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The urgency of the problem of helminthiases is associated with their widespread prevalence, a variety of negative effects on the human body and pronounced polymorphism of clinical manifestations, which complicates the differential diagnosis of diseases, the lack of sterile immunity and specific methods of prevention. In the world there are up to 300 species of helminths, most of them are races in countries with a tropical climate, but there are species that live in the far North and the Far East. In Russia, about 70 types of helminths are described, of which about 20 species are most often found. In St. Petersburg, 10 types of local helminthiases are recorded: ascariasis, hymenolepidosis, diphyllobothriasis, teniarinhosis, teniosis, toxocariasis, trichinosis, trichocephalosis, enterobiosis and echinococcosis, however, due to the active migration of people, traveling abroad, importing food products to the city helminths that are not characteristic of our region (hookworm infections, opisthorchiasis, schistosomiasis, etc.). Helminths affect almost all human organs and systems, but each parasite has its own habitat. Mature parasites live both in the lumen of various parts of the intestine, and in the liver, gall bladder and bile ducts, lungs, blood and lymphatic systems, skin and subcutaneous tissue. Depending on the localization of mature worms in the host, all helminthiases are divided into intestinal and extraintestinal (tissue). Diseases caused by a number of helminths, the final owners of which are only animals, are conditionally classified as a group of tissue helminthiases. In the human body, which is an intermediate or random (paratenic) host for such helminths, these helminths parasitize only at the larval stage (larval helminthiases or Larva migrans syndrome, according to PC Beaver, 1952). Due to the fact that the clinical manifestations of trichinosis related to intestinal helminthiasis are mainly determined by the migration and parasitization of trichinella larvae in various tissues, this helminthiasis is considered in this publication together with other tissue helminthiases. The larval stages of most helminths are able to migrate to various tissues, affecting the lungs, heart, brain, eyes, muscles and bones, which sometimes leads to irreversible consequences, including blindness, epileptic seizures, dementia, damage to internal organs and sometimes fatal outcomes. Helminths vital products have a pronounced toxic-allergic effect on the human body and significantly suppress its immune system. Especially detrimental effect of helminths on the body of the child. Children invaded by them develop neurological disorders: they become moody, excitable, easily depleted, and fall asleep poorly.
The occurrence or intensification of the manifestations of allergic diathesis, intestinal dysbiosis, which contributes to the development of intestinal infections, is characteristic. Affected children often develop protein and vitamin deficiency, leading to a delay in physical, psychomotor and speech development. The decrease in immunological reactivity due to helminths leads not only to more frequent illnesses of the child, but also to a significant decrease in antibody production in response to vaccines, which makes vaccination against diphtheria, pertussis, measles, tetanus, polio and many other infectious diseases ineffective. The incidence rate of tissue helminthiases in St. Petersburg in 1999-2003 (per 100 thousand population) Detection of helminthiases, especially with extraintestinal, or tissue, localization of larval or mature stages of parasites is often difficult, since the diverse clinical picture of diseases caused by damage to various organs resembles the symptoms of other diseases. Laboratory diagnosis of invasion in cases of tissue localization of helminths is difficult, since the isolation of their eggs or larvae with feces does not occur, as a result of which parasitological coprological examination is not informative. In such situations, a serological blood test may be useful, and in some cases a study of biopsy or surgical material. Table 1.
Table 1 presents the incidence rates of tissue helminthiases in St. Petersburg. Despite their low levels, these helminthiases are of concern to parasitologists and clinicians, since they pose a significant risk to public health due to damage to vital organs (central nervous system, eyes, heart, lungs, liver), are characterized by prolonged persistence of parasites in the body, and difficulties in their differential diagnosis , a limited range of effective antiparasitic drugs.
| No. || Nosological form || Years |
| 1999 || 2000 || 2001 || 2002 || 2003 |
| 1. || Toxocariasis || 0.16 || 0.3 || 0.3 || 0.23 || 0.32 |
| 2. || Trichinosis || 0.02 || - || - || 0.08 || 0.19 |
| 3. || Echinococcosis || 0.3 || 0.12 || 0.12 || 0.04 || 0.1 |
| 4. || Cysticircosis || - || 0.02 || - || - || - |
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- Abstract. Methods of drug administration, 2010
Subcutaneous administration Intramuscular administration Intravenous administration Intraosseous administration Intraperitoneal administration Intrathoracic and intrapulmonary administration of drugs Autohemotherapy Bloodletting Intratracheal administration Scarring and drug administration
- Administration Methods
AEROSOL INHALATION Endobronchial administration usually results in a high local concentration of the drug without systemic side effects. Examples are bronchodilator P-agonists, inhaled corticosteroids, and pentamidine. However, some inhaled solutions reaching the lung parenchyma are quickly absorbed by the large surface of the capillary bed (e.g.
