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Obstructive and restrictive pulmonary diseases

There are two types of diffuse lung lesions. These are obstructive processes, mainly affecting the airways and are characterized by an increase in resistance to air passage due to partial or complete obstruction at any level (from the trachea to respiratory bronchioles), and restrictive processes, which are characterized by a decreased expansion of the lung parenchyma during inspiration and, therefore, a reduced vital capacity of this paired organ. Despite the fact that many lung diseases are accompanied by both obstructive and restrictive processes, the classification separation of the latter seems to be very important. In particular, it helps in comparing the results of functional pulmonary tests with radiological and pathological findings.

The main obstructive diseases, in addition to tumors and the consequences of foreign body aspiration, include emphysema, chronic bronchitis, bronchiectasis, and bronchial asthma. Functional pulmonary tests show increased resistance in the vessels of the pulmonary circulation and limitation of the maximum volumes of exhaled air during forced expiration.
This restriction can develop as a result of anatomical narrowing of the airways (for example, with bronchial asthma) or due to the loss of an elastic elastic skeleton in the alveolar parenchyma, which is involved in the contraction of lung tissue during exhalation.

Restrictive lung lesions occur in the form of chest changes in normal lungs, for example, with neuromuscular lesions in polio, severe obesity and kyphoscoliosis, and acute or chronic interstitial and infiltrative processes. A typical acute restrictive disease is adult respiratory distress syndrome. Chronic restrictive diseases include all kinds of dusting of the lungs (pneumoconiosis, see chapter 9) and most infiltrative processes.

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Obstructive and restrictive pulmonary diseases

  1. Restrictive lung disease
    Causes of restrictive pulmonary pathology Causes of acute restrictive pathology: Pulmonary edema; • ???? ARDS; •????aspiration; • ???? neurogenic edema; • ???? overdose of opioids; • ???? congestive myocardial failure; • ???? pleural effusion; •????pneumothorax; • ???? an increase in the mediastinum; • ???? pneumomediastinum. Chronic lung disease leading to restrictive
  2. Restrictive lung disease
    Restrictive diseases are characterized by a decrease in lung distensibility. Pulmonary volumes are below normal, while the volumetric flow rate on the exhale is not reduced. Thus, FEV1 and FVC are reduced, but the ratio of FEVc / FVC remains normal. Restrictive diseases include many acute and chronic pathological conditions of the lungs, as well as lesions of the pleura, chest wall, diaphragm and
  3. Diffuse interstitial (infiltrative and restrictive) lung diseases
    In this section of the chapter, a combined group of noncommunicable diseases is described, characterized mainly by diffuse and usually chronic changes that affect mainly the stroma of the lungs, i.e. interstitial tissue of the alveolar walls, consisting of the basement membrane of the endothelium and epithelial cells, collagen fibers, elastic structures, proteoglycans, fibroblasts,
  4. Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease
    The group of chronic obstructive pulmonary diseases includes chronic bronchitis, bronchiectasis, bronchial asthma, and pulmonary emphysema (Table 15.1). Quite certain groups are made up of individuals with predominant chronic bronchitis or emphysema (Table 15.2). Many patients develop destructive processes overlapping at the level of the bronchi (in chronic bronchitis) and acini
  5. Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease.
    Obstructive pulmonary diseases include the following: chronic obstructive pulmonary emphysema, chronic obstructive bronchitis, bronchiectasis, chronic bronchiolitis. Chronic obstructive bronchitis. Chronic bronchitis can be simple and obstructive. Simple chronic bronchitis is a disease characterized by hyperplasia and excessive production of bronchial mucus
  6. Obstructive pulmonary disease
    Obstructive pulmonary disease is the most common group of pulmonary disorders. These include bronchial asthma, emphysema, chronic bronchitis, cystic fibrosis, bronchiectasis, and bronchiolitis. A hallmark of these diseases is increased airway resistance. In obstructive pulmonary diseases, both FEV and FEV / FVC ratio do not exceed 75% of the norm. On the
  7. Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease
    Comparative characteristics of obstructive pulmonary diseases {foto239} Preoperative assessment of the condition of patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary diseases Analysis of clinical and instrumental data, incl. functions of external respiration, arterial blood gases, chest X-ray (reduction of FEV <50% of the norm corresponds to compensated respiratory failure / shortness of breath
  8. Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease
    General Information Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is the most common form of lung disease found in anesthetic practice. COPD incidence increases with age of patients; risk factors include smoking and male gender (about 20% of men have COPD). In the vast majority of cases, COPD is asymptomatic or with minor
    Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease is a pathological condition characterized by the formation of chronic airway obstruction due to chronic bronchitis / chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and / or pulmonary emphysema / EL /. Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease is widespread. It is estimated that HB affects about 14–20% of the male and about 3–8% of the female adult population, but only
  10. Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD)
    Characteristic features Obstructive pulmonary disease associated with cigarette smoking - pulmonary emphysema and chronic bronchitis - are often combined, but are completely different processes. Emphysema destroys the alveolar surface membrane and blood vessels, reducing the elasticity of the lung tissue and the diffusion capacity of the lungs, leaving the airways morphologically
  11. Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease
    CHRONIC OBSTRUCTIVE LUNG DISEASE (COPD) is a primary chronic inflammatory disease of the lungs with a predominant lesion of the distal airways and parenchyma, the formation of emphysema, impaired bronchial obstruction with the development of not completely reversible or irreversible bronchial obstruction caused by a pathological inflammatory reaction. Disease develops in
  12. Respiratory support for obstructive pulmonary disease
    Obstructive pulmonary disorders are found in many diseases, but most often they occur in bronchial asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Although the term COPD covers a wide range of diseases, its use is usually limited to chronic bronchitis and emphysema. Bronchial asthma is a standard of reversible obstructive diseases.
  13. Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD)
    This group of diseases includes chronic bronchitis, bronchiectasis, pneumosclerosis, pulmonary emphysema, chronic pneumonia, bronchial asthma, etc. There are 3 main mechanisms for the development of chronic lung disease: bronchitogenic, pneumoniogenic and pneumonitogenic. CHRONIC BRONCHITIS is a chronic non-allergic inflammation of the bronchi leading to progressive impairment of pulmonary ventilation and
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