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Birth defects of the pericardium



Congenital defects of the pericardium include the following.

1. Partial left-sided absence of pericardium 70%. Complicated by the formation of a hernia, infringement of the heart in the place of the defect. There are pains in the chest, shortness of breath, fainting conditions or the onset of sudden death. Surgical treatment is pericardioplasty.

2. Complete absence of the pericardium manifests itself as a symptom of a "free heart": pain in the region of the heart, shortness of breath, palpitations, sometimes fainting; when percussion unusual mobility of the heart, on the left side is shifted to the axillary line, and when the head is lowered, it moves upward.

3. Partial right-sided absence of pericardium 17%.

4. Congenital loosening of the pericardium.

5. Pericardial cysts (tender, thin-walled formations that are not welded to surrounding tissues and filled with a transparent liquid are "key water", but it can be bloody (with trauma) and purulent (with inflammation).

6. Pericardial diverticula - messages with a pericardial cavity, can be wide - resembling the shape of a finger of a rubber glove, or narrow, resembling a cyst that communicates with the pericardium.
Cysts and diverticula pericardium in childhood are asymptomatic. Sometimes there may be pain and shortness of breath. For partial defects of the pericardium, there are no direct clinical and radiological signs, they are found with concomitant diseases.

Pericardial cysts. Pericardial cysts are divided into pseudocysts and coagulated and multi-chamber pericardial effusions (the appearance of which is due to rheumatic pericarditis, bacterial infection (especially tuberculosis), trauma and surgical intervention); echinococcal cysts (occur after the rupture of such cysts in the liver and lungs).

Clinic: in most cases, cysts do not appear clinically and are detected accidentally by X-ray in the form of homogeneous radiopaque formations of the oval form, usually in the right cardio diaphragmatic corner. Complaints about a feeling of discomfort in the chest, shortness of breath, coughing or palpitation, caused by compression of the heart. To treat congenital and inflammatory cysts, percutaneous aspiration and ethanol sclerotherapy are used. Surgical excision of echinococcal cysts is not recommended.

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Birth defects of the pericardium

