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Congenital pericardial defects



The following are attributed to congenital pericardial defects.

1. Partial left-side absence of pericardium 70%. Complicated by the formation of a hernia, infringement of the heart at the site of the defect. There are chest pains, shortness of breath, fainting or sudden death. Surgical treatment - pericardioplasty.

2. The complete absence of the pericardium is manifested by the symptom of a “free heart”: pain in the heart area, shortness of breath, palpitations, and sometimes fainting; with percussion, the unusual mobility of the heart, on the left side is shifted to the axillary line, and when the head is lowered, it moves up.

3. Partial right-sided absence of pericardium 17%.

4. Congenital pericardial osshing.

5. Pericardial cysts (gentle, thin-walled formations that are not welded to the surrounding tissues and filled with a clear liquid - “spring water”, but it can be bloody (with injury) and purulent (with inflammation).

6. Pericardial diverticula - messages with the pericardial cavity, can be wide - resembling the finger of a rubber glove in shape, or narrow, resembling a cyst that communicates with the pericardium.
Cysts and pericardial diverticula in children are asymptomatic. Sometimes pain and shortness of breath may occur. For partial defects of the pericardium, there are no direct clinical and radiological signs, they are found in comorbidities.

Pericardial cysts. Pericardial cysts are divided into pseudocysts and encysted and multichamber pericardial effusions (the appearance of which is caused by rheumatic pericarditis, a bacterial infection (especially tuberculosis), trauma and surgery); Echinococcal cysts (occur after rupture of such cysts in the liver and lungs).

Clinic: in most cases, cysts do not manifest clinically and are detected by chance with X-ray in the form of homogeneous radiopaque formations of an oval shape, usually in the right cardio-diaphragmatic angle. Complaints of chest discomfort, shortness of breath, coughing or palpitations due to constriction of the heart. Percutaneous aspiration and hardening with ethanol are used to treat congenital and inflammatory cysts. Surgical excision of echinococcal cysts is not recommended.

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Congenital pericardial defects

