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Diseases of the endocrine glands. Diseases of the endocrine pancreas. Diabetes. Thyroid disease. Thyroid tumors



1. Etiological factors of diabetes

1. intoxication

2. smoking

3. helminth infections

4. viral infections

5. genetic predisposition

2. Pathogenetic mechanisms of the development of acute pancreatitis

1. duct dyskinesia 4. mushroom poisoning

2. biliary reflux 5. alcohol poisoning

3. gastroduodenal reflux 6. overeating

3. To establish compliance with the functional morphology of thyroid cells

CELLS WORK

1. follicular epithelium a) somatostatin

2. cells of type A b) serotonin

3. cells of type B c) calcitonin

4. C cells d) iodothyronines

d) thyroglobulin

4. Morphological changes of islets of Langerhans in type I diabetes

1. sclerosis 5. amyloidosis

2. atrophy 6. lipomatosis

3. insulin 7. granulomatosis

4. carcinoid 8. non-idioblastosis

5. Forms of acute pancreatitis

1. hemorrhagic

2. inductive

3. calcifying

4. purulent

5. necrotic

6. atrophic

6. Give a definition:

Goiter is a pathological _________________________________.

7. Morphological changes of islets of Langerhans in type II diabetes mellitus

1. sclerosis 5. amyloidosis

2. atrophy 6. lipomatosis

3. insulin 7. granulomatosis

4. carcinoid 8. non-idioblastosis

8. Forms of chronic pancreatitis

1. hemorrhagic

2. inductive

3. calcifying

4. purulent

5. necrotic

6. atrophic

9. Macroscopic forms of goiter

1. colloidal

2. fibrous

3. parenchymal

4. mixed

5. lymphocytic

10. Morphological changes of islets of Langerhans in secondary diabetes mellitus

1. sclerosis 5. amyloidosis

2. atrophy 6. lipomatosis

3. insulin 7. granulomatosis

4. carcinoid 8. non-idioblastosis

11. Supplement: Pancreatic cancer develops from a) _____, b) _________.

12. Exogenous factors of the occurrence of goiter

1. relative insufficiency of thyroid hormones

2. ionizing radiation

3. autoimmune processes

4. lack of iodine in food and water

5. chemicals

13. Morphology of diabetic microangiopathy

1. plasma impregnation

2. cholesterol deposits

3. hyalinosis

4. sclerosis

5.hyperalastosis

14. To supplement: Angiopathy is a leading factor in the development of ___________________ form of diabetic foot syndrome.

15. With a lack of iodine in food and water occurs

1. diffuse toxic goiter

2. endemic goiter

3. nodular goiter

4. Bazedova's disease

5. Hashimoto's disease

16. Morphology of diabetic microangiopathy

1. plasma impregnation

2. cholesterol deposits

3. lipogialin deposits

4. the formation of concentric fibrous plaques

5. perivascular sclerosis

17. Supplement: Hyaline in diabetes mellitus contains a large amount of _________________.

18. The most common forms of endemic goiter:

1. parenchymal

2. nodal

3. diffuse

4. colloidal

5. hypothyroid

19. Causes of blindness in diabetes

1. cataract

2. retinal detachment

3. vitreous rupture

4. paresis of the oculomotor muscles

5. vitreous hemorrhage

6. microangiopathy in the macula

20. Supplement: Trophic ulcers are a morphological expression of the _________________ form of diabetic foot syndrome.

21. A sign of increased thyroid cell function is

1. extrafollicular thyroid cell proliferation

2. colloid accumulation

3. resorption of colloid

4. intrafollicular proliferation of thyroid cells

5. lymphoid infiltration

22. Morphology of diabetic nephropathy

1. proliferation of podocytes

2. proliferation of mesangial cells

3. accumulation of polysaccharides in the tubule epithelium

4. lipid accumulation in the tubule epithelium

5. glomerular hyalinosis

23. Supplement: The initial stage of diabetic glomerulosclerosis is the accumulation of glomeruli in the mesangium ___________________.

