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Features of the epidemic process

An important feature of tissue helminthiases is the absence of their contagiousness, since a person does not participate in the natural circulation of parasites and becomes a biological dead end of invasion. Helminths that parasitize in the human body only at the larval stage do not turn into sexually mature individuals and cannot naturally stand out from the human body. They are not detected by parasitological examination of feces.

Depending on the life cycle characteristics of the causative agents of these tissue helminthiases, it can be divided into two groups: geohelminthes, which require mandatory maturation of eggs in the soil (toxocaras), and biohelminths, whose life cycle cannot be completed without the participation of intermediate hosts (echinococcus, pork tapeworm). For trichinella, man serves as both the ultimate and intermediate host.

In all cases under consideration, infection occurs orally through two transmission routes: geooral (through hands, food or household items contaminated with soil particles containing invasive helminth eggs) - with toxocariasis, echinococcosis and cysticercosis or xenotrophic (when consumed in food, it is not thermally sufficient processed meat containing invasive parasite larvae) - with trichinosis and teniosis.
In some cases of cysticercosis, auto-invasion by the oncospheres is observed due to their atypical passage with antiperistalsis.

Helminthiases, the causative agents of which cannot carry out the life cycle without human involvement, are helminthanthroponoses (for example, teniosis), and helminthiases, the causative agents of which in vivo can exist without participation in their human life cycle, are helminthozoonoses (toxocariasis, trichinosis, echino- coccoses).

Zoonotic helminthiases that spread among wild animals regardless of human activities are called natural focal (echinococcosis, trichinosis). The spread of zoonotic helminthiases among synanthropic animals (domestic animals, livestock, rodents) causes the formation of anthropourgic foci of invasion, in which a person becomes infected from domestic animals and house rodents (toxocariasis, trichinosis, echinococcosis).

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Features of the epidemic process

  1. Question 28 The epidemic process
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