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Diseases of the digestive system in the structure of morbidity and mortality are in third place after diseases of the organs of the cardiovascular system and tumors. In the domestic literature, the classification of these diseases is built according to the classical ideas about the division of the digestive system into the anterior, posterior and middle sections. The anterior section of the digestive system includes the oral cavity with all its organs and structural formations, the pharynx and esophagus. The middle section consists of the stomach, intestines, and also organs located outside the digestive tube — the liver and pancreas. The posterior part is represented by the caudal part of the rectum.

This lecture is devoted to diseases of the stomach, which make up 35% of the entire gastroenterological pathology. The bulk of these diseases occurs chronically, with regular exacerbations and remissions. This is, first of all, chronic gastritis, which accounts for 60–85% of all gastric pathology, and peptic ulcer disease (referred to as peptic ulcer in foreign literature), which is registered in approximately 10% of the world's population.
Peptic ulcer, as a rule, is observed in people at the most active age, while they regularly experience temporary, and often permanent, disability. All this makes the problem of diseases of the stomach not only medical, but also social. The second part of the lecture is dedicated to stomach cancer. For a long time, this tumor occupied a leading place in oncology. But now she takes the first place among other tumors in Japan, Chile, Colombia, China and a whole number of countries. Despite the fact that in many industrialized countries the frequency of stomach cancer decreased by 6-7 times, mortality is still high, and the 5-year survival rate over the past 60 years has not changed and is less than 10%.

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    This chapter consists of two conditionally allocated parts, which were previously considered separately in Russian textbooks on pathological anatomy. One part with which the chapter begins is devoted to diseases of the organs of the oral cavity and dentition. Abroad, these diseases are considered in the sections on the pathology of the organs of the head and neck, or in the chapter on dental pathology.
    Motivational characteristic of the topic. Knowledge of the clinical and morphological manifestations of diseases of the digestive system is necessary for the successful assimilation of diseases of the stomach and intestines in clinical departments. In the practical work of a doctor, this knowledge is necessary for the clinical anatomical analysis of sectional observations and for comparing clinical data with the results of a biopsy study of the digestive organs
  3. Digestive system diseases
    Digestive diseases
  4. Stomach disease. Gastritis. Peptic ulcer. Tumors of the stomach.
    1. In acute gastritis, gastric mucosa develops 1. enterolization 2. coagulation necrosis 3. productive inflammation 4. exudative inflammation 5. proliferation of integumentary epithelium 2. Intestinal metaplasia of the epithelium can develop in chronic gastritis 1. superficial 3. atrophic 2. productive 4 Catarrhal 3. Macroscopic characteristics of acute gastric ulcer 1. edge
  5. Clinical observation of children with diseases of the urinary system and digestive tract. Protection of medical history
    Questions for repetition: 1. Rules for collecting urine. 2. The physiological role of bile. Control questions: 1. Rehabilitation of children in outpatient settings with: gastritis, gastroduodenitis, peptic ulcer of the stomach and 12 duodenal ulcer, diseases of the biliary tract, chronic eating disorders. 2. The frequency of observation by a pediatrician and narrow specialists. 3. Anti-relapse treatment
  6. Diseases of the female genital organs and mammary glands. Cervical Diseases. UTERINE BODY DISEASES. Diseases of the fallopian tubes. DISEASES OF THE OVARIES. BREAST DISEASES
    Diseases of the female genital organs and mammary glands. Cervical Diseases. UTERINE BODY DISEASES. Diseases of the fallopian tubes. DISEASES OF THE OVARIES. MILK DISEASES
  7. Diseases of the nervous system. Diseases accompanied by an increase in intracranial pressure. Cerebrovascular disease. Cerebral infarction. Spontaneous intracranial hemorrhage. Infectious lesions of the central nervous system. Alzheimer's disease. Multiple sclerosis.
    1. The earliest changes in neurons during blood flow arrest 1. cytolysis 4. microvacuolization 2. tigrolysis 5. wrinkling of neurons 3. hyperchromatosis 2. The most common causes of cerebral infarction 1. stenotic atherosclerosis 2. thromboembolism 3. true polycythemia 4. thrombosis 5. embolism fatty with a fracture of the tubular bones 3. Cerebral edema of the cytotoxic type occurs at 1.
    Bruce R. Carr, Jean D. Wilson (Bruce R. Can, Jean D. Wilson) The ovary is a paired female sex gland, the site of the formation of egg maturation and the production of hormones that regulate the sexual life of women. The anatomical structure, reactions to hormonal stimulation and secretory activity of the ovaries in different periods of life are not the same. This chapter discusses the normal physiology of the ovaries.
    Intestinal diseases are extremely diverse, they relate to selective lesions of the small or large intestines, but are often accompanied by a combined lesion of all parts of the intestine. In the structure of diseases and mortality from them, cardiovascular invariably occupy the first place, and among them - atherosclerosis and hypertension. It has long been identified as an independent nosological form
  10. Gastrointestinal tract diseases of young children
    In order to develop country guidelines for feeding children and nutrition recommendations, reliable data on physical development, nutritional diseases and principles and methods of feeding should be available. The main concern is to ensure the survival of children, and therefore one of the most important indicators of children's health is mortality. Child mortality rate is calculated as a number
    Diseases of the gastrointestinal tract are very diverse, numerous and include diseases of the pharynx, salivary glands, esophagus, stomach, intestines, pancreas, liver and gall bladder. However, peptic ulcer, stomach cancer, appendicitis and liver diseases are of the greatest importance in human pathology. ULCER DISEASE is a common chronic, cyclically occurring disease with frequent
  12. Stomach ulcer
    Peptic ulcer is a chronic recurrent disease characterized by the development of peptic ulcer of the mucous membrane of the stomach or duodenum. The prevalence of peptic ulcer in the structure of gastroenterological pathology is from 3.6 to 14.8%. Boys and girls get sick equally often, only after 14 years the number of patients among young men is greater.
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