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Anemia



Anemia (anemia) is a condition characterized by a decrease in hemoglobin concentration per unit volume of blood below normal. Often, but not always, this decrease occurs while reducing the total mass of red blood cells per unit volume of blood. Anemia develops when, due to the destruction or loss of red blood cells, their reproduction rate in the bone marrow decreases. Therefore, there are two large classification groups of anemia, each of which includes two subgroups: 1) anemia after blood loss or destruction of red blood cells (posthemorrhagic and hemolytic anemia); 2) anemia with insufficient reproduction of red blood cells (dyserythropoietic and hypoplastic), as well as aplastic anemia. In posthemorrhagic and hemolytic anemia, red blood cell production rises and effective erythropoiesis occurs. However, with dyserythropoiesis, despite the fact that there is bone marrow hyperplasia, red blood cells mature too slowly.
Some red blood cell precursors are destroyed in the bone marrow, and compensation does not occur (ineffective erythropoiesis). In patients with aplastic and hypoplastic forms, despite stimulation with erythropoietin, compensatory bone marrow hyperplasia does not develop.

The main clinical manifestation of anemia is associated with a decrease in the ability of blood to carry oxygen, which leads to tissue hypoxia. Patients complain of fatigue, dizziness, paresthesia (spontaneously arising feelings of numbness, tingling in the limbs), shortness of breath during physical exertion. At the same time, compensatory processes develop: the cardiac output (MOS) increases, the circulation time decreases, and the level of tissue perfusion increases accordingly. If the disease progresses, heart failure with high MOS becomes a threat to life.

