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TOPIC. PATHOLOGY OF THE PERINATAL PERIOD. MATTERING, MATURITY. BIRTH INJURY. HEMOLITIC DISEASE OF THE NEWBORN (for pediatric faculty)



Motivational characteristic of the topic. Knowledge of the topic materials is necessary for their successful assimilation in the departments of the clinical cycle. In the practical work of a pediatrician, it is necessary for the clinical anatomical analysis of sectional observations.

The general purpose of the lesson. Based on knowledge of the morphological manifestations of diseases and syndromes of pathology of the perinatal period, learn to recognize and conduct their differential diagnosis.

Specific Objectives

The student must know:

• signs of prematurity and postponement;

• causes and signs of fetal and newborn asphyxiation;

• forms and morphological manifestations of neonatal pneumopathy;

• causes and factors causing birth injury;

• the cause, pathogenesis and morphological manifestations of the hemolytic disease of the newborn;

The student must be able to:

• based on knowledge of morphological manifestations, diagnose and differentiate diseases and syndromes of pathology of the perinatal period;

• assess the causes and mechanisms of the development of pathology of the perinatal period, and determine their functional significance for the fetus and newborn.

BASIC ACTIVITY ISSUES

1. Prematurity and tolerance, definition of concepts, signs.

2. Asphyxia of the fetus and newborn, definition of the concept, causes at various stages of the perinatal period.

3. Morphological manifestations of asphyxia.

4. Pneumopathy. Definition, morphology of forms of pneumopathy.

5. Birth injury, definition of a concept, factors that influence the degree of damage to the fetus.

6.
Description of the most frequent birth injuries: head injuries, spinal cord injuries and damage to internal organs.

7. Hemolytic disease of the newborn, definition of the concept, etiology and pathogenesis.

8. Morphological characteristics of the forms of hemolytic disease of the newborn.

9. Definition and risk factors for sudden infant death syndrome.

LESSON EQUIPMENT

Macro preparations: 1. Cephalohematoma. 2. Adrenal hemorrhage. Microdrug s:

1. Hyaline membranes in the lungs -№179 (stained with hematoxylin and eosin).

2. Adrenal hemorrhage - No. 167 (stained with hematoxylin and eosin).

3. The liver with hemolytic disease of the newborn -№165 (stained with hematoxylin and eosin).

4. Aspiration bronchopneumonia - 166 (stained with hematoxylin and eosin).

Tables. 1. Hyaline membranes in the lungs. 2. Birth injury. 3. Hemolytic disease of the newborn. 4. Damage during childbirth. 5. Kefalogematoma. 6. Localization of injuries due to birth injury.

LESSON PLAN AND TIMING

1. Introduction - 5 minutes.

2. Determination of the initial level of knowledge - 15 minutes.

3. Explanations of the teacher - 10 minutes.

4. Independent work of students - 100 minutes.

5. Determination of the final level of knowledge - 15 minutes.

6. Reception of workbooks (albums) - 30 minutes.

7. Conclusion of the teacher - 5 minutes.

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TOPIC. PATHOLOGY OF THE PERINATAL PERIOD. MATTERING, MATURITY. BIRTH INJURY. HEMOLITIC DISEASE OF THE NEWBORN (for pediatric faculty)

