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Your questions on breastfeeding and childcare and answers to them
After birth, a lot of milk comes, and as far as I know: a newborn baby needs very little. Is it worth immediately after delivery to decant? As a rule, a large amount of milk comes on the third or fifth day after birth? The first two days the breast produces colostrum and is usually not full. When staying together, when a mother can feed a baby not according to a strict regime, but on demand, milk comes in the rhythm of “demand-arrival”. This means that there is as much milk as the baby needs. If this rhythm began to be debugged from the first day of the crumbs life, the active arrival of milk is not dangerous. In this situation, there is no need for regular pumping. When milk comes in and painful fullness of the breast is noted, you can express it for two days before you feel relieved, but no more than three times a day. As a rule, after two days the discomfort disappears and the flow of milk is normalized. The need for regular pumping 5-6 times a day arises if there is no joint stay in the maternity hospital and the baby is brought in according to the schedule or for some reason is not brought at all. Do I need to decant if I feed my baby not according to the regimen, but on demand. And if the milk does not burn out in the breast, if not to express it? If you feed the baby on demand, there is no need to express milk after each feeding. During normal lactation, pumping only takes time from the mother, which would be better to devote to the baby or household chores. Draining is necessary for problems: when engaging the breast, treating lactostasis or mastitis, in case of a forced separation of the mother and child, in order to preserve the milk, while treating nipple cracks, etc. The need for pumping is determined by a breastfeeding consultant, because regular additional pumping leads to a reduction in the amount of milk and cessation of lactation. But the opinion that milk can burn out in the breast, if it is not decanted, belongs to prejudice and has no relation to life. Being in the mammary gland, the milk can not spoil. Therefore, if a woman does not decant, her milk always remains full. Mother and mother-in-law claim that I have to express the milk to the end. Is it correct? It is impossible to drain the milk “to the end” - it is emitted from the breast in a continuous stream. Even when the trickles have stopped beating, it continues to flow in a drop. Moreover, regular pumping is not needed. They lead to injuries of the breast, take a long time for the woman and turn the feeding process into a burden. In order for feeding to be successful, it is necessary to abandon pumping and establish frequent feeding of the child at least 12 times a day. How often should a baby be weighed? To make sure that the baby has enough breast milk, it can be weighed monthly or twice a month, and if something is bothering, then weekly. A healthy child with adequate nutrition every week adds in weight from 120 to 500 grams. Frequent checkweighing done once a day or even several times a day does not give objective information about the usefulness of the infant’s food, they simply irritate the mother and the child, as a result of which the mother decreases lactation and the infant stops gaining weight. I was advised to feed from both breasts in one feeding, but I do not know how long the baby should suck one breast and when to offer him the second? Do not shift to the second breast before it sucks the first one. The milk in the breast is heterogeneous: it is divided into the early milk that the baby receives at the beginning of feeding, and later the milk that it receives at the end. Early milk is more liquid and sweet, and later - more dense and satisfying. Thus, at the beginning of feeding, the child drinks, and at the end - eats. If you hurry to offer your baby a second breast, then he will not receive late milk rich in fats. As a result, he may have problems with digestion: lactase deficiency, frothy stools, etc. Long sucking of one breast (30 minutes - 1 hour) will ensure the full functioning of the intestines. Therefore, it is better to alternate feeding from the left and right breast after 1 - 3 hours. For example, if the baby sucked the right breast for 1 hour, then fell asleep for 30 minutes and, having woken up, asked for the breast, then he could be offered the left breast. And if the baby sucked the right breast for 15 minutes, then slept 30 minutes and again asks the breast, it should be applied to the same breast. I breastfeed my newborn exclusively. Do I need to feed or feed a baby? Breast milk is a balanced food and drink for babies. It completely satisfies all vital needs of the child. With well-organized breastfeeding, including proper attachment, frequent and prolonged feeding of the child and joint sleep, the baby does not need additional nutrition for up to 6 months of life. In order to maintain proper breastfeeding and child health, you should completely abandon feeding your baby, not only with water, but also with various teas, dill water, etc. Previously, pediatricians advised to feed the baby with water, because they considered milk only food and were afraid of dehydration of his body. These fears are groundless. Breast milk contains 87-90% of water, so with full frequent breastfeeding, the baby’s need for fluid is fully met. Many studies show that even in hot climates, breast milk fully satisfies all the needs of the baby for fluids. In addition, the centers of thirst and satiety in the brain of a newborn almost coincide