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CELLULAR AND HUMORAL BASES OF THE IMMUNE RESPONSE. PATHOLOGY OF THE IMMUNE SYSTEM. PATHOLOGICAL CONDITIONS OF THE IMMUNE SYSTEM. Hypersensitivity Reactions



The immune system has developed in humans as a defense mechanism against microbial infections. It provides two forms of immunity: specific and non-specific. A specific immune response protects the body from a specific pathogen. It takes effect when a non-specific immune response is exhausted.

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CELLULAR AND HUMORAL BASES OF THE IMMUNE RESPONSE. PATHOLOGY OF THE IMMUNE SYSTEM. PATHOLOGICAL CONDITIONS OF THE IMMUNE SYSTEM. Hypersensitivity Reactions

  1. Pathology of the immune system. Hypersensitivity reactions. Autoimmunization and autoimmune diseases. Amyloidosis. Systemic lupus erythematosus. Scleroderma. Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS).
    1. Forms of immunity 1. focal 3. specific 2. diffuse 4. non-specific 2. Mechanical protection is provided by 1. skin 4. peripheral nerves 2. blood 5. vascular mucosa 3. vascular endothelium 3. Humoral non-specific components of the immune response 1. sweat 4. mesangiocytes 2. macrophages 5. lacrimal fluid 3. neutrophils 4. To establish compliance: ORGAN APPROPRIATE
  2. Cellular basis of the immune response.
    A specific immune response is provided by lymphocytes. Antibodies are produced by B-lymphocytes, and cellular immune responses are realized using T-lymphocytes. These lymphocytes are often referred to as B and T cells. Lymphocytes develop in the bone marrow from a common progenitor cell. Then, differentiation (maturation) occurs either in bone marrow tissue (B cells) or in the thymus (T cells). These
  3. Pathology of the immune system.
    There are four main types of pathological conditions of the immune system: 1) hypersensitivity reactions, which are the mechanisms of immunological tissue damage in a number of diseases; 2) autoimmune diseases, which are immune reactions against one's own body; 3) immune deficiency syndromes resulting from a congenital or acquired defect
  4. Primary immunodeficiency states and features of the ontogenesis of the immune system
    In the development of the immune system of the fetus, the following main features can be distinguished. Unlike the formation of other body systems, the development of cells and organs of the immune system occurs independently, from different bookmarks, and at first they are not functionally connected. So, undifferentiated multipotent stem cells that give rise to lymphoid cells of the immune system, first appear in the wall
  5. Organs of the immune system
    The immune system is the totality of all lymphoid organs and accumulations of lymphatic cells of the body. A synonym for the immune system is the lymphatic system. Lymphoid organs are functional tissue formations in which immune cells form and where they acquire immune specificity. Among the organs of the immune system are distinguished: 1. Central: thymus gland
  6. The immune system
    Changes in the mother’s immune system during pregnancy are primarily aimed at ensuring the development of an antigen-alien fetus, which is an allograft for the mother’s body. The key point in the development of normal pregnancy is the recognition of foreign embryo antigens encoded by the genes of the main (large) histocompatibility complex (locus). Changes
  7. Immune Thrombocytopenia Consumption - Immune Thrombocytopenic Purpura (ITP)
    ITP is a group of diseases united by the principle of a single pathogenesis of thrombocytopenia. With this pathology, the platelet life is reduced to several hours, due to the action of antibodies or other immune mechanisms of their destruction. Autoimmune and hapten forms of ITP are distinguished. Autoimmune forms are: symptomatic (with systemic diseases
  8. DISEASES OF THE CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM, IMMUNE SYSTEM AND BLOOD SYSTEM
    Diseases of the cardiovascular system are not so common in cats, but their symptoms should be known and, if there is any need, consult a veterinarian. Cat Siamese, Abyssinian, Persian and Burmese cats are most susceptible to heart disease. Males get sick more often than
  9. Immune system diseases
    Immune deficits (immune deficiency) - (immunodeficentia) are characterized by the fact that the body is not able to respond with a full-fledged immune response to foreign antigens. By origin, immune deficiencies are: congenital (primary), age-related (physiological), acquired (secondary). In farm animals, the most common are age-related and acquired
  10. Immune response
    The immune response is a sequentially unfolding multilevel reaction of antibodies and immune organs to an antigen, accompanied by hemodynamic changes. Identification and binding of foreign molecules and cells occurs when they come into contact with another group of molecules. This interaction, in contrast to a chemical reaction, is called the immune response. The immune response unfolds as a microprocess
