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Adrenal pathology



Adrenal pathology is very diverse, but pheochromocytoma and Addison's disease are more common.

Pheochromocytoma - a tumor of the medulla, leads to an increase in blood pressure (adrenaline and norepinephrine), patients die from bleeding in the brain.

Addison's disease is caused by hypofunction of the adrenal cortex, more often with its tuberculous lesion, less often with amyloidosis, cancer metastasis, primary adrenal tumors, hemochromatosis, and infection. The disease is characterized by a decrease in blood pressure, cachexia, hypoglycemia (due to compensatory hyperplasia of B-cells of the islets of Langerhans), and hyperpigmentation of the skin. Patients more often die from heart failure, cachexia or generalization of tuberculosis.

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Adrenal pathology

  1. Adrenal pathology
    Signs of hyperadrenocorticism • ????? Arterial hypertension. • ???? Hypokalemia. • ???? Hyperglycemia. • ???? The weakness of skeletal muscles. • ???? Osteoporosis. •????Obesity. • ???? Hirsutism. • ???? Violation of the menstrual cycle. • ???? Bad wound healing. • ???? Increased susceptibility to infection. Signs of hypoadrenocorticism • ???? Weight loss. • ???? skeletal weakness
  2. Adrenal glands
    The adrenal glands are a paired organ and are located extraperitoneally at the upper poles of the kidney. Their weight is 4 g regardless of gender and body weight. The uniqueness of the blood supply to the adrenal glands is that each gland is supplied with the blood of three arteries - branches of the diaphragmatic artery with isolated veins one on each side (the right flows into the inferior hollow, the left into the renal). Cortical
  3. Adrenal glands
    As already mentioned, the adrenal glands in newborns are relatively larger than in adults. The adrenal medulla of the newborn is very poorly developed and is almost indistinguishable in macroscopic examination. The cortex consists of two layers - the inner one, the darker one, and the outer one, the lighter one. The adrenal medulla is formed from the inner layer over time (A. F.
  4. ADRENAL
    The adrenal gland (glandula suprarenalis) is a paired organ located in the retroperitoneal space directly above the upper end of the corresponding kidney. Its mass is 12–13 g, length 40–60 mm, width 2–8 mm. The adrenal gland has the form of a cone compressed from front to back, in which there are distinguished anterior, posterior and lower (renal) surfaces. Adrenal glands are located at the level of the XI — XII infants
  5. Adrenal Diseases and Pregnancy
    Physiology of the adrenal glands The adrenal glands are paired organs of internal secretion, located above the upper poles of the kidneys at the level of the vertebrae from ThXI to L [. Have the appearance of vertically standing flat plates in the form of a pyramid or triangle. The average mass of both adrenal glands is 10–12 g. The dimensions are on average 4.5 x 2-3 cm, thickness 0.6–1 cm. The left adrenal gland is larger than the right. Rudiments
  6. Adrenal insufficiency
    1. Give a definition of adrenal insufficiency. Adrenal cortex insufficiency, or Addison's disease, is characterized by reduced production of glucocorticoids and mineralocorticoids by the adrenal glands. The cause of the disease is a pathological process that directly affects the adrenal glands (primary hypoadrenocorticism) or the formation and secretion
  7. Adrenal glands
    Physiology The adrenal glands secrete the cortex and medulla. The adrenal cortex is the source of three types of hormones: androgens, mineral-corticoids (for example, aldosterone) and glucocorticoids (for example, cortisol). In the medulla of the adrenal glands, catecholamines are produced (adrenaline, norepinephrine, dopamine). Adrenal androgens are not essential for anesthesia and
  8. Hyperfunction of the cortex of the adrenal glands
    Hyperfunction of the adrenal cortex is a disease that occurs rarely in cats. It is caused by increased synthesis of the hormone cortisone, which leads to metabolic disorders and various pathological processes. The cause may be a tumor of the adrenal glands or pituitary gland. Symptoms: hair loss, swelling, possible liver failure. Treatment usually
  9. ADAPTERS
    The adrenal glands are located in the form of oval or bean-shaped cells medially and somewhat cranial to the kidneys. They develop from two primordia. The adrenal cortex arises from the epithelium of the splanchnomotomes of the mesoderm near the mesentery root, that is, from the same material as the sex glands and kidneys. The brain substance is formed from the material from which the sympathetic develops.
  10. Anesthesia for adrenal surgery
    Anesthetic management during interventions on the adrenal glands is classified as rather complicated. This is due not only to the fact that the adrenal glands produce hormones important for the course of many processes (gluco - and mineralocorticoids, catecholamines). Adrenal hormones have a significant impact on the state of the main vital functions and, above all, on the blood circulation, are involved in
  11. Adrenal glands
    The adrenal cortex produces more than 60 biologically active substances and tissue hormones of a steroid nature, which by their effect on metabolic processes are divided into glucocorticoids (cortisone, cortisol), mineralocorticoids (aldosterone, 11 - deoxycorticosterone), sex hormones - androgens (17-ketosteroids) and testosterone) and trace concentrations of female sex hormones -
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