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Instrumental diagnostic methods



Instrumental studies are valuable auxiliary methods for the clinical diagnosis of tissue helminthiases.

With toxocariasis, chest x-ray, abdominal ultrasound are used to detect eosinophilic infiltrates in the lungs and other organs, ophthalmoscopy, which allows the detection of live toxocar larvae in the vitreous of the eye.

In trichinosis, instrumental methods are used according to clinical indications in the differential diagnosis or complicated forms.
To diagnose myocardial lesions, electrocardiography (ECG) and ultrasound of the heart are used.

With echinococcosis, radiation (X-ray, computed tomography - CT and ultrasound), radioisotope (scanning, scintigraphy) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) methods are used to examine internal organs, the brain or spinal cord, and the musculoskeletal system.

The diagnosis of cysticercosis can be confirmed by direct ophthalmoscopy or analysis of ultrasound, CT and MRI data of various organs.

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Instrumental diagnostic methods

  1. Other instrumental diagnostic methods
    Rhythmography - recording the duration of R — R intervals in the form of vertical strokes on a paper tape at a speed of 10 mm / s, which allows quantitative characterization of extrasystole at rest and during functional tests; to reveal the existing and latent allorhythmia, the paroxysmal nature of extrasystole, to determine the fluctuation of the adhesion intervals; clearly recognize the parasystole;
  2. Instrumental methods - ECG diagnostics of a parasystole
    Parasystole is an autonomous activity of the ectopic center, which does not depend on the basic heart rhythm and coexists with it. Double rhythm formation is possible due to the protection of the paracentre from discharge by more frequent pulses of the main rhythm, usually the sinoatrial node (the so-called entrance block or protective block). However, due to the blockade of the output, not all pulses
  3. Instrumental methods - ECG diagnostics of extrasystole
    Extrasystoles are premature complexes, usually having a fixed interval of adhesion with the previous impulse of the basic rhythm. Localization distinguishes supraventricular (sinus, atrial, from the AU-connection) and ventricular extrasystoles. Sinus extrasystoles and extrasystoles from the AU compound are rarely detected, respectively in 0.2 and 2% of cases. Much more often, according to M.S.
  4. Laboratory instrumental diagnostics
    Diagnosis of severe chronic heart failure with clearly defined clinical manifestations usually does not present great difficulties. It is based mainly on the following clinical criteria for cardiac decompensation, shown in Table 50. In most cases, the diagnosis of chronic heart failure requires two "large" criteria or one "large" and two "small" criteria. IN
  5. Instrumental diagnostics
    Modern IE is characterized by a continuous increase in incidence. The percentage of development of acute variants of the course of IE is increasing, the number of patients with infectious endocarditis of the prosthesis valve is progressively growing. Due to the uncontrolled and often unjustified use of AB, the frequency of determining positive blood cultures in patients with IE decreases. In most cases, the outcome of the disease depends on
  6. Laboratory instrumental diagnostics
    The objectives of laboratory and instrumental examination of patients with suspected atherosclerosis are: 1. Objective confirmation of the presence or absence of atherosclerotic vascular changes. 2. Clarification of the localization of atherosclerotic lesions (stenosis or occlusion). 3. Clarification of the degree and prevalence of atherosclerotic narrowing of the arteries, as well as the severity
  7. Instrumental diagnosis of heart failure
    The main instrumental diagnostic methods, the use of which is justified in almost all patients with symptoms of heart failure, are echocardiography, chest x-ray and ECG. Echocardiography Echocardiography plays a leading role in the objectification of HF. The diagnostic capabilities of modern ultrasound of the heart are summarized in diagram 2.2. The most important parameter of intracardiac hemodynamics - LVEF - integral
  8. Instrumental diagnostics
    Holter ECG Monitoring In clinical practice, Holter ECG monitoring has been widely used to diagnose transient cardiac arrhythmias, detect ischemic ECG changes in patients with coronary artery disease, and assess heart rate variability. A significant advantage of the method is the possibility of long-term (within 1-2 days) ECG registration in the patient's usual
  9. Laboratory instrumental diagnostics
    In most cases, the diagnosis of coronary heart disease and stable exertional angina can be established already upon questioning the patient. The absence of pain characteristic of angina pectoris is not a sufficient reason to reject the diagnosis of IHD. In any patient complaining of recurrent pain in the heart, especially in the elderly and older,
  10. Instrumental research methods
    1) Dioscopy (vitropression). Used to determine the true color of the morphological elements of the rash. To this end, a glass rod or glass slide is pressed against the surface of the element under investigation and its true color is established. This method makes it possible to distinguish between vascular elements that disappear when a glass slide is pressed on them, from pigment and hemorrhagic, as well as
  11. Laboratory instrumental diagnostics
    All patients with NS should be hospitalized in the intensive care unit. The less time has passed from the beginning of the patient's destabilization, the higher the risk of developing MI or sudden cardiac death and the more urgent hospitalization is indicated. This issue should be resolved with such NS options as the air force of a progressive course, spontaneous (variant) Prinzmetal angina and severe and
  12. LABORATORY AND INSTRUMENTAL METHODS
    Infectious screening. It is carried out in order to exclude sexually transmitted infections (STIs). The high frequency of this pathology in the gynecological clinic and its effect on the state of menstrual and reproductive functions, the course of pregnancy and childbirth require at the first stage an examination for all genital infections. The most commonly detected infections are
  13. INSTRUMENTAL METHODS OF RESEARCH
    Instrumental methods are used for a more complete examination of gynecological patients. Probing of the uterus (Fig. 4) is performed in compliance with all the rules of asepsis and antiseptics. It is performed by the uterine probe after the previous determination of the position of the uterus. Probing allows you to specify the length of the uterine cavity, patency of the cervical canal, the presence of stenosis and atresia, septa in it
  14. Laboratory and instrumental diagnostics
    The main clinical and laboratory signs that reflect these processes are: 1. An increase in body temperature (from subfebrile numbers to 38.5-39 ° C). 2. Leukocytosis, usually not exceeding 12-15x10 / l. 3. Aneosinophilia. 4. A small stab-shift of the blood formula to the left. 5. The increase in ESR. The severity of all these laboratory signs of MI primarily depends on the vastness of the lesion,
  15. Laboratory and instrumental research methods. Resolution
    In outpatient practice, screening methods of the 1st, less often 2nd level are used. The significance of the method is evaluated by two parameters: sensitivity and specificity. Sensitivity (CV) of the method - the probability of a positive result in people with the presence of diseases. correct positive conclusions Chv = - - х100% number of patients The more sensitive the method, the higher the probability
  16. Instrumental research methods
    The main indicators of the state of the cardiovascular system are pulse and blood pressure. Pulse refers to the rhythmic vibrations of the walls of arteries, which arise as a result of the expulsion of blood by the heart into the aorta. The pulse is most easily felt where the arteries are adjacent to the skin by pressing the artery to the bone. It is usually probed on the carotid artery or on the radial artery in
  17. Instrumental research methods
    As a screening test to exclude severe renal pathology (hydronephrosis, polycystosis, multicystosis, etc.), all newborns who have undergone critical conditions are recommended to undergo an ultrasound scan in the first month of life, starting from 3-5 days, for the remaining children in the first 6 months of life in outpatient settings. Indications for mandatory ultrasound of the kidneys in newborns: • burdened heredity
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