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Inflammatory and necrotic diseases



Acute mastitis and abscess. In the first weeks of feeding a baby, cracks often occur in the breast nipple, which become the entrance gate for infections ascending along the ducts and affecting the mammary glands. In addition, eczema or some other dermatological disease (see chapter 25) that affects the skin of the chest can serve as the entry gate for infection. The most common microbial agents that cause mastitis are Staphylococcus aureus and streptococci. The disease usually develops in one of the mammary glands. From the inflamed duct, the process often spreads and leads to the development of several purulent foci. If treatment is not completed on time, then abscess formation occurs, requiring surgical dissection and drainage of abscesses. Complications: fistula formation, cicatricial deformation of breast tissue (sometimes with cicatricial retraction of the nipple).

Ectasia (expansion) of the milk ducts. This is a progressive expansion of the large and middle ducts around which chronic inflammation occurs. One, sometimes several segments are involved in the process. In the latter case, the affected ducts can be palpated as a “ball of worms”. Such highly dilated ducts contain a thick and lipid-rich material in which macrophages with lipid inclusions are detected. The duct wall is thickened and lined with partially necrotic and sometimes atrophied epithelium, under which it is densely infiltrated by plasma cells, lymphocytes, macrophages and neutrophils. In some patients, plasma cells predominate in the infiltrate.
In the mammary sinuses, squamous metaplasia of the epithelium is detected. Outside the ducts, granulomatous inflammation sometimes develops around cholesterol deposits. As an outcome, severe fibrosis occurs with retraction of the skin of the gland and breast nipple.

The etiology of the disease is unknown. There is a known tendency to the occurrence of the disease in women with multiple births who did not breast-feed their children. However, the disease also occurs in nulliparous women. It is believed that in the pathogenesis of duct ectasia, an important role is played by a connection with pituitary adenomas or an increased level of prolactin secretion.

Fat necrosis. Focal necrosis of adipose tissue, developing with inflammatory lesions, is a very rare isolated unilateral process. Many patients have a history of chest injury. At first, a pathological focus can be represented only by hemorrhage. Then, a zone of wet necrosis of adipose tissue is gradually formed in it. This grayish-white zone of dense tissue may contain in the center a pulp of a bright white color or hemorrhagic appearance. Under the microscope, you can see how the necrotic center is surrounded by macrophages filled with fat droplets, as well as a dense neutrophil infiltrate. In the future, only lipid crystals and hemosiderin can remain in the center of the focus for a long time. Crystals cause the appearance of giant cells of foreign bodies and a granulomatous reaction. Over time, the focus is replaced by scar tissue, less often a cyst with fibrous walls.

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Inflammatory and necrotic diseases

  1. 3. The consequences of inflammatory diseases.
    Long-existing infectious diseases are often the cause of a woman’s emotional instability. They also bring disharmony into sex life. In the end, all inflammatory diseases of the female genital organs lead to serious reproductive health problems. The consequences of untreated inflammatory diseases are very diverse and extensive. But, in any
  2. Inflammatory diseases
    The inflammatory genesis of miscarriage is due to the peculiarities of the penetration of microorganisms through the placenta to the fetus from maternal blood. The presence of microorganisms in the mother may be asymptomatic or accompanied by characteristic signs of an inflammatory disease. Often, the pathogen, passing through the placenta, causes the development of placentitis with certain histopathological
  3. Idiopathic inflammatory bowel disease
    The group of inflammatory bowel lesions of unknown origin currently includes two diseases: Crohn's disease and ulcerative colitis. These diseases have a lot in common, so they were combined into one group. Both of them are chronic, recurrent, inflammatory diseases of unknown origin. Crohn's disease is a granulomatous disease that can
  4. Cancer and inflammatory bowel disease
    Patients with chronic inflammatory diseases of the colon are at increased risk of developing cancer. But the degree of risk has not yet been determined. A study conducted by British scientists covered 624 patients with inflammatory bowel diseases and found that only 3.5% of patients developed colon and rectal cancer, although the predicted number was 7 times greater. Diagnosis
  5. Idiopathic inflammatory bowel disease.
    Idiopathic chronic inflammatory bowel disease - Crohn's disease and ulcerative colitis. The latter in Russian-language literature is designated as ulcerative colitis. Crohn's disease is an inflammatory disease involving all layers of the intestinal wall in the process and is characterized by an intermittent (segmental) nature of the lesion of various parts of the gastrointestinal
  6. INFLAMMATORY DISEASES OF THE NANOLAIN SINAS
    Inflammatory diseases of the paranasal sinuses (sinusitis) are among the most common diseases of the upper respiratory tract. According to the literature, patients with sinusitis make up about 1/3 of the total number of hospitals hospitalized in ENT (Kozlov M.Ya., 1985; Soldatov IB, 1990; Piskunov GZ et al., 1992; Aref'eva N.A. , 1994). The foci of inflammation in the paranasal sinuses can be a source
  7. Female genital inflammatory diseases
    Inflammatory diseases of the female genital organs (VZPO) occupy the first place in the structure of gynecological diseases. About 40% of gynecological patients in the hospital have VZPO. The cause of all inflammatory diseases of the genitals are microbes, which most often enter the body of a woman through sexual contact. Pathogens can also spread by the lymphogenous, hematogenous route,
  8. Infectious and inflammatory diseases of the urinary system
    The group of infectious and inflammatory diseases of the urinary system is the most common and studied among the nephropathies that occur in newborns and young children. The share of infectious and inflammatory diseases of the urinary system accounts for most of the nosological forms of nephropathy in childhood. Difficulties in determining the localization of the pathological process, especially in newborns
  9. Inflammatory diseases of the nasal cavity
    Consideration of inflammatory diseases of the nasal cavity must be preceded by a summary of a number of fundamental principles contained in the capital work of V.I. Voyacheka "Fundamentals of Otorhinolaryngology" (1953), many of which have not lost their significance at present. Inflammatory diseases of the nose V.I. Voyachek suggests considering as a reactive response of the mucous membrane and
  10. Purulent-inflammatory postpartum diseases
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  11. Purulent-inflammatory postpartum diseases
    Postpartum infectious diseases - diseases observed in puerperas, directly related to pregnancy and childbirth and due to bacterial infection. Infectious diseases detected in the postpartum period, but pathogenetically not associated with pregnancy and childbirth (flu, dysentery, etc.), are not assigned to the group of postpartum diseases. ETHIOLOGY AND PATHOGENESIS
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    Inflammatory diseases of the female genitalia are caused by pyogenic flora (staphylococci, streptococci, gonococci), Escherichia coli, anaerobic microorganisms, viruses, clostridia, chlamydia, etc. The anatomical structure of the female genital organs, specific functions of the female body, diagnostic and therapeutic intrauterine procedures, various
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