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Contraindications to breastfeeding
There are few absolute contraindications to breastfeeding, although there have been many such contraindications in the past. The literature published in the former Soviet Union included kidney failure, heart failure, cancer, psychiatric diseases, thyrotoxicosis, acute viral and bacterial infection, high fever of unknown origin, and hemolytic disease of the newborn, but now it is no longer considered a contraindication. The main contraindications are infection of the mother with certain viruses, especially HIV, and some medications that are taken by women during breastfeeding.
It is now recognized that if an HIV-infected woman breastfeeds, there is a risk that her baby will become infected with HIV through her milk. Therefore, it is extremely important to develop strategic measures to reduce or eliminate this route of transmission.
In countries where industrial nutrients are available and affordable, and where sanitary conditions are such that an artificially fed baby is not exposed to an excessive risk of bacterial contamination, it is not recommended for HIV-infected mothers to breastfeed. But in many countries, and especially in countries with a high prevalence of HIV, the situation is quite different, and there is an urgent need to develop policy measures to solve this problem.
In September 1999, WHO, UNICEF and the United Nations Program on AIDS (UNAIDS) published a joint policy statement on HIV and infant feeding (Appendix 2), which takes into account available scientific evidence of transmission through breast milk and It supports the freedom of HIV-infected mothers to choose on the basis of complete information the methods of feeding babies. In 1998, these three institutions issued a series of guidelines (78) designed to help decision makers determine what actions should be taken in their countries or areas. First and foremost, health care workers should ensure that the policy measures developed are in accordance with human rights agreements and above all stipulate that:
All men and women, regardless of their HIV status, have the right to determine the course of changes in their reproductive health and have access to information and services that allow them to protect their health and that of their families. When it comes to the welfare of children, decisions must be made that best suit the interests of the children.
The overall goal is to prevent the transmission of HIV infection in breast milk, but at the same time continue to protect, promote and support breastfeeding in women who are not infected with HIV, and women whose HIV status is unknown. These issues are diversified and concern decision-makers in many areas of activity, such as health care, nutrition, family planning, education, social security. More details on ways to prevent mother-to-child transmission of HIV, as well as key elements necessary for adopting policies on HIV infection and infant feeding, are discussed in Appendix 2.
Concerns have already been raised about the threat posed to infants by breast milk contaminated with pollutants in the environment. However, the risk of sustained exposure to a chemical through breastfeeding must be matched with the risk of infection or deprivation of the opportunity to receive full nutrition, which occurs when breastfeeding is limited or stopped (79). Thus, despite the presence of polychlorinated biphenyls, dioxins and furans in breast milk, breastfeeding should be encouraged and promoted, since there is strong evidence of breast milk benefits for general health and development of infants (80).
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Contraindications to breastfeeding
- Breastfeeding: the onset, duration, and practice of exclusive breastfeeding
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How to start breastfeeding Immediately after birth, a healthy baby instinctively searches for food. In the first few hours of life outside the womb, the baby is lively, active, and ready to feed, so ideally breastfeeding should begin within the first hour. To facilitate this process, it is necessary to maintain the skin contact of the child with the mother directly from the moment of birth until
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- BREASTFEEDING IN THE MODERN WORLD
Work and breastfeed? We will show you how. Want to combine breastfeeding and bottle feeding? No problems! In 1998, the highest rates of breastfeeding were recorded, as its advantages became known, and more and more mothers find it possible to breastfeed their baby, despite the difficulties of living in the 21st century. In this section, you will learn how
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