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Chronic non-specific lung diseases. Lung cancer



Chronic non-specific lung diseases based on the common pathogenesis include chronic bronchitis, bronchiectasis, chronic abscess, chronic pneumonia, emphysema, pneumosclerosis, interstitial lung diseases. These diseases develop as a result of chronic bronchitis or complications of acute pneumonia with abscess formation or carnification.

Chronic bronchitis is a chronic inflammation of the bronchi resulting from prolonged acute bronchitis or prolonged exposure to biological, physical and chemical factors on the mucous membrane of the bronchi.

Bronchiectasis - expansion of the bronchi in the form of a cylinder or sac, which can be congenital and acquired.

Pneumofibrosis is a pathology accompanied by the development of connective tissue in the lung.

Emphysema is a disease characterized by excess air in the lungs. The following types of emphysema are distinguished: 1) chronic diffuse obstructive; 2) chronic focal (perifocal, cicatricial); 3) vicar (compensatory); 4) primary (idiopathic) panacinar; 5) senile; 6) interstitial.

Interstitial lung disease is a heterogeneous group of lung diseases characterized by a primary inflammatory process in interalveolar pulmonary interstitium (pneumonia) with the development of bilateral diffuse uniform pneumofibrosis.

Bronchial asthma is a disease in which there are attacks of expiratory dyspnea caused by allergic reactions in the bronchial tree, and a violation of the patency of the bronchi.

In all chronic non-specific lung diseases, hypertension of the pulmonary circulation and pulmonary heart develop.

Pneumoconioses are lung diseases caused by industrial dusts (occupational diseases). Of these, silicosis is most important, developing after prolonged inhalation of dust containing free silicon dioxide.

Lung cancer - occurs mainly from the epithelium of the bronchi and. very rarely from the alveolar epithelium. Localization distinguishes: 1) radical (central) cancer; 2) peripheral cancer; 3) mixed (massive) cancer.
Microscopically, it can be squamous (epidermoid) lung cancer, adenocarcinoma, undifferentiated, small cell, glandular squamous (dimorphic) cancer. In 70% of cases, metastases appear, both lymphogenous and hematogenous.

Micropreparations

1. Chronic bronchitis with bronchiectasis (okr. GE).

Designations: 1) necrosis and purulent fusion of the bronchial mucosa; 2) plethora and sclerosis of peribronchial tissue; 3) an expanded lumen of the bronchus; 4) foci of metaplasia of bronchial epithelium.

2. Granulating polyposis bronchitis (okr. GE).

Designations: 1) proliferation of granulation tissue in the wall of the bronchus; 2) polypous outgrowths of the mucous membrane; 3) sclerosis of peribronchial tissue; 4) hyaline cartilage.

3. Silicosis of the lungs, nodular form (okr. GE).

Designations: 1) silicotic nodules; 2) coal dust deposits; 3) full-blooded lung tissue.

4. lung cancer

Designations: 1) hyperchromic polymorphic tumor cells; 2) keratinization sites in tumor tissue (“cancerous pearls”); 3) endophytic form of growth of bronchogenic cancer.

Macro preparations

1. Chronic lung abscess.

2. Bronchiectasis.

3. Pneumosclerosis.

5. Central lung cancer

Test questions topics

1. Classification, etiology and pathogenesis of chronic non-specific lung diseases (COPD).

2. Morphological characteristics of diseases from the KNZL group. Their possible complications and outcomes.

3. Etiology, pathogenesis, morphological characteristics of silicosis. Its complications and causes of death.

4. Lung cancer. Macroscopic and microscopic characteristics, features of metastasis.

Situational task

The patient suffered from chronic bronchitis for a long time, to which emphysema joined the lungs. The phenomena of emphysema began to dominate the clinical picture. The patient has died.