and these needs are met simultaneously. When we add water, we cheat the baby, creating a false sense of satiety, and this leads to sluggish sucking and reducing the need for breast milk. When feeding a baby, mothers lose milk and stop breastfeeding by 3-6 months. Many mothers and pediatricians say that the baby cannot be held at the breast for more than 10 minutes, as prolonged sucking leads to the appearance of cracks. But from other moms I heard that their children sucked their breasts for an hour, but there were no cracks. Why do cracks really arise? The appearance of cracks in the nipples is due to the correctness of the attachment, and not to the duration of sucking the breast. If you put your baby in the chest correctly and feed him in a comfortable position, no cracks will arise. Lactation consultants will help you learn how to properly attach. If you are sure that the baby is sucking in the correct position, he can stay at the breast for an arbitrarily long time: you should stop feeding when the child releases the breast. Another cause of nipple injuries is regular washing of the breast before and after each feeding. If mom washes her breasts with soap and even treats her with green paint, she may have cracks even with proper attachment to her breasts. Frequent washing and processing with alcohol destroy the protective layer on the skin of the nipple and the areola, which is produced by special glands located around the nipple. This protective lubricant is necessary in order to prevent moisture loss. In addition, it has bactericidal properties and inhibits the growth of pathogenic microorganisms - it is this protective layer that prevents the occurrence of nipple injuries. I expect the birth of a second child. I did not manage to nurse the first child. I'd like at least to feed the second child with breast milk. Please tell us what to do? In order for any woman to breastfeed her baby, it is necessary to follow a number of simple rules. These are physiologically sound rules, the expediency of which has been proven by many studies of the World Health Organization, the International Dairy League, as well as a number of other independent researchers. Here are the rules. Early breastfeeding The first attachment of a newborn to a mother’s breast should occur during the first hour of a baby’s life. It is the first attachment, carried out in physiological terms, allows the baby to form a stable habit to correctly capture the breast. In addition, when you first attach the baby receives the first drops of colostrum - only 2 milliliters. Nevertheless, even this amount of colostrum plays an important role in the formation of immunity and reducing the incidence of newborns, is an important point in stimulating lactation and ensuring its success and duration. The exclusion of pre-breastfeeding Dogrudnom called the first feeding of a newborn not from the mother's breast, but from a bottle. If the child was taken away from the mother and for the first time he did not receive the mother’s breast, but the nipple, then the danger that the mother might stop feeding or not breastfeeding at all increases significantly. Pre-breastfeeding is very dangerous for the following reasons: · the baby does not receive colostrum - the earliest and healing food; · If the baby is started to be fed not from the breast, but from a bottle, then he may have a nipple confusion and he will not be able to willingly and successfully take the mother’s breast Thanks to WHO research, it has been established that even one or two pre-breastfeeding is enough for breastfeeding to fail. Mother-and-child care together Immediately after the mother and child are transferred from the delivery room to the post-partum department, they should be provided with a joint stay in the mother-child ward, where the baby’s bed is placed directly beside the mother’s bed. The mother is given the opportunity to communicate with the child from the very beginning. She can be in the same bed with him, sleep with him, breastfeed, wash him if necessary, take her in her arms whenever she wants. From the moment mothers and newborns enter the shared-care ward, the process of their mutual adaptation and mutual learning of breastfeeding begins. Exclusive breastfeeding in the first days of a child’s life. It is very important that there is no additional feeding and feeding of the child in the first days after birth. Colostrum is the most valuable nutrition for newborns and ideally matches their specific needs. Colostrum contains little liquid, which protects the newly developed kidneys of the newborn from unbearable stress. The baby still can not cope with large volumes of fluid without experiencing stress. With a small amount of colostrum contains extremely many nutrients and immune factors. Their density in colostrum is several times higher than in mature milk. The level of protective factors of colostrum is so high that it can be considered not only as a food product, but also as a medicine. Colostrum immune factors help the child's digestive system to prepare for the process of nutrition. They cover the immature surface of the intestine, thus protecting it from bacteria, viruses, parasites and other pathogenic factors. Colostrum, like the successive milk, acts as an activator of the development of the baby. Therefore, the introduction of newborn breast milk substitutes can be regarded as a gross interference in the functioning of his body. Additional feeding of the newborn in the first days of life is possible only if the baby was born by caesarean section and the mother’s milk production process is disrupted.
