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CELLULAR AND HUMORAL BASES OF IMMUNE RESPONSE. PATHOLOGY OF THE IMMUNE SYSTEM. PATHOLOGICAL CONDITIONS OF THE IMMUNE SYSTEM. HYPERSENSITIVITY REACTIONS



The human immune system has developed in humans as a defense mechanism against microbial infections. It provides two forms of immunity: specific and non-specific. A specific immune response protects the body from a specific pathogen. It comes into action when a non-specific immune response exhausts its possibilities.

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CELLULAR AND HUMORAL BASES OF IMMUNE RESPONSE. PATHOLOGY OF THE IMMUNE SYSTEM. PATHOLOGICAL CONDITIONS OF THE IMMUNE SYSTEM. HYPERSENSITIVITY REACTIONS

  1. Pathology of the immune system. Hypersensitivity Reactions. Autoimmunization and autoimmune diseases. Amyloidosis. Systemic lupus erythematosus. Scleroderma. Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS).
    1. Forms of immunity 1. focal 3. specific 2. diffuse 4. nonspecific 2. Mechanical protection is provided by 1. skin 4. peripheral nerves 2. blood 5. vascular mucosa 3. vascular endothelium 3. Humoral nonspecific components of the immune response 1. sweat 4. mesangiocytes 2. macrophages 5. lacrimal fluid 3. neutrophils 4. To establish compliance: ORGANIZING RESPONSIBLE
  2. Cellular basis of immune response.
    A specific immune response is provided by lymphocytes. Antibodies are produced by B-lymphocytes, and cellular immune responses are realized by T-lymphocytes. These lymphocytes are often referred to as B and T cells. Lymphocytes develop in the bone marrow from a common precursor cell. Further, differentiation (maturation) occurs either in the tissue of the bone marrow (B cells) or in the thymus (T cells). These
  3. Pathology of the immune system.
    There are four main types of pathological states of the immune system: 1) hypersensitivity reactions, which are the mechanisms of immunological tissue damage in a number of diseases; 2) autoimmune diseases, which are immune reactions against one's own organism; 3) immune deficiency syndromes resulting from a congenital or acquired defect
  4. Primary immunodeficiency states and features of the ontogenesis of the immune system
    The following main features can be distinguished in the development of the fetal immune system. In contrast to the formation of other systems of the body, the development of cells and organs of the immune system occurs independently, from different tabs, and initially they are not functionally connected. Thus, undifferentiated multipotent stem cells, giving rise to the lymphoid cells of the immune system, first appear in the wall
  5. Immune System Organs
    The immune system is the sum of all the lymphoid organs and accumulations of the lymphatic cells of the body. A synonym for the immune system is the lymphatic system. Lymphoid organs are functional tissue formations in which immune cells are formed and where they acquire immune specificity. Among the organs of the immune system are distinguished: 1. Central: the thymus gland
  6. The immune system
    Changes in the mother's immune system during pregnancy are primarily aimed at ensuring the development of an antigen-foreign fetus, which is an allograft for the mother's body. The key point in the development of normal pregnancy is the recognition of foreign germ antigens encoded by the genes of the major (large) complex (locus) of histocompatibility. Changes
  7. Immune Thrombocytopenia Consumption - Immune Thrombocytopenic Purpura (ITP)
    ITP is a group of diseases united according to the principle of single pathogenesis of thrombocytopenia. With this pathology, the life span of platelets is reduced to several hours, which is caused by the action of antibodies or other immune mechanisms for their destruction. Autoimmune and hapten forms of ITP are distinguished. Autoimmune forms are: symptomatic (with systemic diseases
  8. DISEASES OF THE CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM, IMMUNE SYSTEM AND THE BLOOD SYSTEM
    Diseases of the cardiovascular system are not so common in cats, but their symptoms should be known and, if necessary, contact a veterinarian. The most prone to heart disease are Siamese, Abyssinian, Persian and Burmese cats. Males are sick more often than
  9. Diseases of the immune system
    Immune deficiencies (immune deficiency) - (immunodeficentia) are characterized by the fact that the body is not able to respond with a complete immune response to foreign antigens. By origin, immune deficiencies are: congenital (primary), age (physiological), acquired (secondary). In farm animals, age and acquired are most common.
  10. Immune response
    The immune response is a sequentially unfolding multi-level reaction of antibodies and immune organs to an antigen, accompanied by hemodynamic shifts. The identification and binding of foreign molecules and cells occurs when they come into contact with another group of molecules. This interaction, in contrast to a chemical reaction, is called an immune response. Immune reaction unfolds as microprocess.
