home
about the project
Medical news
For authors
Licensed books on medicine
<< Previous Next >>

Kidney disease



Guided by the structural and functional principle, two main groups of kidney diseases, or nephropathies, can be distinguished: glomerulo- and tubulopathies, which can be acquired and hereditary.

Glomerulopathies are diseases with primary and primary damage to the renal glomeruli, characterized by impaired filtration. Acquired glomerulopathies include glomerulonephritis, acquired renal amyloidosis, idiopathic nephrotic syndrome (lipoid nephrosis), diabetic glomerulosclerosis, hereditary nephritis with deafness (Alport disease), hereditary nephrotic syndrome, hereditary (familial) nephropathic amyloidosis.

Tubulopathies are kidney diseases with primary and leading lesion of the tubule, a characteristic loss of tubular function. Acquired tubulopathies are necrotic nephrosis (acute renal failure), “myeloma kidney” and “gouty kidney”, hereditary - various forms of tubular enzymopathies.

In addition, a large group of kidney diseases are: pyelonephritis, kidney stone disease, polycystic kidney disease, kidney tumors and nephrosclerosis, which completes the course of many kidney diseases and underlies CRF.

Glomerulonephritis - A disease of an infectious-allergic nature, the basis of which is bilateral diffuse or focal inflammation of the glomeruli of the kidneys with characteristic renal and extrarenal symptoms. Nephrotic syndrome is characterized by high proteinuria, dysproteinemia, hypolipidemia and edema. According to the topography of the process, intra- and extracapillary forms of glomerulonephritis are distinguished. Depending on the nature of the disease, there are: 1) acute glomerulonephritis; 2) subacute, progressive, or malignant, glomerulonephritis; 3) chronic glomerulonephritis, the final stage of all of the above forms is terminal glomerulonephritis (secondary-wrinkled kidneys, chronic renal failure).

Acute renal failure is a syndrome morphologically characterized by tubular epithelial necrosis and deep impairment of renal blood and lymph circulation.

Pyelonephritis is an infectious disease in which the renal pelvis, its calyx and the substance of the kidneys are involved in the process with a primary lesion of the interstitial tissue. Pyelonephritis can be single or double-sided. Complications of acute pyelonephritis are: 1) carbuncle of the kidney; 2) pyonephrosis; 3) perinephritis; 4) paranephritis; 5) papillonecrosis; 6) chronic kidney abscess.

In chronic pyelonephritis, the development of nephrogenic hypertension and arteriolosclerosis in the second (intact) kidney is possible.
Bilateral pyelonephrotic wrinkling of the kidneys leads to chronic renal failure.

Nephrosclerosis - densification and wrinkling of the kidneys due to proliferation of connective tissue.

Micropreparations

1. Intracapillary glomerulonephritis (okr. GE).

Designations: 1) proliferation of endothelial cells and mesangium. glomeruli; 2) an increase in the size of the glomeruli; 3) granular dystrophy of the epithelium of the convoluted tubules of the kidneys. 4) hemorrhagic exudate in the stripe of the glomerulus.

2. Chronic pyelonephritis (okr. GE).

Designations: 1) foci of lymphohistiocytic infiltration of the stroma; 2) dystrophy of the convoluted tubule epithelium; 3) areas of the “thyroid” kidney.

3. Hypernephroid cancer of the kidney (env. GE).

Designations: 1) foci of small cell cancer of the kidney with dark cells and signs of cellular atypism; 2) areas of necrosis, hemorrhage and decay of tumor tissue.

4. Amyloid nephrosis with wrinkling (okrug. Congo-mouth).

Designations: deposits of amyloid masses: 1) in glomeruli; 2) in the walls of blood vessels; 3) under the basement membrane of the convoluted tubule epithelium; 4) in the stroma.

Macro preparations

1. Chronic glomerulonephritis with an outcome in wrinkling (secondary-wrinkled kidneys).

2. Amyloidosis of the kidneys.

3. Stones of the renal pelvis.

4. Polycystic kidney disease.

5. Hypernephroid kidney cancer.

6. Amyloid-wrinkled kidneys.

Test questions topics

1. Classification of kidney disease.

2. Etiology and pathogenesis of the most common kidney diseases (glomerulonephritis, pyelonephritis, amyloidosis, necrotic nephrosis).

3. Pathological anatomy of glomerulonephritis, pyelonephritis, renal amyloidosis, acute renal failure.

4. CRF. Uremia. Causes of development and morphological characteristics.

5. Tumors of the kidneys (benign and malignant). Morphological characteristics and features of metastasis.

Situational task

The patient fell ill acutely after hypothermia. There was an increase in blood pressure, hematuria, swelling of the face. Despite treatment, the effects of renal failure increased. After 6 months from the onset of the disease, the patient died. An autopsy revealed: the kidneys were enlarged, flabby, in the section the cortical layer was yellow-gray with red specks, the pyramids were dark red.

1. What disease did the patient have?

2. Describe the characteristic microscopic changes in the kidneys with

this one.

