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Introduction



The urgency of the problem of helminthiases is associated with their widespread prevalence, a variety of negative effects on the human body and pronounced polymorphism of clinical manifestations, which complicates the differential diagnosis of diseases, the lack of sterile immunity and specific methods of prevention. In the world there are up to 300 species of helminths, most of them are races in countries with a tropical climate, but there are species that live in the far North and the Far East. In Russia, about 70 types of helminths are described, of which about 20 species are most often found. In St. Petersburg, 10 types of local helminthiases are recorded: ascariasis, hymenolepidosis, diphyllobothriasis, teniarinhosis, teniosis, toxocariasis, trichinosis, trichocephalosis, enterobiosis and echinococcosis, however, due to the active migration of people, traveling abroad, importing food products to the city helminths that are not characteristic of our region (hookworm infections, opisthorchiasis, schistosomiasis, etc.).

Helminths affect almost all human organs and systems, but each parasite has its own habitat. Mature parasites live both in the lumen of various parts of the intestine, and in the liver, gall bladder and bile ducts, lungs, blood and lymphatic systems, skin and subcutaneous tissue. Depending on the localization of mature worms in the host, all helminthiases are divided into intestinal and extraintestinal (tissue). Diseases caused by a number of helminths, the final owners of which are only animals, are conditionally classified as a group of tissue helminthiases. In the human body, which is an intermediate or random (paratenic) host for such helminths, these helminths parasitize only at the larval stage (larval helminthiases or Larva migrans syndrome, according to PC Beaver, 1952). Due to the fact that the clinical manifestations of trichinosis related to intestinal helminthiasis are mainly determined by the migration and parasitization of trichinella larvae in various tissues, this helminthiasis is considered in this publication together with other tissue helminthiases.

The larval stages of most helminths are able to migrate to various tissues, affecting the lungs, heart, brain, eyes, muscles and bones, which sometimes leads to irreversible consequences, including blindness, epileptic seizures, dementia, damage to internal organs and sometimes fatal outcomes. Helminths vital products have a pronounced toxic-allergic effect on the human body and significantly suppress its immune system.

Especially detrimental effect of helminths on the body of the child. Children invaded by them develop neurological disorders: they become moody, excitable, easily depleted, and fall asleep poorly.
The occurrence or intensification of the manifestations of allergic diathesis, intestinal dysbiosis, which contributes to the development of intestinal infections, is characteristic. Affected children often develop protein and vitamin deficiency, leading to a delay in physical, psychomotor and speech development. The decrease in immunological reactivity due to helminths leads not only to more frequent illnesses of the child, but also to a significant decrease in antibody production in response to vaccines, which makes vaccination against diphtheria, pertussis, measles, tetanus, polio and many other infectious diseases ineffective.

The incidence rate of tissue helminthiases in St. Petersburg in 1999-2003 (per 100 thousand population)

Detection of helminthiases, especially with extraintestinal, or tissue, localization of larval or mature stages of parasites is often difficult, since the diverse clinical picture of diseases caused by damage to various organs resembles the symptoms of other diseases. Laboratory diagnosis of invasion in cases of tissue localization of helminths is difficult, since the isolation of their eggs or larvae with feces does not occur, as a result of which parasitological coprological examination is not informative. In such situations, a serological blood test may be useful, and in some cases a study of biopsy or surgical material.

Table 1.

No. Nosological form Years
1999 2000 2001 2002 2003
1. Toxocariasis 0.16 0.3 0.3 0.23 0.32
2. Trichinosis 0.02 - - 0.08 0.19
3. Echinococcosis 0.3 0.12 0.12 0.04 0.1
4. Cysticircosis - 0.02 - - -
Table 1 presents the incidence rates of tissue helminthiases in St. Petersburg. Despite their low levels, these helminthiases are of concern to parasitologists and clinicians, since they pose a significant risk to public health due to damage to vital organs (central nervous system, eyes, heart, lungs, liver), are characterized by prolonged persistence of parasites in the body, and difficulties in their differential diagnosis , a limited range of effective antiparasitic drugs.

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Introduction

  1. Abstract. Methods of drug administration, 2010
    Subcutaneous administration Intramuscular administration Intravenous administration Intraosseous administration Intraperitoneal administration Intrathoracic and intrapulmonary administration of drugs Autohemotherapy Bloodletting Intratracheal administration Scarring and drug administration
  2. Administration Methods
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  3. Intratracheal administration
    In clinical practice for lung diseases, medicinal substances are administered intratracheally using a probe. Before administration, the probe is disinfected and lubricated with petroleum jelly. For large animals, the probe is inserted through the nasal cavity to the pharynx and in between the swallowing movements it is further advanced. With the correct insertion of the probe into the trachea, the animal develops a cough that soon disappears. To
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