Proper attachment to the breast If the child correctly captures and sucks the mother's breast, then it can suck indefinitely without causing any problems to the mother. Proper attachment to the breast saves a woman from cracks and nipple abrasions, lactostasis, i.e. obstruction of the milk duct, and mastitis. Therefore, it is very important to learn how to properly attach the child to the breast and follow it. If the baby captured the breast incorrectly or changed the position during feeding, it is necessary to take away the breast and offer it to capture it again. When properly attached: · feeding the child does not cause pain, the pain can occur only at the time the baby seizes the breast; · There are no nipple injuries, mastitis and other problems; · The baby sucks enough milk; · Duration of feeding does not matter. If applied improperly: · when feeding a child, painful sensations occur; · Nipple damage, mastitis, lactostasis and other problems occur; · There is a need to limit the time of feeding; · The baby sucks little milk and does not eat enough. It is very important that when feeding the mother takes a comfortable position and gives a comfortable position to the child. Convenient posture when feeding provides a good outflow of milk from the breast and is the prevention of lactostasis. Feeding on Demand The frequency of feeding should be regulated by the child. Any anxiety, crying, or searching behavior of a child when he turns his head and catches nearby objects with his mouth is an expression of the requirement to attach himself to the chest. The babe of the first months of life should be applied to the chest for any reason, giving him the opportunity to suck on his breast whenever he wants and how much he wants. This is necessary not only for the satiation of the child, but also for his psychoemotional comfort. For psychological comfort, the baby can be applied to the breast up to 4 times per hour. In total, the baby's first months of life during the day is 12-20 feedings. Do not be afraid that with frequent stitching the baby will move. The gastrointestinal tract of the child is not adapted for feeding by the hour, but for continuous feeding! The intestines of the infant are adapted for the assimilation of breast milk in unlimited quantities. At the beginning of a child’s life, the activity of his own enzymes is low, but the constant supply of active substances of breast milk stimulates the activity of the child’s enzymes. In addition, breast milk contains enzymes that help your own absorption. Thus, breast milk is a unique food that helps itself absorb. That is why it is absorbed much better than any super-mixture. The mother herself should offer the baby the breast for any reason. She should be bothered if the child has not been attached to the breast for a long time. Duration of feeding If the baby is full, he stops sucking and releases the breast himself. There is no need to interrupt feeding after a certain period of time or to take away the breast from the child. Different children remain at the breast for a different time duration. Most of them are saturated in 20-40 minutes, and some babies can suck 1 hour or more. The duration of sucking is determined by the feeling of saturation of the child. Recent studies have shown that “lazy suckers” eat as much milk as “active” ones. If the lazy sucker takes the breast prematurely, he will not receive the amount of milk he needs for normal growth. Therefore, the mother should give the child the opportunity to decide when to stop feeding. Especially valuable are the moments when a child sleeps at the breast and sucks it slowly - it is at this time that he is fully saturated. The mother should be concerned if the baby sucks only 5-10 minutes and does not want to sleep under the breast. Night feeding and joint sleep Night feeding is necessary to maintain a full-fledged long-term lactation. Sucking the breast between 3 and 8 o'clock in the morning stimulates the production of milk in sufficient quantities for subsequent daily feedings. For better development, the child must necessarily receive both day and night milk. The joint dream of mother and child makes night feeding easier and allows mom to rest better. For a child who sleeps beside him, he does not need to get up and sleep with him is much calmer and longer. Therefore, the mother's sleep becomes more complete in depth and duration. The opinion that the mother can lean on and “let her down” the baby is unreasonable. A woman can harm a newborn only if she is intoxicated or has taken a sleeping pill. The risk of "sudden death" is much higher among children who sleep separately from their mother. In addition, night feedings for up to 6 months protect women from the next pregnancy in 96% of cases. If a woman is concerned about the life and health of her child, when he sleeps separately from her, it means she has become a real mother. Elimination of infant feeding Breast milk is a balanced food and drink for babies. It completely satisfies all vital needs of the child. With properly organized breastfeeding, including the correct attachment, frequent and prolonged feeding of the child, joint sleep and night feeding - the baby does not need additional nutrition. An infant does not need additional nutrition until 6 months of age. Elimination of child feeding To preserve proper breastfeeding and child health, mothers should completely abandon child feeding not only with water, but also with various teas, dill water, etc. Previously, pediatricians