  11. Structure and function of the immune system
    The main function of the immune system is to control the quality constancy of the genetically determined cellular and humoral composition of the organism. The immune system provides: • protection of the body against the introduction of foreign cells and against modified cells (eg, malignant) in the body; • destruction of old, defective and damaged own cells, as well as
  12. Ontogenetic features of the immune system in newborns
    The mechanisms of the immune system provide for three main functions: protection (resistance to infections caused by various microorganisms), maintenance of homeostasis (for example, removal of worn cells of the host) and control (for example, recognition and destruction of mutant cells). Being not fully mature, the cells of the immune system of the fetus and newborn still have significant
  13. Ontogenesis of the immune system
    Immune system in embryogenesis The level of immune reactivity of developing embryos is significantly inferior to mature individuals. However, the initial stages of the formation of the T- and B-units of the immune system appear very early. Thymus - the earliest organ of the immune system, arising in the process of embryonic development. Formed from the endoderm of the 3rd and 4th pharyngeal pockets and
  14. Immune System Organs
    The organs of the immune system are the anatomical formations involved in the formation of the body's immune readiness to neutralize foreign structures and substances. Bone marrow, thymus, spleen, lymph nodes, Peyer's patches of the intestine, tonsils and appendix are formations in which cells capable of carrying out "immune surveillance" in
  15. Cerebral palsy as an autoimmune inflammation. Pathology of ICS (immuno-competent system) for cerebral palsy
    Many authors write about the possibility of forming an inflammatory process of an autoimmune nature in the brain of children who subsequently suffer from cerebral palsy (K.А.Semenova, 1968, 1972, 1984, 1994, 1996; N.I. Popova, 1974, 1978; V.D.Levchenkova , 1983; GG Shanko, E.S. Bondarenko, 1990, etc.). Both experimentally and in the clinic of cerebral palsy, a correlation was shown between the characteristics of the CNS lesion and the nature of the changes.
  16. GENDER STEROID HORMONES AND IMMUNE SYSTEM
    Tatarchuk T.F., Chernyshov V.P., Islamova A.O. The gender differences in the immune system of men and women, which manifest themselves not only during periods of hormonal adjustment, but also during other periods of life, determine the relevance of highlighting the effect of sex steroids on the immune system. According to the literature (Anna Oldenhave, Coen Netelenbos, 1994; Deborah J. Anderson, 2000), the peak of the incidence of autoimmune
  17. Methods for the study of the immune system
    Methods for the subjective and objective evaluation of the immune system. Immune status, principles and levels of assessment. It is important to understand that the correction of immunopathological processes due to differences in the mechanisms of their development cannot be the same and must be preceded by conducting research methods of the immune system, which allow to establish the variant of the immunopathological process as accurately as possible. For
  18. Specific immune response.
    Signs of such a response, distinguishing it from non-specific immune responses, are specificity, immunological memory, recognition of "one's own" and "someone else's". Specificity is manifested in the fact that an infection caused by a pathogen leads to the development of protection only against this pathogen or a closely related agent. The memory occurs after the implementation of the immune response to any
  19. Ontogenesis of the immune system
    For a long time it was believed that the embryo is immunologically completely incompetent. The development of modern research methods and the expansion of the number of experimental animal species has changed this point of view. Of course, the level of immune reactivity of developing embryos is significantly inferior to sexually mature individuals and, nevertheless, the initial stages of the formation of T - and B - immunity systems appear very
  20. DISTURBANCES IN THE OPERATION OF THE IMMUNE SYSTEM IN FREQUENTLY DISEASED CHILDREN
    In modern ideas about the pathogenesis of infectious diseases, immunopathogenesis is becoming increasingly important. It is considered taking into account the interrelationships of micro and microorganisms, the properties of microorganisms that can not only shelter from the immune response with the help of antigenic mimicry, but also modify the human immune response. Under the immune response in a broad sense, understand the whole set
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