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The role of genetic, hereditary factors in the process of growth and development.


The growth of the child is a programmed process of increasing the length and body weight, inseparable from its development, the formation of functional systems. The genetic program provides the life cycle of individual development.
Currently, more than 50 genes are located that are located on almost all chromosomes (except the sex) and are called proto-oncogenes. They control the processes of normal growth and differentiation of cells.
Under gene control is the synthesis of all hormones and factors that regulate the growth of hormone-binding proteins, as well as cellular receptors for various hormones and factors.
The most important manifestation of gene regulation is the body's ability to stabilize the growth process and return to a given program in cases where physical development is impaired by any external factors (starvation, infection, etc.).
C. Waddington (1957) defined the indicated property of an organism as sewerage (entry into the program) or homeoresis.
Homeoresis is manifested, for example, in the fact that premature babies in terms of development catch up with their peers by 3 years of life (accelerated, or compensatory, growth).
The genes that control the growth and development of the child determine the age-related sensitivity of the receptor apparatus of cells to various hormones, mediators and factors, and through them the intensity and age-related characteristics of metabolism and energy.
In the process of growth, the gene regulation of metabolism and energy is supplemented by an increasingly advanced neuroendocrine regulation, linking the genetic development program with environmental conditions.
Due to the changing interaction of gene and neuroendocrine regulation, each developmental period is characterized by special rates of physical growth, age-related physiological and behavioral reactions.
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The role of genetic, hereditary factors in the process of growth and development.

  1. Biological mechanisms of growth. The role of genetic and environmental factors in promoting growth.
    It is safe to say that the genetic factor is crucial in determining physical development. As you know, a person inherits a set of genetic traits equally from his father and mother. A large statistical material revealed a pattern that establishes the expected growth of the offspring depending on the growth of the parents. Using simple formulas, you can calculate the expected
  2. Malformations of the maxillofacial apparatus. The role of genetic factors in their development
    One of the most common malformations in humans, accounting for about 30% of all congenital malformations, is cleft lip and palate. The frequency of cleft lip and palate corresponds to a ratio of 1: 1000. Hereditary causes were identified in 10-15% of patients, a dominant disease. The cause of congenital malformations can also be maternal illness during pregnancy (infectious diseases, diseases
  3. THE ROLE OF SEPARATE FACTORS IN THE DEVELOPMENT OF CONGENITAL AND HEREDITARY DISEASES IN CHILDREN
    Age of mother. It has the greatest significance in the development of hereditary diseases associated with non-divergence of chromosomes in meiosis. The older the woman, the longer the time span between meiosis – I and meiosis – II, and the higher the likelihood of a disturbance in the normal formation of the egg. So, with the age of the mother, the risk of having a baby with Down syndrome increases. High frequency is also set.
  4. CONGENITAL HEMOLITIC ANEMIA CONDITIONED BY GENETIC (HEREDITARY-FAMILY) FACTORS
    CONGENITAL HEMOLYTIC ANEMIA CONDITIONED BY GENETIC (HEREDITARY-FAMILY)
  5. Conditionality of growth and development by environmental factors.
    The growth and physical development of children is influenced by environmental factors: the state of atmospheric air, the composition of drinking water, the nature of nutrition, the magnitude of solar radiation, etc. The influence of natural environmental factors on the physical development of children is regulated by the influence of social living conditions. This was most clearly shown in studies that revealed a decrease in the level of physical
  6. The role of heredity and environment in the development of the personality of a serviceman
    By heredity is meant the reproduction in descendants of biological similarities with parents. Heredity is a person’s genetic program that determines his genotype. Hereditary programs for human development include a deterministic and variable part, defining both the general that makes a person human and the special that makes people so different from each other
  7. CORRELATION OF GENETIC FACTORS AND ENVIRONMENTAL CONDITIONS IN PATHOLOGY DEVELOPMENT
    The facts accumulated to date by medical genetics allow us to present the whole variety of relationships between heredity and the environment in a generalized form. Imagine a situation where the contribution of heredity to the development of a trait, including a pathological one, is zero. This would mean that the trait is completely formed by the external environment, without any involvement of the genotype. In other words, Wednesday
  8. Features of the development of the inflammatory reaction depending on the localization of inflammation, the reactivity of the organism, the nature of the etiological factor. The role of age in the development of inflammation
    Regardless of the localization of the inflammatory process and the origin of the etiological factor in the zone of acute inflammation, a standard complex of vascular and tissue changes always occurs. The reaction from the tissues to the action of the damaging factor is phase in nature and is manifested by alteration, exudation and proliferation. Along with tissue disorders, a complex of vascular
  9. The role of nutritional factor in the development of iron deficiency anemia
    Alimentary disorders occupy an important place among the causes of the development of iron deficiency anemia. These disorders can lead to a decrease in the intake of iron in the child’s body, impaired absorption of iron, or an increase in its excretion from the body. When considering the intake of iron with food into the body of children, a separate analysis is needed in children on breast and artificial
  10. The role of biological and social factors in the mental development of the child
    The mental development of children depends on many circumstances. Here we have a five-year-old child who knows how to pronounce only a few words indistinctly, drags the doll extended to him in his mouth, and draws incomprehensible scribbles with a pencil on paper. What's the matter? Maybe the child suffered a serious brain disease? And perhaps he is pedagogically neglected - they never talk to him, don't play, don't do anything
  11. Theme "The role of natural factors in the preservation and development of health"
    Using natural factors to restore health (sun, air, water). 2. Physical means of restoring individual health: shower, bath, steam bath, dry-air sauna. 3. Hygienic standards for the health-improving effectiveness of these procedures. 4. Analysis of unconventional methods of hardening and recovery
  12. RISK FACTORS OF CARDIOVASCULAR DISEASES AND THEIR ROLE IN THE DEVELOPMENT OF ATHEROSCLEROSIS
    RISK FACTORS OF CARDIOVASCULAR DISEASES AND THEIR ROLE IN DEVELOPMENT
  13. The influence of various factors on the development of the epidemic process
    The epidemic process of respiratory infections is constantly influenced by various social, natural and biological factors of human life. So, in schools and preschool institutions with well-established ventilation and heating, the incidence of acute respiratory infections (ceteris paribus) is always lower than among children living in similar rooms with
  14. MEDICAL-GENETIC CONSULTING AND PRENATAL DIAGNOSTICS OF HEREDITARY DISEASES
    Hereditary diseases (disturbance of the genetic apparatus) and congenital malformations (without disturbance of the genetic apparatus) occupy the 2-3rd place among all causes of perinatal mortality. More than 2500 nosological forms of hereditary diseases are known that affect all organs, systems of the body and disrupt its functions. Severe hereditary pathology causing death or
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