advised to feed the child with water, because they considered breast milk only food and were afraid of dehydration of his body. These fears are groundless. Breast milk contains 87-90% of water, so with full frequent breastfeeding, the baby’s need for fluid is fully met. Many studies have shown that even in a hot climate, mother's milk fully satisfies all the needs of the child for fluids. In addition, the centers of thirst and satiety in the brain of a newborn practically coincide and are satisfied simultaneously. При допаивании водой мы обманываем малыша, создавая у него ложное чувство сытости. Это приводит к вялому сосанию и уменьшению потребности в грудном молоке. При допаивании ребенка матери теряют молоко и прекращают кормить грудью к 3-6 месяцам. Опасность использования сосок и пустышек Грудь и соску или пустышку дети сосут по-разному. Ребенок, которого покормили из бутылочки, будет неправильно брать материнскую грудь и поэтому после бутылочного кормления у мамы могут возникнуть проблемы. Многочисленные примеры доказывают, что порой, даже одного кормления из бутылочки достаточно, чтобы ребенок отказался от груди и возникла масса осложнений с дальнейшим грудным вскармливанием. Не менее опасным является использование пустышки. Ребенок, получающий пустышку, реже прикладывается к груди. В результате он недополучает материнского молока и хуже набирает в весе. При использовании пустышки у детей тоже возникает «путаница сосков» и они чаще отказываются от груди. Если женщина действительно хочет выкормить ребенка грудью, то среди предметов ухода за малышом не должно быть бутылочки с соской и пустышки. Кормление из обеих грудей Не следует перекладывать ребенка ко второй груди раньше, чем он высосет первую. Молоко в материнской груди неоднородно. Оно делится на ранее молоко, которое ребенок получает вначале кормления, и позднее молоко, которое ребенок получает в конце кормления. Ранее молоко более жидкое и сладкое, а позднее — более густое и сытное. Таким образом, вначале кормления ребенок пьет, а в конце кормления — ест. Если мать поторопиться предложить малышу вторую грудь, то он не дополучит позднего молока, богатого жирами. В результате у него могут возникнуть проблемы с пищеварением: лактозная недостаточность, пенистый стул и т.д. Продолжительное сосание одной груди, около 30 минут — 1 часа, обеспечит полноценную работу кишечника. Кормление из обеих грудей может потребоваться ребенку после 3 месяцев. Мытье груди При мытье груди, особенно с мылом, с кожи соска и околососкового пространства удаляется защитный слой жиров, который содержит защитные факторы, предотвращающие проникновение в кожу груди болезнетворных микробов. Частое мытье сосков с мылом сушит кожу и приводит к образованию ссадин, трещин и мастита. Поэтому не следует мыть грудь перед каждым кормлением. Достаточно мыть грудь ежедневно или один раз в 3 дня при приеме обычного гигиенического душа. Сцеживание Если мать кормит ребенка по требованию, то нет необходимости в сцеживании молока после каждого кормления. При нормальной лактации сцеживание препятствует естественному вскармливанию, поскольку оно отнимает время, которое лучше посвятить ребенку или домашним делам, и доставляет неудобства. Сцеживание бывает необходимо при проблемах: при нагрубании груди, лечении лактостаза или мастита, при недостатке молока для увеличения его выработки, в случае вынужденного разлучения матери и ребенка, чтобы сохранить молоко, при лечении трещин сосков и т.д. Необходимость в сцеживании определяет консультант по грудному вскармливанию. Регулярное дополнительное сцеживание приводит к сокращению количества молока и прекращению лактации. Взвешивание ребенка Чтобы убедиться в том, что ребенку хватает грудного молока его можно взвешивать ежемесячно или раз в 2 месяца, а если что-то беспокоит, то еженедельно. Здоровый ребенок при достаточном питании каждую неделю прибавляет в весе от 120 до 500 грамм. Частые контрольные взвешивания, производимые 1 раз в день или даже несколько раз в день, не дают объективной информации о полноценности питания младенца. Контрольные взвешивания нервируют мать и ребенка, в результате чего у матери снижается лактация, а младенец перестает прибавлять в весе. Поддержка матери Для успешного грудного вскармливания матерям необходимо общение с более опытными женщинами, имеющими положительный опыт грудного вскармливания. Это помогает молодой матери обрести уверенность в своих силах и получить практические советы, помогающие наладить кормление грудью. Therefore, young mothers are advised to contact the maternal breastfeeding support groups as early as possible. Женщины, воспользовавшиеся поддержкой опытных матерей или консультантов по грудному вскармливанию, в 9 случаях из 10 успешно кормят грудью до 1,5 лет и более. Не перегорает ли молоко в груди, если его не сцеживать? Мнение, что молоко может перегореть в груди, если его не сцедить, относится к предрассудкам и не имеет никакого отношения к жизни. Находясь в молочной железе, молоко не может испортиться. Поэтому если женщина не сцеживается ее молоко всегда остается полноценным. Нужно ли сцеживать молоко до конца? Сцедить молоко «до конца» невозможно — оно выделяется из груди непрекращающимся потоком. Даже когда перестали бить струйки оно продолжает течь по капельке. Более того, регулярные сцеживания не нужны. Они приводят к травмам груди, занимают у женщин много времени и превращают процесс кормления грудью в обузу. Чтобы вскармливание было успешным необходимо отказаться от сцеживаний и наладить частое кормление ребенка не менее 12 раз в сутки.