  1. Limited birth defects of skin and subcutaneous tissue.
    Etiology and pathogenesis are unknown. The disease can be inherited by an autosomal dominant type, or be the result of a mother's viral infection during pregnancy, intoxication as a result of radiation therapy, as well as a failed attempt at abortion and under the influence of other factors. Clinic. Defects of the skin or subcutaneous tissue
  2. Birth Defects and Genetic Syndromes
    INTRODUCTION The specific gravity of congenital and hereditary pathology in the morbidity and mortality of newborns and young children at the end of the 20th and beginning of the 21st century is steadily growing: • 3-5% of live births are born with congenital malformations; • 20-30% of newborns die due to genetic diseases; • 30-50% of infant mortality in the post-neonatal period is due to
  3. Cardiac tamponade: acute pericarditis. Other diseases of the pericardium. Pericarditis in diseases classified elsewhere
    ICD-10 cipher Cardiac tamponade: acute pericarditis 130 Other pericardial diseases 131 Pericarditis in diseases classified elsewhere 132 Diagnosis When establishing the diagnosis Mandatory level of consciousness, frequency and effectiveness of respiration, skin color, heart rate, pulse, blood pressure, the presence of a paradoxical pulse , auscultation of the heart (pericardial friction noise, Evarth's symptom),
  4. Lecture number 4. Diseases of the pericardium in children. Clinic, diagnosis, treatment
    Clinico-morphological classification of pericardial lesions (AA Gerke, ZM Volynsky, EE Gogin). 1. Defects of pericardium development (anomalies): 1) defects complete; 2) partial defects; 3) defects in the ligation of the pericardium (diverticula and cysts). 2. Pericarditis: 1) acute (dry fibrinous, exudative); 2) chronic (duration - 3 months); 3) Adhesive (asymptomatic, squeezing, with
  5. DISEASES OF PERICARDS
    Eugene Braunwald Normal functions of the pericardium. The visceral pericardium is a serous membrane separated by a small amount of liquid, which is an ultrafiltrate of the plasma, from the fibrous sac, which is the parietal pericardium. Pericardium prevents the sudden expansion of the chambers of the heart during exercise and hypervolemia. Due to the development of negative
  6. Pericarditis
    ICD code: 130-132 130 Acute pericarditis 130.0 Acute nonspecific idiopathic pericarditis 130.1 Infectious pericarditis 130.8 Other forms of acute pericarditis 130.9 Acute pericarditis, unspecified B1 Other pericardial diseases 131.0 Chronic adhesive pericarditis 131.1 Chronic constrictive pericarditis 131.2 Hemopericard, not elsewhere classified
  7. Atrial septal defect
    Definition An atrial septal defect is a congenital heart defect in which there is a communication between two atria that develops as a result of abnormal development of primary and secondary interatrial septa and endocardial cushions. Defect of the interatrial septum in combination with stenosis of the left atrioventricular orifice is called Lutambash syndrome. Epidemiology
  8. Defect of interventricular septum
    Definition The defect of the interventricular septum is a congenital heart disease, in which there is a pathological communication between the prostate and the left ventricle. Epidemiology It is revealed in 25-30% of cases of all congenital heart defects, equally common in men and women. Pathological anatomy Defects may be located above or below the supraventricular ridge, in the membranous or muscular part
  9. PERICARDITIS
    Definition Pericarditis is an infectious or noninfectious inflammation of the visceral and parietal pericardial sheets, manifested by fibrous changes and / or accumulation of fluid in the pericardial cavity. Epidemiology Pericarditis is diagnosed very rarely in the clinic - in 0.1% of cases, its frequency according to autopsy data is 3-6%. Men get sick 1,5 times more often than women.
  10. Tumors of the pericardium
    Primary tumors of the pericardium are less common than tumors of the heart. Clinical manifestations. Clinically, they manifest symptoms of pericarditis of hemorrhagic or serous fibrous, sometimes with suppuration. The diagnosis of a tumor of pericarditis is established at a cytological examination of the puncture of the contents of the pericardial cavity, introduction of carbon dioxide into the cavity of the pericardium, a histological study
  11. Defect of interventricular septum.
    This hole in the interventricular septum, creating a communication between the two ventricles (Figure 12). One of the most common congenital heart defects. It accounts for 20 to 30% of cases of cardiac anomalies. It can be located in the membranous, muscular or supraventricular parts of the septum. The defect can be in the form of an oval, round and conical hole.
  12. Pericarditis
    Most patients with transmural myocardial infarction on the 2nd-4th day of the disease may develop reactive fibrinous or serous-fibrinous pericarditis with a small amount of effusion in the pericardium. In clinical practice, pericarditis is found only in 5-10% of patients with MI, which is associated with the difficulties of its diagnosis. Clinical picture Pericarditis in a patient with a Q-wave infarction can be suspected by the following
  13. 2. CONSTRUCTIVE PERICARDITIVE
    General information Constrictive pericarditis occurs as a complication of acute or recurrent pericarditis. The pericardium is thickened, fibrous and often calcified. The parietal leaf of the pericardium tightly adjoins the heart, which often leads to obliteration of the pericardial cavity. Too tight a pericardium restricts the diastolic filling of the heart, so that it can be filled only up to a certain
  14. HEART AND PERICARD
    Pericardium Pericardium (heart-shaped shirt) is a closed serous sac that surrounds the heart from all sides. The pericardial cavity also includes the pulmonary trunk up to its bifurcation and the ascending part of the aorta before going into the arc. In addition, the terminal segments of the pulmonary, upper and lower hollow veins are enclosed in the pericardial cavity, which are covered by the pericardium only along its anterior
  15. Pericarditis
    Pericarditis is an inflammation of the visceral and parietal leaf, it can be fibrinous, purulent, hemorrhagic, serous. Etiology. Viral diseases, severe septic, more often staphylococcal, processes, rheumatism, diffuse connective tissue diseases. Pathogenesis. Pathogenesis of allergic or autoimmune nature, with infectious pericardial infection is a trigger mechanism,
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