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LESSON 18 TOPIC. PROFESSIONAL DISEASES. PATHOLOGY CAUSED BY EXTERNAL FACTORS



Motivational characteristic of the topic. Knowledge of topic materials is necessary for their successful mastery in clinical departments. In the practical work of a doctor, this knowledge is necessary for the clinical anatomical analysis of sectional observations and for comparing clinical data with the results of a biopsy study.

The general purpose of the lesson. Learn to identify macro - and microscopic signs of acute and chronic manifestations of occupational diseases, explain the causes and mechanisms of development and evaluate their significance for the body.

The specific objectives of the lesson.

The student must know:

• general characteristics of occupational diseases;

• an approximate classification of occupational diseases;

• morphological manifestations of pneumoconiosis;

• morphological manifestations of acute and chronic poisoning by industrial poisons;

• morphological manifestations of the actions of production physical factors;

• morphological manifestations of diseases and conditions caused by the action of environmental factors.

The student must be able to:

• macroscopic and microscopic signs to recognize acute and chronic occupational diseases, to conduct their differential diagnosis;

• evaluate the causes, development mechanisms and outcomes of occupational diseases, and the significance for the body.

BASIC ACTIVITY ISSUES

1. General characteristics of occupational diseases.

2. Classification of occupational diseases.

3.
Characterization of occupational diseases caused by industrial dust.

4. Pathological anatomy of silicosis.

5. Pathological anatomy of anthracosis.

6. Brief description of asbestosis and berylliosis.

7. Morphological manifestations of acute and chronic poisoning with mercury, lead and arsenic.

8. Morphological manifestations of vibrational and caisson diseases.

9. Morphological manifestations of radiation sickness.

LESSON EQUIPMENT Macro preparations: 1. Lung anthracosis. 2. Lung silicosis. 3. Anthracosis of the lymph node. 4. Toxic dystrophy of the liver.

Micropreparations:

1. Lung silicosis - No. 125, (stained with hematoxylin and eosin).

2. Lung anthracosis - No. 96, (stained with hematoxylin and eosin).

3. Pulmonary edema - No. 10, (stained with hematoxylin and eosin).

4. Sublimate kidney - No. 13, (stained with hematoxylin and eosin).

Electron diffraction pattern: 1. Silicosis, coniophage.

Tables: 1. Lung silicosis. 2. Sulimova kidney. 3. Anthracosis of the lung.

LESSON PLAN AND TIMING

1. Introduction - 5 minutes.

2. Determination of the initial level of knowledge - 15 minutes.

3. Teacher's notes - 10 minutes.

4. Independent work of students - 100 minutes.

5. Determination of the final level of knowledge - 15 minutes.

6. Reception of workbooks (albums) - 30 minutes.

7. The conclusion of the teacher - 5 minutes.

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LESSON 18 TOPIC. PROFESSIONAL DISEASES. PATHOLOGY CAUSED BY EXTERNAL FACTORS

  1. Pathology caused by adverse environmental factors that are inhaled.
    Nowadays, the structure of diseases caused by adverse environmental factors has undergone significant changes due to the manifestation of various pathways of xenobiotics into the human body. During evolution, the bulk of toxic products entered the body through the gastrointestinal tract and rendered harmless in the liver. Currently, the majority of foreign products
  2. PATHOLOGY CAUSED BY ENVIRONMENTAL FACTORS
    The words of the famous physician of antiquity Paracelsus (1493-1541), who believed that "Everything is poison and nothing is without poison" can be put as an epigraph to this lecture. In fact, the problem of pathology caused by environmental factors covers almost all human diseases. Some diseases, of which there are a great many, are caused by direct exposure to unfavorable factors.
  3. CORRELATION OF GENETIC FACTORS AND ENVIRONMENTAL CONDITIONS IN PATHOLOGY DEVELOPMENT
    The facts accumulated to date by medical genetics allow us to present the whole variety of relationships between heredity and the environment in a generalized form. Imagine a situation where the contribution of heredity to the development of a trait, including a pathological one, is zero. This would mean that the trait is completely formed by the external environment, without any involvement of the genotype. In other words, Wednesday
  4. DISEASES CAUSED BY BIOLOGICAL AGENTS AND ENVIRONMENTAL FACTORS
    DISEASES CAUSED BY BIOLOGICAL AGENTS AND ENVIRONMENTAL FACTORS
  5. The influence of environmental factors on microorganisms
    The life of microorganisms is closely dependent on environmental conditions. Both plants, macroorganisms, and the microworld are significantly affected by various environmental factors. They can be divided into three groups: chemical, physical and
  6. Hygienic characteristics of environmental factors
    The environment - air, water, soil - has a constant impact on the life of a person, his health, as well as on the composition and safety of food products. According to the WHO, public health is influenced by lifestyle (50%), environment (20%), heredity (20%), quality of care (10%). In this regard, hygiene has the following main tasks: • study
  7. Lecture IV. BIOLOGICAL FACTORS OF THE EXTERNAL ENVIRONMENT. INFECTIOUS DISEASES
    Among the biological factors that are subject to normalization are those that in one way or another can harm the human body. First of all, these are pathogenic (pathogenic) pathogens of an infectious and invasive nature (bacteria, viruses, fungi, helminths, protozoa), their vital products (toxins, enzymes), various allergens, etc. Pathogens act on
  8. Pathology caused by physical factors.
    Pathology caused by physical environmental factors is discussed in detail in lectures on damage and combat trauma. Therefore, in this lecture, it is advisable to dwell only on radiation pathology. Mechanisms of interactions of ionizing radiation with molecules and cells. Ionizing radiation is represented by two types of radiation - electromagnetic (X-ray and
  9. Water as a factor in the environment, its hygienic and epidemiological significance. Rationing the quality of drinking water
    The drinking water supply development program is an integral part of the plan for the socio-economic development of territories within the Russian Federation. Water is essential for sustaining life and it is therefore important to provide consumers with good quality water. As you know, the human body consists of 65% of water and even a slight loss of it leads to serious health conditions. Upon loss
  10. LESSON 9 TOPIC. PATHOLOGY OF PREGNANCY AND AFTER PERIOD. Maternal Mortality
    Motivational characteristic of the topic Knowledge of the morphological manifestations of the pathology of pregnancy and the postpartum period is necessary for the successful mastery of obstetric pathology at the Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology. In the practice of a doctor, this knowledge is necessary for the clinical and anatomical analysis of sectional observations and for comparing clinical manifestations with the results of a biopsy study
  11. The value of environmental factors for hardening. Tempering by air, sun and water
    Air quenching. Air is the most affordable hardening agent for all children at any time of the year. The use of air for recreational purposes begins with good ventilation of the room in which the children are. A great influence on strengthening the body of children is provided by walks in the fresh air. In the summer, the whole life of children (excluding night sleep) should be transferred to the site. IN
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