24. Morphology of Bazedov’s disease

1. occurs with absolute deficiency of thyroid hormones

2. is an autoimmune disease

3. nodular hyperplasia

4. diffuse hyperplasia

5. characteristic colloid resorption

6. the formation of "pads" Sanderson

25. Forms of diabetic foot syndrome

1. trophic 4. gangrenous

2. mixed 5. idiopathic

3. ischemic 6. neuropathic with osteoarthropathy

26. Complications of diabetes

1. blindness 5. myocardial infarction

2. deafness 6. gangrene of the lower extremities

3. pancreatitis 7. Kimmelstil-Wilson syndrome

4. pyelonephritis

27. To establish the correspondence between options and signs of Graves disease

OPTION SIGNS

Option 1 a) macro-microfollicular goiter

Option 2 b) foci of adenomatosis

c) extrafollicular proliferation of thyroid cells

d) the formation of "pads" Sanderson

e) resorption of colloid

e) parenchymal goiter

g) lymphohistiocytic infiltration

28. Supplement: The main morphological substrate of macroangiopathy in diabetes is ____________________________.

29. Morphology of diabetic neuropathy

1. brain edema

2. cerebral hemorrhage

3. tigrolysis of neurons

4. lipofuscinosis of neurons

5. atrophy of the epineuria

30. With radiation sickness thyroiditis may develop

1. infectious

2. sharp

3. non-infectious

4. de Kervena

5. Hashimoto

6. subacute

31. Supplement: The main morphological substrate of microangiopathy in diabetes is ____________________________ basement membranes.

32. The leading morphogenetic mechanism of metabolic damage to nerve tissue in diabetes

1. neuritis

2. neuron ischemia

3. apoptosis of neurons

4. accumulation of sorbitol

5. proliferation of Schwann cells

33. For thyroiditis de Kerven characteristic

1. acute course

2. subacute course

3. autoimmune etiology

4. infectious etiology

5. follicular damage

6. follicular hyperplasia

7. the formation of granulomas

8. exudative inflammation

34. Supplement: The main morphological sign of the severity of retiopathy in diabetes mellitus is ____________________________ retinal vessels.

35. Supplement: Gangrene of the lower extremities is a morphological expression of the __________________ form of diabetic foot syndrome.

36. Thyroiditis de Kerven characteristic

1. myxedema

2. hyperthyroidism

3. myalgia

4. euthyroidism

5. neuralgia

37. Supplement: Gangrene of the lower extremities is a manifestation of ischemic, and trophic ulcers - ____________________ forms of diabetic foot syndrome.

38. Supplement: Diabetes mellitus is a clinical syndrome or heterogeneous disease characterized by _______________________.

39. Forms of thyroid adenoma

1. fetal

2. trabecular

3. fetal

4. papillary

5. colloidal

40. Supplement: The morphological substrate of Kimmelstil-Wilson syndrome is ____________________________ glomeruli of the kidney.

41. In secondary diabetes mellitus in the pancreas

1. lymphohistiocytic islet infiltration

2. lymphohistiocytic stromal infiltration

3. atrophy of exocrine structures

4. atrophy of endocrine structures

5. islet amyloidosis

6. lipomatosis

42. The most common form of thyroid cancer

1. squamous cell carcinoma

2. C-cell cancer

3. follicular-papillary adenocarcinoma

4. cancer from b-cells

43. Macroscopic features of the pancreas in secondary diabetes mellitus

1. lipomatosis 4. size is usually enlarged

2. agniomatosis 5. size is usually reduced

3. non-idioblastosis

44. The site of initial damage in chronic pancreatitis of alcoholic etiology is

1. endocrine islet

2. exocrine acini

3. insertion duct

4. interlobular excretory duct

45. Obligatory precancerous processes of the thyroid gland include

1. chronic thyroiditis

2. epithelial adenomatosis

3. colloid goiter

4. epithelial dysplasia

5. focal sclerosis

46. ​​Supplement: Pancreatic cancer is more often localized in the area

__________________.

47. Supplement: Histological forms of pancreatic cancer

a) _____________ b) ________________.

