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Anemia (anemia) is a condition characterized by a decrease in hemoglobin concentration in a unit blood volume below normal. Often, but not always, this decrease occurs while simultaneously reducing the total mass of red blood cells per unit volume of blood. Anemia develops when the rate of their reproduction in the bone marrow decreases due to the destruction or loss of red blood cells. Therefore, there are two large classification groups of anemia, each of which includes two subgroups: 1) anemia after blood loss or destruction of red blood cells (post-hemorrhagic and hemolytic anemia); 2) anemia with insufficient reproduction of erythrocytes (diserythropoietic and hypoplastic), as well as aplastic anemia. With post-hemorrhagic and hemolytic anemias, the production of red blood cells increases and effective erythropoiesis occurs. However, in case of diserythropoiesis, despite the fact that there is hyperplasia of the bone marrow, the erythrocytes mature too slowly.
Some erythrocyte precursors are destroyed in the bone marrow, and compensation does not occur (ineffective erythropoiesis). In patients with aplastic and hypoplastic forms, despite stimulation by erythropoietin, compensatory hyperplasia of the bone marrow does not develop.

The main clinical manifestation of anemia is associated with a decrease in the blood's ability to transport oxygen, which leads to tissue hypoxia. Patients complain of fatigue, dizziness, paresthesia (spontaneous feelings of numbness, tingling in the limbs), shortness of breath on exertion. At the same time, compensatory processes develop: the minute volume of the heart (MOS) increases, the circulation time decreases, and the tissue perfusion level increases accordingly. If the disease progresses, heart failure with high MOS becomes life threatening.

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    THYROORTHEUS ANEMIA Thyroid stimulation anemia is anemia that develops on the basis of hypothyroidism. Experimental work confirms the important role of thyroid hormone - thyroxin - in stimulating normal blood formation. Animals deprived of the thyroid gland, quickly anemiziruyutsya, the introduction of the same thyroid drugs to thyroidectomized animals cures them from the effects of thyroid-induced
    In contrast to the actual agastric anemia associated with partial or complete anatomical removal of the stomach, we distinguish anemia that develops in conditions of functional agastria, when the anatomically preserved stomach partially or completely turns off from the physiological process of digestion and, in particular, loses the ability to assimilate the external antianemic factor - Vitamin B12.
  3. Anemia associated with impaired synthesis of DNA and RNA (megaloblastic anemia)
    Megaloblastic anemia unites a group of acquired and hereditary anemias, a common feature of which is the presence of megaloblasts in the bone marrow. Regardless of the etiology of the patients, hyperchromic anemia with characteristic changes in the erythrocyte morphology is revealed - oval red blood cells, large (up to 12-14 microns or more). There are red blood cells with basophilic cytoplasm, in many of
  4. Anemia associated with impaired synthesis or utilization of porphyrins (sideroachrestic, sideroblastic anemia)
    This is a heterogeneous group of diseases, hereditary and acquired, associated with a violation of the activity of enzymes involved in the synthesis of porphyrins and heme. The term "sideroahresticheskaya anemia" was introduced by Iewer (1957). In case of sideroachrestric anemia, serum iron levels are elevated. In the bone marrow detect ring-shaped sideroblasts - nucleated red blood cells with a nucleolus corolla,
  5. Anemia due to bone marrow drainage, hypothyroidism, and aplastic anemia. MYELOPLASTIC SYNDROME
    Despite the large number of studies devoted to the study of hypo-and aplastic anemias, it is still not possible to create a rational classification of these conditions, since not only the issues of pathomorphogenesis, but even the definition of the very concept of "hypo (a) plastic anemia" is debatable. In accordance with modern concepts of the genesis of hypo-
  6. Anemia due to blood loss, post-hemorrhagic anemia
    Anemia due to blood loss, post-haemorrhagic
    Acquired hemolytic anemias include: • immune hemolytic anemia; • drug hemolytic anemia; • traumatic and microangiopathic hemolytic anemia; • anemia caused by hemolytic poisons, chemicals, bacterial toxins; • paroxysmal night
  8. Lecture. Anemia Hemorrhagic syndrome, 2010
    Post-hemorrhagic anemia. Iron deficiency anemia. Aplastic (hypoplastic) anemia. Hemolytic
  9. Anemia
    Anemia - a condition characterized by a decrease in hemoglobin per unit volume of blood by reducing its total amount in the body. In most cases, anemia is also accompanied by a decrease in the number of red blood cells per unit volume of blood. From true anemia should be distinguished hydremia - blood thinning due to tissue fluid. At the heart of the development of anemia are various pathological processes in
  10. Dizerythropoietic anemia (due to impaired erythropoiesis)
    This group of diseases includes: a) anemia, combined by a common mechanism of occurrence associated with impairment or termination of erythropoiesis as a result of a deficiency of substances necessary for normal blood formation - deficient anemia (B12 -, B6 -, B2 - folic acid, iron-copper cobalt-deficient, protein-deficient), as well as anemia, arising from the inability of the bone marrow
  11. Acquired hemolytic anemia
    This is a heterogeneous group of hemolytic anemias that occur under the influence of a number of factors that have the ability to damage red blood cells and cause their premature destruction. Classification of acquired hemolytic anemia [Idelson LI, 1975] I. Hemolytic anemia associated with exposure to antibodies. 1. Isoimmune hemolytic anemia 1) hemolytic disease of the newborn
  12. Deficient anemia
    -Anamnesis: eating disorders, digestive disorders -sm anemia: pallor of the skin and mucous membranes, reducing the amount of hemoglobin and red blood cells -hyperplastic sm: an increase in the liver and spleen according to the severity of the disease -hemolytic cm: jaundice, splenomegaly, increase in indirect bilirubin in the blood - hemorrhagic sm is expressed only in severe forms - laboratory
  13. Hemolytic anemia
    Hemolytic anemias make up an extensive group of anemic states of various etiologies, a common feature of which is the pathologically increased destruction of red blood cells. It is known that the average lifespan of erythrocytes does not exceed 100-120 days. Hemolytic anemia is characterized by shortening the life span of red blood cells. Hemolysis can occur intracellularly or
  14. Dehydropoietic anemia
    Despite the fact that the number of cells in the bone marrow in these diseases is normal or increased, the production of red blood cells is reduced. This decrease is associated with impaired or insufficient erythropoiesis, therefore, anemia develops. The causes of dairytopoietic anemia are as follows. • Primary Hereditary Acquired (myelodysplastic syndromes) • Secondary Reduced DNA synthesis Megaloblastic
    - anemia associated with impaired synthesis of DNA and RNA, - diseases characterized by the presence of megaloblasts in the bone marrow - cells of the red row, characterized by large size, delicate chromatin structure in the nucleus, asynchronous differentiation of the nucleus and cytoplasm. Major clinical manifestations Megaloblastic anemia often develops gradually. At first there is a weakness
    The following groups of hereditary hemolytic anemias are distinguished: 1. Caused by violation of the structure of the erythrocyte membrane. 2. Associated with the violation of the activity of erythrocyte enzymes. 3. Associated with the violation of the structure or synthesis of hemoglobin. Hereditary hemolytic anemia due to erythrocyte membrane disorder Hereditary hemolytic anemia associated with
    Hemolytic anemia is a group of anemias characterized by hemolysis syndrome - increased red blood cell destruction. Red blood cells live for about 120 days, then they are destroyed - phagocytosed by macrophages, mainly the spleen. With hemolytic anemia, the life span of red blood cells is significantly shortened, and when it is reduced below 30 days, a hemolytic clinic appears
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