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Anemia

  1. Anemia due to toxic bone marrow suppression (myelotoxic anemia)
    THYROPRIVAL ANEMIA Thyroid-anemia is anemia that develops on the basis of hypothyroidism. Experimental work confirms the important role of the thyroid hormone - thyroxine - in stimulating normal hematopoiesis. Animals deprived of the thyroid gland quickly become anemic; administration of thyroid preparations by thyroidectomized animals cures them of thyroid
  2. ANEMIA UNDER CONDITIONS OF FUNCTIONAL AGASTRIA (AGRICULTURAL ANEMIA)
    In contrast to the actual agastric anemia associated with partial or complete anatomical removal of the stomach, we distinguish anemia that develops in conditions of functional agastria, when the anatomically preserved stomach is partially or completely switched off from the physiological digestion process and, in particular, loses its ability to assimilate the external antianemic factor - vitamin B12.
  3. Anemia associated with impaired DNA and RNA synthesis (megaloblastic anemia)
    Megaloblastic anemia unites a group of acquired and hereditary anemia, a common sign of which is the presence of megaloblasts in the bone marrow. Regardless of the etiology, hyperchromic anemia is detected in patients with characteristic changes in the morphology of red blood cells - oval red blood cells, large (up to 12-14 microns or more). Red blood cells with basophilic puncture of the cytoplasm, in many of
  4. Anemia associated with impaired synthesis or utilization of porphyrins (siderohrestichesky, sideroblastic anemia)
    This is a heterogeneous group of diseases, hereditary and acquired, associated with impaired activity of enzymes involved in the synthesis of porphyrins and heme. The term “sidereal anemia” was coined by Jehischeueg (1957). With siderohrestichny anemia, the level of iron in the blood serum is increased. In the bone marrow, ring-shaped sideroblasts are detected - nucleated red blood cells with a perinuclear corolla,
  5. Anemia due to emptying of the bone marrow, hypo- and aplastic anemia. MYELO-APLASTIC SYNDROME
    Despite the large number of studies devoted to the study of hypo- and aplastic anemia, it is still not possible to create a rational classification of these conditions, since not only issues of pathomorphogenesis, but even the definition of the concept of “hypo (a) plastic anemia” is debatable. In accordance with modern ideas about the genesis of hypo- and
  6. Anemia due to blood loss, posthemorrhagic anemia
    Anemia due to blood loss, posthemorrhagic
  7. ACQUIRED HEMOLITIC ANEMIA
    Acquired hemolytic anemia includes: • immune hemolytic anemia; • hemolytic drug anemia; • traumatic and microangiopathic hemolytic anemia; • anemia due to the influence of hemolytic poisons, chemicals, bacterial toxins; • paroxysmal night
  8. Lecture. Anemia Hemorrhagic syndrome, 2010
    Posthemorrhagic anemia. Iron deficiency anemia. Aplastic (hypoplastic) anemia. Hemolytic
  9. Anemia
    ANEMIA is a condition characterized by a decrease in hemoglobin per unit volume of blood due to a decrease in its total amount in the body. In most cases, anemia is also accompanied by a decrease in the number of red blood cells per unit volume of blood. Hydraemia should be distinguished from true anemia - blood thinning due to tissue fluid. The development of anemia is based on various pathological processes in
  10. Dyserythropoietic anemia (due to a violation of erythropoiesis)
    This group of diseases includes: a) anemia, united by a common mechanism of occurrence associated with a violation or termination of erythropoiesis as a result of a deficiency of substances necessary for normal hematopoiesis - deficient anemia (B12 -, B6 -, B2 - folic acid deficiency, iron-copper - cobalt-deficient, protein-deficient), as well as anemia resulting from bone marrow failure
  11. Acquired hemolytic anemia
    This is a heterogeneous group of hemolytic anemia that occurs under the influence of a number of factors that have the ability to damage red blood cells and cause their premature destruction. Classification of acquired hemolytic anemia [Idelsson L. I., 1975] I. Hemolytic anemia associated with exposure to antibodies. 1. Isoimmune hemolytic anemia 1) hemolytic disease of the newborn
  12. Deficiency anemia
    -amnesis: eating disorders, digestive disorders -sm anemia: pallor of the skin and mucous membranes, a decrease in the number of hemoglobin and red blood cells -hyperplastic cm: an increase in the liver and spleen, respectively, the severity of the disease -hemolytic cm: jaundice, splenomegaly, increased indirect bilirubin in the blood - hemorrhagic SM expressed only in severe forms - laboratory
  13. Hemolytic anemia
    Hemolytic anemia constitutes an extensive group of anemic conditions of various etiologies, a common sign of which is pathologically increased destruction of red blood cells. It is known that the average lifespan of red blood cells does not exceed 100-120 days. Hemolytic anemia is characterized by a shortened life span of red blood cells. Hemolysis can occur intracellularly or
  14. Dyserythropoietic Anemia
    Despite the fact that the number of cells in the bone marrow in these diseases is normal or increased, the production of red blood cells is reduced. Such a decrease is associated with impaired or insufficient erythropoiesis, which is why anemia develops. The causes of dyserythropoietic anemia are as follows. • Primary Inherited Acquired (myelodysplastic syndromes) • Secondary Decreased DNA synthesis Megaloblastic
  15. MEGALOBLASTIC ANEMIA
    - anemia associated with impaired synthesis of DNA and RNA, - diseases characterized by the presence in the bone marrow of megaloblasts - red cells, characterized by a large size, delicate chromatin structure in the nucleus, asynchronous differentiation of the nucleus and cytoplasm. The main clinical manifestations of megaloblastic anemia often develop gradually. Weakness first appears
  16. HEREDITARY HEMOLITIC ANEMIA
    The following groups of hereditary hemolytic anemias are distinguished: 1. Due to a violation of the structure of the erythrocyte membrane. 2. Associated with impaired activity of red blood cell enzymes. 3. Associated with a violation of the structure or synthesis of hemoglobin. Hereditary hemolytic anemia due to a violation of the erythrocyte membrane Hereditary hemolytic anemia associated with
  17. HEMOLITIC ANEMIA IN CHILDREN
    Hemolytic anemia - a group of anemia characterized by hemolysis syndrome - increased destruction of red blood cells. Red blood cells live for about 120 days, then they are destroyed - they are phagocytosed by macrophages, mainly the spleen. With hemolytic anemia, the life expectancy of red blood cells is significantly shortened, and when it is reduced below 30 days, a hemolytic clinic appears.
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