the United Nations Children's Fund issued a joint statement on the role of mother support services in the protection, promotion and support of breastfeeding. This statement provides the most up-to-date scientific knowledge and practical experience in organizing the EB in the form of accurate, universally acceptable recommendations
  7. Breast-feeding
    During the first 6 months of life, babies should be exclusively breastfed. This means that a practically healthy child should receive breast milk and no other food or liquid, such as water, tea, juice, cereal decoction, animal milk or infant formula. Exclusively breastfed babies or babies in
  8. BREASTFEEDING AND HIS ALTERNATIVES
    All babies should be exclusively breastfed from birth to approximately 6 months of age, but in any case during the first 4 months of life. It is preferable to continue breastfeeding after the first year of life, and in populations with a high prevalence of infections, the continuation of breastfeeding for the whole second
  9. HEALTHY BREASTFEEDING
    The food you eat affects your milk. Breastfeeding can be an incentive that will help improve eating habits or continue the healthy diet that you started during pregnancy. In this section, you will receive information about nutrition and nutrition-related issues. We want you to be healthier and thinner after you’re finished breastfeeding. Many mothers say
  10. Exclusive or partial breastfeeding
    Exceptional breastfeeding means that the baby does not receive any other nutrition than breast milk, does not even take a pacifier. If a child is given vitamins or ritual food in small quantities, either water or juice, this is almost exclusive breastfeeding. Partial breastfeeding means that the baby is partially on the breast, and partially on the artificial
  11. Breastfeeding Consultant
    Breastfeeding counselors have always existed. It was just that their functions were performed by mothers, older sisters, or midwives — midwives who took birth in poor women and aristocratic women. The skill of the midwives was handed down from generation to generation, was kept secret and included not only the skills of giving birth, but also elements of modern osteopathy, knowledge of medicinal herbs and,
  12. Practical aspects of breastfeeding
    How to start breastfeeding Immediately after birth, a healthy baby instinctively searches for food. In the first few hours of life outside the womb, the baby is lively, active, and ready to feed, so ideally breastfeeding should begin within the first hour. To facilitate this process, it is necessary to maintain the skin contact of the child with the mother directly from the moment of birth until
  13. Basic rules for breastfeeding
    Breastfeeding opportunity Everybody can breastfeed! Breastfeeding in the presence of a live and healthy infant is impossible only when there is no mother or she has both mammary glands removed. Biological mother can feed twins, and even triplets, without using additional feeding for up to 5 months. Even twins and triplets can grow exclusively breastfed up to 4-5 months.
  14. BREASTFEEDING IN THE MODERN WORLD
    Work and breastfeed? We will show you how. Want to combine breastfeeding and bottle feeding? No problems! In 1998, the highest rates of breastfeeding were recorded, as its advantages became known, and more and more mothers find it possible to breastfeed their baby, despite the difficulties of living in the 21st century. In this section, you will learn how
  15. THE ROLE OF THE FATHER IN FOOD FEEDING
    Maybe this is not obvious, but the role of fathers in ensuring that mother feeding is successful is extremely important. Sadly, most fathers go to all antenatal classes, except for breastfeeding. Many fathers feel out of a tight breastfeeding cup. They observe how mothers build close symbiotic relationships with the newborn, and they want to know if there is any
  16. Breastfeeding Importance
    Breastfeeding is deeply embedded in human consciousness as a natural-fundamental phenomenon of life, as a miracle almost equal to the birth itself. It is also reflected in history and art and captured in them along with the eternal themes of Love, Life, Birth and Death. A real hymn to motherhood is the re-creation on canvases of the greatest artists of the world of the image of Madonna and Child, and often
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