  11. The structure and functions of the immune system
    The main function of the immune system is to control the qualitative constancy of the genetically determined cellular and humoral composition of the body. The immune system provides: • protection of the body from the introduction of foreign cells and from modified cells (for example, malignant) that arose in the body; • destruction of old, defective and damaged own cells, as well as
  12. Ontogenetic features of the immune system in newborns
    The mechanisms of the immune system provide three basic functions: protection (resistance to infections caused by various microorganisms), maintaining homeostasis (for example, removing worn-out cells of the host body) and control (for example, recognizing and destroying mutant cells). Being not quite mature, the cells of the immune system of the fetus and newborn still have significant
  13. Ontogenesis of the immune system
    Immune system in embryogenesis The level of immune reactivity of developing embryos is significantly inferior to mature individuals. However, the initial stages of the formation of T- and B-units of the immune system appear very early. Thymus is the earliest organ of the immune system that occurs during embryonic development. It is formed from the endoderm of the 3rd and 4th pharyngeal pockets and
  14. Organs of the immune system
    The organs of the immune system are anatomical formations involved in the formation of the body’s immune readiness to neutralize foreign structures and substances. Bone marrow, thymus, spleen, lymph nodes, Peyer's intestinal plaques, tonsils, and appendix are formations in which cells capable of "immune surveillance" are continuously formed and mature.
  15. Cerebral palsy as an autoimmune inflammation. Pathology of ICS (immune-competent system) in cerebral palsy
    Many authors write about the possibility of the formation of an inflammatory process of an autoimmune nature in the brain of children subsequently suffering from cerebral palsy (K.A.Semenova, 1968, 1972, 1984, 1994, 1996; N.I. Popova, 1974, 1978; V.D. Levchenkova , 1983; G.G. Shanko, E.S. Bondarenko, 1990, etc.). Both experimentally and in the cerebral palsy clinic, a correlation was shown between the characteristics of the central nervous system lesion and the nature of the changes.
  16. GENDER STEROID HORMONES AND IMMUNE SYSTEM
    Tatarchuk T.F., Chernyshov V.P., Islamova A.O. GENDER differences in the immune system of men and women, manifested not only during periods of hormonal adjustment, but also in other periods of life, determine the relevance of coverage of the effect of sex steroids on the immune system. According to the literature (Anna Oldenhave, Coen Netelenbos, 1994; Deborah J. Anderson, 2000), the peak incidence of autoimmune
  17. Immune System Research Methods
    Methods of subjective and objective assessment of the immune system. Immune status, principles and levels of assessment. It is important to understand that the correction of immunopathological processes due to differences in the mechanisms of their development cannot be the same and must be preceded by methods of research on the immune system that allow the most accurate determination of the variant of the immunopathological process. For
  18. Specific immune response.
    Signs of such an answer that distinguish it from nonspecific immune reactions are specificity, immunological memory, recognition of "one's own" and "another's". Specificity is manifested in the fact that an infection caused by a pathogen leads to the development of protection only against this pathogen or a closely related agent. Memory occurs after the implementation of an immune response to any
  19. Ontogenesis of the immune system
    For a long time it was believed that the embryo is immunologically completely incompetent. The development of modern research methods and the expansion of the number of species of experimental animals has changed this point of view. Of course, the level of immune reactivity of developing embryos is significantly inferior to sexually mature individuals and, nevertheless, the initial stages of the formation of T - and B - immunity systems manifest themselves very
  20. Violations in the functioning of the immune system in frequently ill children
    In modern concepts of the pathogenesis of infectious diseases, immunopathogenesis occupies an increasing place. It is considered taking into account the relationship of micro- and macroorganisms, the properties of microorganisms that can not only hide from the immune response using antigenic mimicry, but also modify the human immune response. Under the immune response in the broad sense, we understand the whole
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