  1. Perinatal pathology, prematurity, tolerance. Birth injury. Hemolytic disease of the newborn. Intrauterine infections: cytomegaly, toxoplasmosis, herpes.
    1. The perinatal period is called the period 1. from 12 weeks to 40 weeks of gestation 2. from 22 weeks to 40 weeks 3. from 18 weeks to 5 days after the birth of a child 4. from 22 weeks to 7 days after the birth of a child 2. Make a correspondence: FORM OF HEMOLITIC DISEASE SIGNS 1. fetopathy without edema and jaundice a) in the liver and spleen erythroblastosis 2. edematous b) pathological immaturity of the placenta 3.
  2. LESSON 17 TOPIC. INFECTIOUS DISEASES OF PERINATAL AND NEONATAL PERIODS. MALFUNCTIONS (for pediatric faculty)
    Motivational characteristic of the topic. Knowledge of the pathological anatomy of infectious diseases of the perinatal and neonatal periods is necessary for the successful assimilation of this pathology in clinical departments. In the practice of a pediatrician, this knowledge is necessary for conducting a clinical anatomical analysis of autopsy results. The general purpose of the lesson. Based on the knowledge gained, learn
  3. DISEASES OF THE PERINATAL PERIOD. GESTATIONAL AGE AND MASS OF THE FRUIT. Intrauterine Hypoxia. BIRTH INJURY. GENERAL DAMAGE TO THE HYPOXIC GENESIS. DISEASES OF THE LUNG PERINATAL PERIOD. Congenital malformations. Intrauterine infections. HEMOLITIC DISEASE OF THE NEWBORNS
    The perinatal period of development is the period from the 22nd full week of fetal life to 7 full days after the birth of the baby. The gestational age of the fetus is determined by the gestational age. Pregnancy duration is measured from the first day of the last normal menstruation. The average duration of pregnancy is 280 days (40 weeks). Full-term is a child born
  4. Organization and principles of activity of the intensive care unit (post) of resuscitation and intensive care of newborns in the structure of a pediatric hospital (perinatal center)
    ORITN is a structural subdivision of perinatal centers, specialized maternity hospitals and large (more than 2500 births per year) obstetric hospitals, pediatric hospitals with departments for pathology of newborns and premature babies and / or surgery of newborns. The main objectives of ORITN: • providing highly qualified care for newborns that require the maintenance of vital
  5. Toolkit. Pathology tests for medical and pediatric faculties, 2011