  1. Limited birth defects of the skin and subcutaneous tissue.
    Etiology and pathogenesis are unknown. The disease can be inherited in an autosomal dominant manner, or be the result of a mother-born viral infection during pregnancy, intoxication as a result of radiation therapy, as well as a failed abortion attempt and under the influence of other factors. Clinic. Defects of the skin or subcutaneous tissue
  2. Birth defects and genetic syndromes
    INTRODUCTION The proportion of congenital and hereditary pathology in the structure of morbidity and mortality in newborns and young children in the late XX-early XXI century is steadily increasing: • 3-5% of live births are born with congenital malformations; • 20-30% of newborns die due to genetic diseases; • 30-50% of infant mortality in the post-neonatal period is due to
  3. Heart tamponade: acute pericarditis. Other diseases of the pericardium. Pericarditis in diseases classified elsewhere
    ICD-10 cipher Cardiac tamponade: acute pericarditis 130 Other pericardial diseases 131 Pericarditis in diseases classified elsewhere 132 Diagnostics When making a diagnosis Mandatory Level of consciousness, frequency and effectiveness of respiration, skin color, heart rate, pulse, blood pressure, paradoxical pulse , auscultation of the heart (pericardial friction noise, a symptom of Ewart),
  4. LECTURE No. 4. Diseases of the pericardium in children. Clinic, diagnosis, treatment
    Clinical and morphological classification of pericardial lesions (A. A. Gerke, Z. M. Volynsky, E. E. Gogin). 1. Malformations of the pericardium (anomalies): 1) complete defects; 2) partial defects; 3) pericardial flaking defects (diverticula and cysts). 2. Pericarditis: 1) acute (dry fibrinous, exudative); 2) chronic (duration - 3 months); 3) adhesive (asymptomatic, squeezing, with
  5. Pericardial Diseases
    Eugene Braunwald Normal functions of the pericardium. The visceral pericardium is a serous membrane, separated by a small amount of fluid, which is plasma ultrafiltrate, from the fibrous sac, which is the parietal pericardium. Pericardium prevents the sudden expansion of the heart chambers during exercise and hypervolemia. Due to the development of negative
  6. Pericarditis
    Code ICD: 130-132 130 130.0 Acute pericarditis Acute nonspecific idiopathic peri carditis 130.1 Infectious pericarditis 130.8 Other forms of acute pericarditis Acute pericarditis, unspecified 130.9 Other diseases of pericardium B1 131.0 Chronic adhesive pericarditis Chronic constrictive pericarditis 131.1 131.2 hemopericardium, not elsewhere classified
  7. Atrial septal defect
    Definition Atrial septal defect — a congenital heart defect in which there is communication between the two atria, developing as a result of the anomalous development of primary and secondary atrial septum and endocardial pillows. Defect of the interatrial septum in combination with stenosis of the left atrioventricular orifice is called Lutambash syndrome. Epidemiology
  8. Defect of the interventricular septum
    Definition An interventricular septal defect is a congenital heart disease in which there is a pathological connection between the pancreas and the left ventricle of the heart. Epidemiology is detected in 25-30% of cases of all congenital heart defects, equally common in men and women. Pathological anatomy Defects can be located above or below the supraventricular crest, in the membranous or muscular part
  9. PERICARDITIS
    Definition of Pericarditis - an infectious or non-infectious inflammation of the visceral and parietal pericardial sheets, manifested by fibrous changes and / or accumulation of fluid in the pericardial cavity. Epidemiology In the clinic, pericarditis is rarely diagnosed - in 0.1% of cases, its frequency according to autopsy is 3-6%. Men get sick 1.5 times more often than women.
  10. Pericardial tumors
    Primary pericardial tumors are less common than heart tumors. Clinical manifestations. Clinically, they manifest symptoms of pericarditis hemorrhagic or serous fibrous, sometimes with suppuration. The diagnosis of a pericarditis tumor is established by cytological examination of punctate of the contents of the pericardial cavity, introduction of carbon dioxide into the pericardial cavity, and histological examination
  11. Defect of interventricular septum.
    This is a hole in the interventricular septum that creates a connection between the two ventricles (Fig. 12). One of the most common congenital heart defects. It accounts for 20 to 30% of cases of cardiac abnormalities. It can be located in the membranous, muscular or supraventricular parts of the septum. The defect may be in the form of an oval, round and conical opening.
  12. Pericarditis
    In most patients with transmural myocardial infarction, a reactive fibrinous or serous fibrinous pericarditis with a small amount of pericardial effusion may develop on days 2-4 of the disease. In clinical practice, pericarditis is found only in 5-10% of patients with MI, which is associated with the difficulties of its diagnosis. The clinical picture of pericarditis in a patient with myocardial infarction with a Q wave can be suspected by the following
  13. 2. Constructive Pericarditis
    General Constrictive pericarditis occurs as a complication of acute or recurrent pericarditis. The pericardium is thickened, fibrotic and often calcified. The parietal leaf of the pericardium fits tightly to the heart, which often leads to obliteration of the pericardial cavity. Too hard a pericardium limits the diastolic filling of the heart, so that it can be filled only up to a certain
  14. HEART AND PERIKARD
    Pericardium Pericardium (heart shirt) is a closed serous bag, surrounding the heart from all sides. The pericardial cavity also includes the pulmonary trunk up to its bifurcation and the ascending part of the aorta before going into the arch. In addition, the terminal segments of the pulmonary, superior and inferior vena cava are enclosed in the pericardial cavity, which are covered by the pericardium only along its anterior
  15. Pericarditis
    Pericarditis is an inflammation of the visceral and parietal leaf, it can be fibrinous, purulent, hemorrhagic, serous. Etiology. Viral diseases, severe septic, often staphylococcal, processes, rheumatism, diffuse diseases of the connective tissue. Pathogenesis. The pathogenesis of allergic or autoimmune nature, with infectious pericarditis, the infection is a trigger,
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