the main
about the project
Medicine news
To authors
Licensed books on medicine
<< Ahead Next >>

Adrenal glands


As already mentioned, the adrenal glands in newborns are relatively larger than in adults. The adrenal medulla of the newborn is very poorly developed and is almost indistinguishable in macroscopic examination. The cortex consists of two layers - the inner one, the darker one, and the outer one, the lighter one. The adrenal medulla is formed from the inner layer over time (A.F. Tour). In the inner layer of the cortex there are broad capillaries of the sinus type.
Hemorrhages in the adrenal glands are common in newborns often. They can occur both as a result of birth trauma (usually during childbirth in pelvic presentation), and as a result of asphyxiation, if death occurred during oxygen starvation, and almost always in these cases hemorrhage in the adrenal gland is combined with intracranial hemorrhage.
Prozektor, not competent in matters of the pathophysiology of the fetus and newborn, can easily take the venous plethora of the inner layer of cortical substance for hemorrhage.
Considerable difficulties also arise in microscopic examination. The capillaries of bark overflowed with blood, having a wide lumen, resemble small focal hemorrhages. Often, small hemorrhages occur in the adrenal glands, which can only be detected by microscopic examination.
According to Baar (Vaag), even large hemorrhages in the adrenal glands do not always lead to the death of the newborn. In children who died in the late neonatal period, post-hemorrhagic changes are found in the adrenal glands in the area up to 1 / 3-1 / 4 of the organ. Up to 40 ml of blood can be poured into the adrenal gland without breaking its capsule. Massive hemorrhages lead to rupture of the capsule with bleeding into periochemical tissue (Potter). Hypertrophy of the adrenal glands is morphologically characterized by an increase in their size, compaction, and the appearance of folds on their surface. These changes are almost always combined with false hermaphroditism.
<< Ahead Next >>
= Go to tutorial content =

Adrenal glands

  1. Adrenal glands
    The adrenal glands are a paired organ and are located extraperitoneally at the upper poles of the kidney. Their weight is 4 g regardless of gender and body weight. The uniqueness of the blood supply to the adrenal glands is that each gland is supplied with the blood of three arteries - branches of the diaphragmatic artery with isolated veins one on each side (the right flows into the inferior hollow, the left into the renal). Cortical
  2. ADRENAL
    The adrenal gland (glandula suprarenalis) is a paired organ located in the retroperitoneal space directly above the upper end of the corresponding kidney. Its mass is 12–13 g, length 40–60 mm, width 2–8 mm. The adrenal gland has the form of a cone compressed from front to back, in which there are distinguished anterior, posterior and lower (renal) surfaces. Adrenal glands are located at the level of the XI — XII infants
  3. Adrenal Diseases and Pregnancy
    Physiology of the adrenal glands The adrenal glands are paired organs of internal secretion, located above the upper poles of the kidneys at the level of the vertebrae from ThXI to L [. Have the appearance of vertically standing flat plates in the form of a pyramid or triangle. The average mass of both adrenal glands is 10–12 g. The dimensions are on average 4.5 x 2-3 cm, thickness 0.6–1 cm. The left adrenal gland is larger than the right one. Rudiments
  4. Adrenal pathology
    Adrenal pathology is very diverse, but pheochromocytoma and Addison's disease are more common. Pheochromocytoma - a tumor of the medulla, leads to an increase in blood pressure (adrenaline and norepinephrine), patients die from bleeding in the brain. Addison's disease is caused by the hypofunction of the adrenal cortex, more often with its tuberculous lesion, less often with amyloidosis, cancer metastases,
  5. Adrenal insufficiency
    1. Give a definition of adrenal insufficiency. Adrenal cortex insufficiency, or Addison's disease, is characterized by reduced production of glucocorticoids and mineralocorticoids by the adrenal glands. The cause of the disease is a pathological process that directly affects the adrenal glands (primary hypoadrenocorticism) or the formation and secretion
  6. Adrenal glands
    Physiology The adrenal glands secrete the cortex and medulla. The adrenal cortex is the source of three types of hormones: androgens, mineral-corticoids (for example, aldosterone) and glucocorticoids (for example, cortisol). In the medulla of the adrenal glands, catecholamines are produced (adrenaline, norepinephrine, dopamine). Adrenal androgens are not essential for anesthesia and
  7. Hyperfunction of the cortex of the adrenal glands
    Hyperfunction of the adrenal cortex is a disease that occurs rarely in cats. It is caused by increased synthesis of the hormone cortisone, which leads to metabolic disorders and various pathological processes. The cause may be a tumor of the adrenal glands or pituitary gland. Symptoms: hair loss, swelling, possible liver failure. Treatment usually
  8. ADAPTERS
    The adrenal glands are located in the form of oval or bean-shaped cells medially and somewhat cranial to the kidneys. They develop from two primordia. The adrenal cortex arises from the epithelium of the splanchnomotomes of the mesoderm near the mesentery root, that is, from the same material as the sex glands and kidneys. The brain substance is formed from the material from which the sympathetic develops.
  9. Adrenal glands
    The adrenal cortex produces more than 60 biologically active substances and tissue hormones of a steroid nature, which, by their effect on metabolic processes, are divided into glucocorticoids (cortisone, cortisol), mineralocorticoids (aldosterone, 11 - deoxycorticosterone), sex hormones - androgens (17-ketosteroids) and testosterone) and trace concentrations of female sex hormones -
  10. Adrenal glands (problems)
    Physical blocking The adrenal glands are the paired endocrine glands, as the name implies, located above the kidneys. They perform several functions: if necessary, they release adrenaline, which activates the brain, accelerates heart rate and mobilizes sugar from the reserve, when the body needs additional energy. They secrete cortisone - a hormone that plays
  11. Congenital adrenal hypoplasia
    Etiology The hereditary form associated with the X chromosome and caused by defects in the NR0B1 gene encoding a DAX1 transcription factor is most common. Pathogenesis DAX1 factor is necessary for laying the adrenal cortex and testicles, is involved in the regulation of the hypothalamogonadotrophic function. Clinical picture With a defect of factor DAX1 in boys, adrenal insufficiency occurs, clinically
  12. Anesthesia for adrenal surgery
    Anesthetic management during interventions on the adrenal glands is classified as rather complicated. This is due not only to the fact that the adrenal glands produce hormones important for the course of many processes (gluco - and mineralocorticoids, catecholamines). Adrenal hormones have a significant impact on the state of the main vital functions and, above all, on the blood circulation, are involved in
  13. Adrenal tumors.
    Adenomas of the adrenal cortex. Classify depending on hormonal activity and cytogenesis (Table 35.3). Aldosteroma. Develops from the glomerular cells, produces minerolocorticoids, is clinically characterized by development. Table 35.3 Clinical and morphological features of adrenal adenoma. Name of adenoma. Source of growth. Clinical characteristics of the Aldosteroma of the glomerular.
Medical portal "MedguideBook" © 2014-2016
info@medicine-guidebook.com