48. Supplement: The first metastases in pancreatic cancer are found in _____________________.

49. To establish the sequence in the morphogenesis of chronic pancreatitis

1. atrophy of acinar tissue

2. alcoholism

3. increased protein concentration in pancreatic juice

4. periductal inflammation with fibrosis

5. cicatricial narrowing of the ducts

6. ulceration of the ductal epithelium

7. calculi in the ducts

50. Macroscopic changes in the pancreas in chronic pancreatitis

1. swollen

2. sealed

3. with foci of necrosis

4. the severity of lobules is reduced

5. gray

6.
burgundy

7. large ducts dilated

51. Microscopic changes in chronic pancreatitis

1. foci of necrosis

2. periductal fibrosis

3. hemorrhages

4. protein deposits in the ducts

5. leukocyte infiltration

6. atrophy of cococrine acini

52. In the pathogenesis of acute pancreatitis may be significant

1. gallstone disease

2. alcoholism

3. acinar tissue ischemia

4. parenchyma lipomatosis

5. drug damage

53. Morphological changes in acute hemorrhagic pancreatitis

1. small duct hyperplasia

2. steatonecrosis of parapancreatic fiber

3. blood-soaked foci of necrosis

4. neutrophilic infiltration along the periphery of necrosis zones

5. necrosis of the walls of blood vessels

54. Macroscopic characteristics of the pancreas in acute pancreatitis

1. massive dense white-pink knot

2. massive flabby white-yellow hearth

3. white and yellow flabby foci

4. pink and white tight foci

55. Complications of acute pancreatitis

1. gastrointestinal bleeding

2. acute posthemorrhagic anemia

3. DIC

4. acute pancreatic necrosis

5. sharp stomach

56. To establish compliance:

MORPHOLOGICAL TYPE OF DIABETES

CHARACTERISTIC

PANCREAS

1. stromal lipomatosis a) secondary

2. lipomatosis of the endocrine islets b) of the first type

3. amyloidosis of the endocrine islets c) the second type

d) the third type

57. To establish compliance:

CHANGES IN THE EYE PATHOGENETIC FACTOR

WITH SUGAR DIABETES OF OPHTHALMOPATHY

1. clouding of the lens a) neuropathy

2. vascular microaneurysms b) microangiopathy

3. retinal vascular neoplasm c) glucose toxicity

4. demyelination of the optic nerves

5. osmotic edema of Schwann cells

58. In the thyroid gland, goiter is characterized

1. tumor

2. inflammation

3. increase in volume

4. primary stromal hypertrophy

5. primary parenchyma hypertrophy

59. To establish compliance:

THYROID SYNTHESIZED HORMONE CELL

GLANDS a) thyroxine

1. A b) serotonin

2. B c) calcitonin

3. C d) parathyroid hormone

60. Types of goiter by macroscopic characteristics

1. bazedov 7. adenomatous

2. diffuse 8. hypothyroid

3. colloid 9. thyrotoxic

4. endemic 10. mononodular

5. euthyroid 11. parenchymal

6. sporadic 12. multinodular

61. Types of goiter by microscopic characteristics

1. bazedov 7. adenomatous

2. diffuse 8. hypothyroid

3. colloid 9. thyrotoxic

4. endemic 10. mononodular

5. euthyroid 11. parenchymal

6. sporadic 12. multinodular

62. Types of goiter on the functional state of the thyroid gland

1. bazedov 7. adenomatous

2. diffuse 8. hypothyroid

3. colloid 9. thyrotoxic

4. endemic 10. mononodular

5. euthyroid 11. parenchymal

6. sporadic 12. multinodular

63. Types of goiter by clinical and morphological characteristics

1. bazedov 7. adenomatous

2. diffuse 8. hypothyroid

3. colloid 9. thyrotoxic

4. endemic 10. mononodular

5. euthyroid 11. parenchymal

6. sporadic 12. multinodular

64. Stages of morphogenesis of colloidal nontoxic goiter

1. nodal

2. atrophic

3. hypertrophic

4. hyperplastic

5. colloidal involution

65. Secondary changes in multinodal colloid goiter

1. microcysts

2. sclerosis and petrification

3. foci of epithelial hyperplasia

4. hemorrhages and hemosiderosis

