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Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease



The group of chronic obstructive pulmonary diseases includes chronic bronchitis, bronchiectasis, bronchial asthma, and pulmonary emphysema (Table 15.1). Quite certain groups are made up of individuals with predominant chronic bronchitis or emphysema (Table 15.2). Many patients develop destructive processes overlapping at the level of the bronchi (in chronic bronchitis) and acini (in emphysema). If we take into account the frequently occurring component in the form of increased reactivity of the airways (asthmatic component), then the popularity of the use of the group name of the disease - "chronic obstructive pulmonary disease" will become clear.

Table 15.1.

Diseases associated with airway obstruction

(options for chronic obstructive pulmonary disease)



Table 15.2.

The main indicators characteristic of the prevailing chronic bronchitis

or predominant emphysema



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Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease

  1. CHRONIC OBSTRUCTIVE LUNG DISEASES / CHRONIC BRONCHITIS AND LUNG EMPHYSIS /
    Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease is a pathological condition characterized by the formation of chronic airway obstruction due to chronic bronchitis / chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and / or pulmonary emphysema / EL /. Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease is widespread. It is estimated that HB affects about 14–20% of the male and about 3–8% of the female adult population, but only
  2. Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease.
    Obstructive pulmonary diseases include the following: chronic obstructive pulmonary emphysema, chronic obstructive bronchitis, bronchiectasis, chronic bronchiolitis. Chronic obstructive bronchitis. Chronic bronchitis can be simple and obstructive. Simple chronic bronchitis is a disease characterized by hyperplasia and excessive production of bronchial mucus
  3. Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease
    Comparative characteristics of obstructive pulmonary diseases {foto239} Preoperative assessment of the condition of patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary diseases Analysis of clinical and instrumental data, incl. functions of external respiration, arterial blood gases, chest X-ray (reduction of FEV <50% of the norm corresponds to compensated respiratory failure / shortness of breath
  4. Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease
    General Information Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is the most common form of lung disease found in anesthetic practice. COPD incidence increases with age of patients; risk factors include smoking and male gender (about 20% of men have COPD). In the vast majority of cases, COPD is asymptomatic or with minor
  5. Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD)
    Characteristic features Obstructive pulmonary disease associated with cigarette smoking - pulmonary emphysema and chronic bronchitis - are often combined, but are completely different processes. Emphysema destroys the alveolar surface membrane and blood vessels, reducing the elasticity of the lung tissue and the diffusion capacity of the lungs, leaving the airways morphologically
  6. Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease
    CHRONIC OBSTRUCTIVE LUNG DISEASE (COPD) is a primary chronic inflammatory disease of the lungs with a predominant lesion of the distal airways and parenchyma, the formation of emphysema, impaired bronchial obstruction with the development of not completely reversible or irreversible bronchial obstruction caused by a pathological inflammatory reaction. Disease develops in
  7. Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD)
    This group of diseases includes chronic bronchitis, bronchiectasis, pneumosclerosis, pulmonary emphysema, chronic pneumonia, bronchial asthma, etc. There are 3 main mechanisms for the development of chronic lung disease: bronchitogenic, pneumoniogenic and pneumonitogenic. CHRONIC BRONCHITIS is a chronic non-allergic inflammation of the bronchi leading to progressive impairment of pulmonary ventilation and
  8. 1.2. CHRONIC OBSTRUCTIVE LUNG DISEASE
    Treatment goals: 1. Prevention of the progression of COPD 2. Reducing the severity of symptoms 3. Increasing exercise tolerance 4. Improving the health status and quality of life 5. Prevention and treatment of complications 6. Reducing mortality Patient management tactics are characterized by a stepwise increase in the volume of therapy, depending on the severity diseases. On the
  9. Obstructive pulmonary disease
    Obstructive pulmonary disease is the most common group of pulmonary disorders. These include bronchial asthma, emphysema, chronic bronchitis, cystic fibrosis, bronchiectasis, and bronchiolitis. A hallmark of these diseases is increased airway resistance. In obstructive pulmonary diseases, both FEV and FEV / FVC ratio do not exceed 75% of the norm. On the
  10. Obstructive and restrictive pulmonary diseases
    There are two types of diffuse lung lesions. These are obstructive processes that affect mainly the airways and are characterized by an increase in resistance to air passage due to partial or complete obstruction at any level (from the trachea to respiratory bronchioles), and restrictive processes, which are characterized by a decreased expansion of the lung parenchyma during inspiration and,
  11. Methods for the early active detection of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease
    Level 1 screening is done by a nurse under the supervision of a physician. Questioning, portable ventilometers are used. This allows you to identify not only mild forms of cyclic bronchial asthma, but also acyclic forms, lungs and moderate forms of chronic bronchitis. The questionnaires include the epidemiological criteria for chronic bronchitis (cough up to 2-3 months a year for
  12. Chronic diffuse inflammatory diseases of the lungs. Bronchial asthma. Lungs' cancer. Pneumoconiosis
    1. The main types of diffuse lung lesions 1. interstitial 4. small focal 2. obstructive 5. panacinar 3. restrictive 2. Causes of death with obstructive emphysema 1. gas acidosis and coma 2. renal failure 3. left ventricular heart failure 4. right ventricular heart failure 5. collapse of the lungs with spontaneous pneumothorax 3. The most important
  13. Asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (HOLS)
    Pathophysiology. Asthma is called acute generalized obstruction of the respiratory tract, accompanied by bronchospasm due to their hyperreactivity and the release of inflammatory mediators (for example, histamine). Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is defined as airway obstruction caused by various structural and functional factors, such as hypertrophy
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