<< Previous Next >>
= Skip to textbook content =

Kidney disease

  1. Diseases of the kidneys and urinary system. Prostate diseases
    1. Microscopic characteristics of acute pyelonephritis 1. interstitial edema 2. leukocyte infiltration 3. lymphocytic infiltration 4. tubule atrophy 5. necrosis of the epithelium of the pelvis and tubules 2. Acute post-streptococcal glomerulonephritis is accompanied by 1. doubling of GBM 2. formation of half moon 3. development of hypercellularity. Chronic glomerulonephritis in post-streptococcal
  2. Cystic kidney disease
    Cystic kidney disease is a heterogeneous group, including congenital and acquired diseases, as well as malformations. We give a classification of cystic kidney disease. * Cystic-renal dysplasia * Polycystic kidney disease autosomal dominant polycystic disease (adults) autosomal recessive polycystic disease (children) • Medullary spongy cystic disease
  3. KIDNEY DISEASES
    Kidney diseases are numerous and varied. The modern classification of kidney diseases, based on the structural-functional principle, provides for the allocation of 5 groups of diseases: glomerulopathy, tubulopathy, stromal disease, neoplasms and congenital anomalies. The basis of glomerulopathy is the primary and primary lesion of the glomeruli, leading to a violation of the filtration of urine.
  4. KIDNEY DISEASES
    • Guided by the structural and functional principle, glomerulopathies and tubulopathies are distinguished, which can be acquired and hereditary, as well as diseases with primary involvement of interstitium, pyelonephritis and kidney stone disease. • Nephrosclerosis completes the course of many kidney diseases and underlies chronic kidney disease.
  5. Tubulo-interstitial kidney disease
    Tubulo-interstitial kidney disease is a group of diseases of various etiologies in which tubules and interstitial tissue are affected mainly and are caused by toxic damage to the kidneys, malignant neoplasms, pathology of the immune system, vascular disorders, hereditary diseases and infections. The last group of causes includes acute and chronic pyelonephritis.
  6. Abstract. Laboratory diagnosis of kidney disease, 2010
    Purpose of work: to find out which laboratory methods are most significant in the diagnosis of kidney disease. Tasks: - Identify which of the indicators, most clearly indicates pathological
  7. Kidney disease
    Disease
  8. KIDNEY DISEASES
    DISEASES
  9. KIDNEY DISEASES
    Normal kidneys are a paired, continuously functioning organ. Constantly forming urine, they remove metabolic waste products, regulate the water-salt metabolism between blood and other tissues, participate in the regulation of blood pressure and acid-base balance of the blood, and perform endocrine functions. On a section of a kidney it is clearly visible how immediately under a thin connective tissue capsule
  10. Early active detection of kidney and urinary tract diseases
    The primary health care team provides level 1 screening, including complaints analysis (rapid questionnaires), and results of a clinical analysis of freshly released urine. Risk groups are young children, pregnant women, men over 50 years old, women over 60 years old. If pathology is detected (proteinuria, leukocyturia, hematuria) after a doctor’s examination
  11. LESSON 7 TOPIC. Diseases of the kidneys, urinary tract, male reproductive system
    Motivational characteristic of the topic. Knowledge of the morphological manifestations of diseases and syndromes of the kidneys, urinary organs and organs of the male reproductive system is necessary for the successful assimilation of the pathology of these organs in clinical departments. In the practical work of the doctor, this knowledge is necessary for the clinical and anatomical analysis of sectional cases. The general purpose of the lesson. Learn by morphological characteristics
  12. KIDNEY AND URINARY DISEASES
    KIDNEY AND URINARY DISEASES
  13. Diseases of the kidneys and urogenital system
    Diseases of the kidneys and urogenital
  14. Diseases of the kidneys and urogenital tract
    Diseases of the kidneys and urogenital
  15. NOSOLOGICAL FORMS OF KIDNEY PATHOLOGY. GLOMERULAR DISEASES. GENERAL INFORMATION
    Glomerular (glomerular) diseases are the cause of very serious problems in nephrology. For example, chronic glomerulonephritis is one of the most common causes of chronic renal failure. Pathological changes in the glomeruli can occur under the influence of various factors, as well as with systemic diseases. Autoimmune diseases such as systemic lupus erythematosus, vascular pathology - hypertension and
  16. Laboratory methods used in the diagnosis of kidney disease.
    Laboratory methods used in the diagnosis of diseases
  17. Diseases of the female genital organs and mammary glands. Cervical Diseases. UTERINE BODY DISEASES. Diseases of the fallopian tubes. DISEASES OF THE OVARIES. BREAST DISEASES
    Diseases of the female genital organs and mammary glands. Cervical Diseases. UTERINE BODY DISEASES. Diseases of the fallopian tubes. DISEASES OF THE OVARIES. MILK DISEASES
  18. Kidney function assessment
    An accurate assessment of kidney function is based on laboratory data (Table 32-1). Kidney damage may be due to glomerular and / or tubular dysfunction, as well as urinary obstruction. Since glomerular dysfunction has the most severe consequences and is relatively easy to detect, laboratory tests have been widely used to determine the speed
Medical portal "MedguideBook" © 2014-2019
info@medicine-guidebook.com