1. What is the cause of death of the patient?

2. What type of emphysema occurs in this case?

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Chronic non-specific lung diseases. Lung cancer

  1. CHRONIC NON-SPECIFIC DISEASES OF THE LUNG AND LUNG CANCER
    CHRONIC NON-SPECIFIC PULMONARY AND CANCER DISEASES
  2. LUNG DISEASES. CHRONIC DIFFUSIVE ASTHMA. INTERSTITIAL LUNG DISEASES. CANCER INFLAMMATORY LUNG DISEASES. Bronchial lung
    LUNG DISEASES. CHRONIC DIFFUSIVE ASTHMA. INTERSTITIAL LUNG DISEASES. CANCER INFLAMMATORY LUNG DISEASES. BRONCHIAL
  3. Chronic non-specific lung diseases
    Chronic non-specific lung diseases (COPD) is a group of lung diseases of various etiologies, pathogenesis and morphology, characterized by the development of chronic cough with sputum production and paroxysmal or persistent breathing difficulties that are not associated with specific infectious diseases, especially pulmonary tuberculosis. Chronic bronchitis,
  4. CHRONIC NON-SPECIFIC LUNG DISEASES
    About 7% of the total adult population is sick with COPD. Classification: Chronic diseases; genetically determined pulmonary dysplasia; chronic; Acquired diseases a) with a primary lesion of the bronchi b) with a primary lesion of the parenchyma. Tracheobronchial dyskinesia. During exhalation, stenosis of the bronchus with a prolated membrane occurs
  5. Chronic diffuse inflammatory diseases of the lungs. Bronchial asthma. Lungs' cancer. Pneumoconiosis
    1. The main types of diffuse lung lesions 1. interstitial 4. small focal 2. obstructive 5. panacinar 3. restrictive 2. Causes of death with obstructive emphysema 1. gas acidosis and coma 2. renal failure 3. left ventricular heart failure 4. right ventricular heart failure 5. collapse of the lungs with spontaneous pneumothorax 3. The most important
  6. CHRONIC OBSTRUCTIVE LUNG DISEASES / CHRONIC BRONCHITIS AND LUNG EMPHISEMA /
    Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease is a pathological condition characterized by the formation of chronic airway obstruction due to chronic bronchitis / chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and / or pulmonary emphysema / EL /. Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease is widespread. It is estimated that HB affects about 14–20% of the male and about 3–8% of the female adult population, but only
  7. LUNG CANCER
    Lung cancer is a malignant tumor that develops from the integumentary epithelium of the bronchial mucosa and the epithelium of the mucous glands. In all economically developed countries, the problem of lung cancer is one of the most important and at the same time complex in modern oncology. This is due to the steady increase in morbidity and mortality, difficulties in timely diagnosis and not,
  8. Lung cancer
    • Among malignant tumors, it ranks first in terms of male morbidity and mortality in most countries of the world. It has a poor prognosis. Classification of lung cancer 1. By location. • Basal (central) cancer originating from the stem, lobar bronchi and the proximal part of the segmental bronchus. • Peripheral cancer emanating from the smaller bronchi,
  9. LUNG CANCER
    (bronchial carcinoma, bronchogenic cancer) is a malignant tumor developing from the integumentary epithelium of the bronchial mucosa and the epithelium of the mucous glands. The main clinical manifestations Despite the variety of clinical manifestations depending on the location of the cancer in the lung, all patients in the initial period complain of “unmotivated” general weakness, subfebrile condition, dry
  10. Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease.
    Obstructive pulmonary diseases include the following: chronic obstructive pulmonary emphysema, chronic obstructive bronchitis, bronchiectasis, chronic bronchiolitis. Chronic obstructive bronchitis. Chronic bronchitis can be simple and obstructive. Simple chronic bronchitis is a disease characterized by hyperplasia and excessive production of bronchial mucus
  11. Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease
    The group of chronic obstructive pulmonary diseases includes chronic bronchitis, bronchiectasis, bronchial asthma, and pulmonary emphysema (Table 15.1). Quite certain groups are made up of individuals with predominant chronic bronchitis or emphysema (Table 15.2). Many patients develop destructive processes overlapping at the level of the bronchi (in chronic bronchitis) and acini
  12. Chronic lung disease
    This group of pathological conditions is called interstitial lung disease (mechanical ventilation). They are characterized, regardless of the etiology, a gradual onset, chronic inflammation of the alveolar walls and perialveolar tissues, as well as progressive pulmonary fibrosis, which causes disturbances in gas exchange and ventilation. Inflammation may be limited to the lungs or be part of a generalized
  13. Chronic diffuse inflammatory lung disease
    in accordance with the functional and morphological features, the lesions of their air-conducting or respiratory departments are divided into three groups: obstructive, restrictive, mixed - obstructive with restrictive disorders or restrictive with obstructive disorders. The combination of restriction with obstruction is observed in the late stages of almost all chronic diffuse
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