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Acute inflammatory lung diseases (pneumonia)



Among acute pneumonia, there are croupous (lobar), having the nature of an independent disease, and focal bronchopneumonia as a manifestation or complication of another disease.

Croupous pneumonia is an acute infectious and allergic disease in which fibrinous inflammation seizes the lobe of the lung (lobar or lobar pneumonia) and its pleura (pleuropneumonia).

Morphologically during croupous pneumonia there are four stages: 1) tide; 2) red guardianship; 3) gray guardianship; 4) permissions. The course of all stages is 9 to 11 days. Peculiarities of croupous pneumonia are that in the stages of high tide and red hepatitis there are phenomena of microbial edema, hyperemia, hemorrhage, and in the stages of gray hepatitis. and resolution in the alveoli, a fibrinous-purulent exudate is formed, which is then subjected to fibrinolytic decay due to the fibrinolytic reaction of leukocytes.

Complications of croupous pneumonia are divided into pulmonary and extrapulmonary. The first include carnification, abscess, gangrene of the lung, empyema of the pleura. Extrapulmonary complications occur with hematogenous and lymphogenous generalization of the infection: purulent mediastinitis and pericarditis, peritonitis, meningitis, polypous ulcerative endocarditis, etc.

Bronchopneumonia is a group of inflammatory processes in the lungs caused by acute bronchitis. Bronchopneumonia are classified by etiology; (staphylococcal, streptococcal, pneumococcal, fungal, viral, etc.), pathogenesis; (aspiration, hypostatic, postoperative, etc.), the nature of the exudate; (serous, purulent, hemorrhagic), the prevalence of the process; (miliary, acinous, lobular, drain, lobar, segmental). Bronchopneumonia are focal in nature. Moreover, they are complicated by lung abscess, bronchiectasis, carnification of the lung tissue.

Micropreparations

1. Bronchopneumonia (env. GE).

Designations: 1) purulent exudate in the lumen of the bronchus; 2) plethora and swelling of the wall of the bronchus; 3) serous-purulent and purulent exudate in the cavity of the alveoli; 4) inflammatory infiltration of the interalveolar septa.

2.
Carnifying pneumonia (env. GE),

Designations: 1) serous-fibrinous exudate in the alveoli; 2) extensive foci of pneumosclerosis; 3) thickening of the interalveolar septa.

3. Hemorrhagic pneumonia with influenza (env. GE).

Designations: 1) purulent hemorrhagic exudate in the lumen of the bronchus;

2) desquamation of the bronchial epithelium; 3) edema and plethora of the bronchial wall; 4) profuse hemorrhagic and serous-hemorrhagic exudate in the cavity of the alveoli.

Macro preparations

1. Bronchopneumonia.

2. Carnification of the lung.

3. Lung abscess.

4. Fibrinous pleurisy.

Test questions topics

1. Etiology, pathogenesis and classification of acute pneumonia.

2. Croupous pneumonia. Morphological characteristics, complications, outcomes.

3. Bronchopneumonia. Macro and microscopic characteristics of focal pneumonia.

4. Morphological features of bronchopneumonia depending on the pathogen.

5. Complications, outcomes of focal pneumonia. Causes of death.

Situational task

A man of 32 years, after a sharp cooling, felt weakness, shortness of breath, pain when breathing in the right half of the chest, body 39 C.

During the examination: blunting of percussion sound, lack of breathing in the lower lobe of the right lung, pleural friction noise. Initiated treatment did not work. Death occurred a week after the onset of the disease with symptoms of pulmonary heart disease. At autopsy: the lower lobe of the right lung is of dense consistency with the application of fibrin filaments on the pleura, the incision of the lung tissue is airless, gray in color.

1. What disease did the patient develop?

2. At what stage?

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Acute inflammatory lung diseases (pneumonia)

  1. ACUTE INFLAMMATORY DISEASES OF THE LUNGS (PNEUMONIA)
    Acute pneumonia is a group of acute etiological, pathogenesis and morphological characteristics of acute infectious inflammatory diseases of the lungs with a primary lesion of the respiratory departments and the presence of intra-alveolar exudate. Most commonly caused by bacteria, mycoplasmas and viruses. According to clinical and morphological features, croupous (lobar) pneumonia is distinguished,
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  3. LUNG DISEASES. CHRONIC DIFFUSIVE ASTHMA. INTERSTITIAL LUNG DISEASES. CANCER INFLAMMATORY LUNG DISEASES. Bronchial lung
    LUNG DISEASES. CHRONIC DIFFUSIVE ASTHMA. INTERSTITIAL LUNG DISEASES. CANCER INFLAMMATORY LUNG DISEASES. BRONCHIAL
  4. ACUTE INFLAMMATORY DISEASES OF FEMALE GENITALS
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  5. ACUTE INFLAMMATORY DISEASES OF THE THROAT
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  6. Acute lung disease
    These include pulmonary edema (including adult respiratory distress syndrome), pneumonia, and aspiration pneumonitis. General information A decrease in lung extensibility occurs due to an increase in the content of extravascular fluid in them, which in turn is due to either an increase in pressure in the pulmonary artery or an increase in the permeability of the pulmonary capillaries (Ch. 50). Increase
  7. Chronic diffuse inflammatory lung disease
    in accordance with the functional and morphological features, the lesions of their air-conducting or respiratory departments are divided into three groups: obstructive, restrictive, mixed - obstructive with restrictive disorders or restrictive with obstructive disorders. The combination of restriction with obstruction is observed in the late stages of almost all chronic diffuse
  8. Acute pneumonia.
    Acute pneumonia is a group concept used to refer to acute polyetiological infectious inflammatory lung diseases. Acute pneumonia refers to polyetiological diseases that have particular pathogenesis and a common clinical and morphological manifestations. The main morphological manifestation of acute pneumonia is the development of acute inflammation in the broncho-pulmonary system with
  9. ACUTE PNEUMONIA
    Acute pneumonia is understood to mean acute exudative inflammatory processes of various etiologies and pathogenesis, localized in the parenchyma and intermediate lung tissue, often involving the vascular system. Pneumonia as a nosological form is said when the causative agent of the disease is a nonspecific pathogenic or conditionally pathogenic flora, and the main
  10. Acute pneumonia
    Acute pneumonia is one of the most common childhood diseases. It is believed that the incidence of acute pneumonia is 10-30 per 1000 children. The high incidence of acute pneumonia in childhood is caused, firstly, by the anatomical and physiological characteristics of the respiratory system in children, and secondly, by the characteristics of their immune system. Factors predisposing to
  11. Acute Complicated Pneumonia
    Pneumonia (pneumon - Greek "lung") is an acute, in most cases, infectious disease of the lungs, characterized by polyetiology, variability of the course from lungs to extremely severe, complicated forms. Pneumonia is divided into primary and secondary. Primary pneumonia means a disease that occurs in a child with previously healthy lungs and in the absence of diseases of others
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