  6. Pathogenesis of perinatal traumatic damage to the nervous system. Birth injury and cerebral palsy
    Mechanical injury to the fetal head, as a rule, is accompanied by a violation of cerebral circulation, cerebral hemorrhage. Most often, hemorrhage occurs due to rupture of the sagittal or transverse sinus, which in most cases causes fetal death. With subarachnoid hemorrhage or hemorrhage as a result of rupture of small vessels of the brain, or, finally, per diapedesum
  7. Asphyxia of the fetus and newborn. Intracranial birth injury
    style = "background-color: #ffffff;"> Asphyxia (asphyxia, Greek - without pulse) is an acute or sub-emerging pathological condition characterized by impaired gas exchange (hypoxia and hypercapnia) and the functions of organs and systems of the fetus or newborn. The problem of this condition is not solved, despite the emergence of new methods of diagnosis and treatment. According to domestic and foreign authors,
  8. Hemolytic disease of the newborn.
    Hemolytic disease of the newborn (erythroblastosis) is caused by an immunological conflict between the mother and the fetus due to incompatibility with red blood cell antigens. Hemolytic disease occurs in approximately 0.5% of newborns. Hemolytic disease develops if the fetus inherits from the father erythrocyte antigens that are absent in the mother's body. Often
  9. Hemolytic disease of the fetus and newborn
    SYNONYMS Erythroblastosis of the fetus and newborn. DEFINITION OF GBN - isoimmune hemolytic anemia that occurs in cases of incompatibility of the blood of the mother and the fetus by erythrocyte Ar, while Ar is localized on the erythrocytes of the fetus, and antibodies to them are produced in the mother's body. CODE ICD-R55 Hemolytic disease of the fetus and newborn. P55.0 Rhesus isoimmunization of fetus and newborn P55.1
  10. Hemolytic disease of the newborn
    Hemolytic disease of the newborn (erythroblastosis) is caused by an immunological conflict between the mother and the fetus due to incompatibility with erythrocyte antigens, which is associated with the development of hemolytic anemia and jaundice. Hemolytic disease occurs in approximately 0.5% of newborns. Although there are more than 60 systems of red blood cell antigens, but most often hemolytic disease
  11. HEMOLITIC DISEASE OF THE NEWBORNS
    REASONS AND MECHANISM OF DEVELOPMENT Hemolytic disease of the newborn is a disease caused by an immunological conflict due to the incompatibility of the blood of the fetus and mother with erythrocyte antigens. Hemolytic disease of the newborn is diagnosed in approximately 0.6% of all newborns. GBN usually causes incompatibility of the fetus and mother for Rh or AB0 antigens. Incompatibility
  12. Hemolytic disease of the newborn
    Hemolytic disease of the newborn (GBN) is one of the urgent problems of modern obstetrics and neonatology. Currently, fetal death and death of newborns due to hemolytic disease, their disability as a result of irreversible central nervous system processes are often noted. According to the WHO, the incidence of HDN is at least 5 per 1000 births, with more than 60-70% of newborns needing
  13. Diseases of the lungs of the perinatal period.
    Syndrome of respiratory distress of newborns includes a group of lung diseases of a non-infectious nature, developing in the perinatal period. These diseases are also often referred to as neonatal pneumopathies, or respiratory distress syndrome. The leading link in the pathogenesis of respiratory distress syndrome is surfactant deficiency, which begins to be synthesized in the fetal lungs.
  14. Perinatal lung diseases
    The term "pneumopathy" combines pulmonary diseases of a non-infectious nature acquired in the perinatal period: primary atelectasis, hyaline membrane disease, edematous hemorrhagic syndrome, meconium aspiration syndrome and a number of other diseases of the newborn. Clinically, pneumopathies are manifested in tachypnea, retraction of the "compliant" places of the chest, and cyanosis. This group of diseases is called
  15. HEMOLITIC DISEASE OF THE NEWBORNS (ERYTHROBLASTOSIS OF THE FETUS)
    Unlike physiological jaundice of newborns (icterus neonatorum simplex), which is characteristic of the vast majority (80-90%) of newborns and gives a good prognosis, the described pathological form, also known as "icterus neonatorum guavis", is characterized by extremely severe course and, as a rule, ends with the death of the child. Etiology and pathogenesis. Origin
  16. Hemolytic disease of the newborn
    Hemolytic disease develops as a result of isoimmunization caused by incompatibility of the blood of the mother and the fetus. In 80–85% of cases, the cause of the disease is isoimmunization according to the Rhesus factor, in 20–15% - according to the ABO system. Allocate anemic, icteric and edematous forms of the disease. From the first hours of life, the anemic form is manifested by pallor of the skin, hypodynamia, enlarged liver and
  17. Hemolytic disease of the fetus and newborn
    Changes in the fetal organism with hemolytic disease Hyperbilirubinemia does not significantly affect the condition of the fetus, since the mother’s liver assumes the function of neutralizing the resulting bilirubin. Hyperbilirubinemia is dangerous for the newborn. According to the autopsy of fetuses who died from hemolytic disease, a characteristic dropsy with bloating and severe
  18. LESSON 9 TOPIC. Pathology of Pregnancy and the Postpartum. Maternal Mortality
    Motivational characteristic of the topic Knowledge of the morphological manifestations of the pathology of pregnancy and the postpartum period is necessary for the successful mastery of obstetric pathology at the Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology. In the practice of a doctor, this knowledge is necessary for the clinical and anatomical analysis of sectional observations and for comparing clinical manifestations with the results of a biopsy study
  19. Pathology of childbirth and the postpartum period
    Weak contractions and attempts. Weak contractions and attempts are characterized by short duration and insufficient intensity of contractions of the uterus muscles, and weak attempts are characterized by abdominal muscles. Primary weak attempts are when contractions of the muscles of the uterus of the abdominal press are insufficient both at the beginning and at the subsequent stages of childbirth. Secondary weak contractions and attempts come at
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