5. ingrowth into the capsule and blood vessels

66. A characteristic clinical syndrome in children with hypothyroidism

1. nanism

2. cretinism

3. myxedema

4. acromegaly

5. lactorrhea-aminorrhea

67. Typical clinical syndrome in hypothyroidism in adults

1. nanism

2. cretinism

3. myxedema

4. acromegaly

5. lactorrhea-aminorrhea

68. To establish compliance:

CLINICAL SYMPTOM THYROID FUNCTION

1. edema a) hypothyroidism

2. diarrhea b) hyperthyroidism

3. faint-heartedness

4. hypothermia

5. tachycardia

6. exophthalmos

7. hyperthermia

8. bradycardia

9. macroglossia

69. Stages of the pathogenesis of endemic goiter

1. iodine deficiency in water and food

2. activation of colloid resorption

3. decreased synthesis of thyroid hormones

4. inclusion of the mechanism of negative feedback

5. hypertrophy and hyperplasia of the follicular epithelium

6. increased secretion of thyroid stimulating hormone

7. activation of the synthesis and secretion of thyroid hormones

70. Morphological variants of Hashimoto's thyroiditis

1. atrophic

2. postpartum

3. autoimmune

4. progressive

5. hypertrophic

71. The most likely etiological factors of De Querven's thyroiditis

1. viruses

2. mycoplasmas

3. lead intoxication

4. ionizing ionization

5. lack of iodine in water and food

72. Specific histological signs of Hashimoto's thyroiditis

1. lymphoid follicles

2. sclerosis of the stroma of the thyroid gland

3. B-cell transformation of thyroid cells

4. atrophy of the thyroid parenchyma

5. diffuse lymphocytic infiltration

73. Specific histological features of De Querven's thyroiditis

1. foci of purulent inflammation

2. sclerosis of the stroma of the thyroid gland

3. granulomas around collapsing follicles

4. giant multinucleated foreign body cells

5. heterogeneous cellular composition of inflammatory infiltrate

74. Thyroid adenomas according to histological features

1. acinar 5. papillary

2. fetal 6. cystadenoma

3. colloid 7. embryonic

4. oncocytoma 8. microfollicular

75. Types of thyroid cancer by histological features

1. medullary

2. papillary

3. follicular

4. anaplastic

5. highly differentiated

ANSWERS



No. the answers No. the answers
1, 4, 5 39. 1, 3, 4
1, 2, 5, 6 40. Hyalinosis
1d, 2g, 3b, 4a, c 41. 2, 3, 5, 6
3 42. 3
1, 4, 5 43. fifteen
An enlargement of the thyroid gland associated with primary hypertrophy and / or hypoplasia of its parenchyma 44. 4
1, 2, 6 45. 2, 4
2, 3 46. Heads
1, 3, 4 47. A) adenocarcinoma b) acinar cancer
1, 5, 6 48. in the limatic nodes near the head
1. a) epithelium of the ducts b) epithelium of the acini 49. 2 - 3 - 7 - 6 - 4 - 5 - 1
2, 4, 5 fifty. 2, 4, 5, 7
1, 3, 4 51. 2, 4, 6
Ischemic 52. 1, 2, 3, 5
2 53. 2, 3, 4, 5
2, 4 54. 3
Lipids (lipoproteins) 55. 1, 2, 3
2, 3, 4, 5 56. 1c, 2b, 3a
1, 2, 5, 6 57. 1c, 2b, 3b, 4a, 5a
Neuropathic 58. 5
3 59. 1a, 2b, 3c
2, 3, 5 60. 2, 10, 12
Polysaccharides 61. 3, 11
24. 2, 4, 5, 6 62. 5, 8, 9
25. 2, 3, 6 63. 1, 4, 6
26. 1, 5, 6, 7 64. 4, 5
27. 1) a, b, d, d, g 2) c, d, f, g 65. 1, 2, 4
28. Atherosclerosis 66. 2
29. 1, 4, 5 67. 3
thirty. 2, 3 68. 1a, 2b, 3a, 4a, 5b, 6b, 7b, 8a, 9a
31. Hyalinosis 69. 1-3-4-6-5-2-7
32. 4 70. fifteen
33. 2, 4, 5, 7, 8 71. 1
34. Neoplasm 72. 1, 3, 4, 5
35. Ischemic 73. 3, 4, 5
36. 2, 3, 5 74. 2, 5, 6, 7, 8
37. Neuropathic 75. 1, 2, 3, 4
38. Absolute or relative insulin deficiency with impaired carbohydrate metabolism and subsequent damage to all functional systems of the body
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Diseases of the endocrine glands. Diseases of the endocrine pancreas. Diabetes. Thyroid disease. Thyroid tumors

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    Pancreatic endocrine disorders: diabetes mellitus,
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