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Ваши вопросы по грудному вскармливанию и уходу за ребенком и ответы на них
- Maternal breastfeeding support group in Samara. Breastfeeding the most important issues, 2014
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- The psychological well-being of the child and breastfeeding.
The benefits of breastfeeding has been written and said repeatedly. Mother's milk is both antibodies and lysozyme, protecting the baby from infection, non-allergenic protein, and easily digestible carbohydrates, this is the bifidus factor that accelerates colonization of the intestine with bifidobacteria, it is a hormonal growth factor, these are enzymes that help the baby digest food. Однако, не все знают, что молоко мамы
- Evaluation of the effectiveness of infant feeding.
Indicators of the effectiveness of feeding the child will be the harmony of the physical development of the baby, good (elastic, "rubber") turgor of its tissues, good appetite and the normal nature of the departures, proper motor and mental development, the rarity of respiratory and intestinal
- What does it mean for a baby - breastfeeding?
How do you like the fact that you give your child a gift that can raise his IQ by about 10 points; can improve the functioning of the heart, intestines and almost all other organs of your child; reduce the risk of life-reducing and debilitating diseases such as diabetes; and help your child avoid many of the usual problems for babies, such as ear infections, disorders
- Questions you may have while preparing for breastfeeding
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- Breastfeeding: the onset, duration, and practice of exclusive breastfeeding
Due to the lack of comprehensive and comparable data and unified international definitions, it is difficult to make any general statements about the prevalence of breastfeeding in the WHO European Region. Data on the percentage of children who are breastfed are shown in Fig. 8, taken from various sources (27). These data must be approached carefully: survey methods
- The need to feed the child. Breastfeeding accessories help
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- ALLOWANCES FOR CARE FOR A PATIENT CHILD, FOR A CHILD AGED UP TO 3 YEARS IN THE CASE OF A MOTHER'S DISEASE AND A DISABLED CHILD AGED UP TO 16 YEARS
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- UNDERSTANDING CHILD CARE FOR UP TO 3 YEARS
Article 13. The right to benefit. Families as well as adoptive parents and guardians raising children of the specified age have the right to childcare allowance until the child reaches the age of 3 years. Article 14. Amount of allowance. The allowance is granted in the amount of 120% of the minimum wage established in the republic and is paid monthly from the date of registration of the leave for childcare
- Инициатива юнисеф по уходу за детьми и питание ребенка
Факторами, непосредственно определяющими хорошее питание, здоровье и выживание ребенка, являются потребление пищевых продуктов и гигиена питания. Однако, как показывает рисунок 16, прямое влияние на потребление пищевых веществ и, следовательно, на здоровье ребенка оказывают действия по уходу за ним. Для хорошего питания должны быть обеспечены хорошая еда, хорошее здоровье и хороший уход. Примером
- FEEDING SCIENCE: WHY BREASTFEEDING?
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- When do babies need more than one breast milk and how long should the baby be breastfed?
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- Breastfeeding Alternatives
Usually breastfeeding is the best way to feed infants. Nevertheless, there are situations when it may be preferable or it is necessary to replace breast milk with any alternative. In addition to the contraindications briefly described above, circumstances arise where, despite all efforts to continue breastfeeding, the mother cannot maintain lactation for
- BREASTFEEDING AND HIS ALTERNATIVES
All babies should be exclusively breastfed from birth to approximately 6 months of age, but in any case during the first 4 months of life. It is preferable to continue breastfeeding after the first year of life, and in populations with a high prevalence of infections, the continuation of breastfeeding for the whole second
- Breastfeeding support
POLICIES AIMED AT SUPPORTING BREASTFEEDING In 1989, the World Health Organization and the United Nations Children's Fund issued a joint statement on the role of mother services in protecting, promoting and supporting breastfeeding. This statement provides the most up-to-date scientific knowledge and practical experience in organizing the EB in the form of accurate, universally acceptable recommendations.