- Intratracheal administration
In clinical practice for lung diseases, medicinal substances are administered intratracheally using a probe. Before administration, the probe is disinfected and lubricated with petroleum jelly. For large animals, the probe is inserted through the nasal cavity to the pharynx and in between the swallowing movements it is further advanced. With the correct insertion of the probe into the trachea, the animal develops a cough that soon disappears. To
The International Statistical Classification of Diseases (ICD) is the main tool for statistical development of information on public health and the activities of health facilities. It provides methodological unity and comparability of the results of a study of the incidence of the population, causes of death, and reasons for contacting medical institutions, both within the country and between countries.
- INTRODUCTION OF FEEDING
The timely introduction of correctly selected foods for complementary foods contributes to improving health, improving nutritional status and physical development of infants and young children during the period of accelerated growth, and therefore should be the focus of the health care system. Throughout the period of complementary feeding, breast milk should remain the main type of milk,
Today, one of the most sought-after professions is the profession of a psychologist. Currently, more than 150 universities in the country are training relevant specialists. The existing experience of their preparation in higher education convincingly proves that the image of the future graduate profession should be the same object of formation as professional knowledge, skills, and ways of thinking. In connection with
- Intradermal vaccine
The intradermal administration of the vaccine for therapeutic purposes is used by cadets in the treatment of patients with toxoplasmosis or brucellosis. In the treatment room of the treatment department, a cadet should independently administer toxoplasmin toxoplasmosis patients intradermally under the supervision of a teacher (intern). Previously, he makes dilutions of the vaccine 10, 100, 1000, 10 000 times and produces a titration test for
Iron deficiency is one of the most common malnutrition in the world and, according to experts, affects more than three billion people. In terms of severity, it ranges from depletion of iron reserves, which does not cause any decrease in physiological activity, to iron deficiency anemia and can affect the mental development and development of motor skills. Special
- INTRODUCTION AND REMOVAL OF IUDS.
Since the methods of administration for different types of IUDs differ from each other, you should get acquainted each time and follow the instructions for the technique of introducing IUDs. The following IUD instructions apply to all types of intrauterine devices. 1. Explain to the patient what the procedure for administering the IUD is. 2. Conduct a thorough gynecological (bimanual) examination for
- Routes of administration of drugs
The choice of the route of administration of drugs depends on the severity of the patient’s condition, the necessary duration of their continuous administration, the nature of the disease, the age of the patient and the manual capabilities of medical personnel. According to the speed of reaching a peak concentration of drugs in the bloodstream, the following routes of drug administration are distinguished: ¦ intra-arterial; ¦ intravenous; ¦ intratracheal; ¦ sublingual (in
- I. INTRODUCTION
Before the introduction of aseptic and antiseptic methods, postoperative mortality reached 80%: patients died from purulent, putrefactive and gangrenous processes. The nature of rotting and fermentation, discovered in 1863 by Louis Pasteur, became an incentive for the development of microbiology and practical surgery, and it has been argued that microorganisms are also the cause of many wound complications. In this essay will be
- Intraosseous injections
They are shown in the following cases: in the presence of injured large veins, intoxication, disorders of the gastrointestinal tract; small animals - with a small diameter of veins; with prolonged drip infusions; in shock, when the veins are in a collapsed state; pigs - if intravenous infusion is difficult. For intraosseous injections, strong needles are used. In the olives of these needles
I would advise you to skip this introduction - it is much more complicated than other sections and can create a misconception about the book. I decided to include it in order to show some readers why our traditional way of thinking is wonderful, but still inadequate. The rear wheels of the car can be excellent, but they themselves are inferior. Having developed one aspect of thinking, we are proud of it and
- Subcutaneous administration
In the treatment of animals, parenteral administration of liquid dosage forms into the body is widely used, that is, bypassing the digestive canal. For these purposes, injection needles, syringes, special devices, various devices are used, strictly observing the rules of asepsis and antiseptics. At the place chosen for the injection, the hair is cut off, the skin is cleaned with alcohol or twice moistened with alcohol
- Intraperitoneal administration
Solutions of medicinal mixtures for calves up to 3 days are injected into the area of the hungry fossa on both sides, from 3-5 days - only on the right side. The injection site is in the middle of the line connecting the ileal tubercle with the last rib, 6-8 cm below the transverse processes of the lumbar vertebrae, depending on the age and size of the calf. The injection site is cut and treated with tincture of iodine. For
Relevance. The concepts of “personality orientation”, introduced into scientific use by C. L. Rubinstein, was developed, first of all, in distinguishing various types of orientation. In particular, in the psychological literature personal, collectivist, business (B. Bass, V. Smekal and M. Kucher, M.S. Neymark), humanistic, selfish, depressive, suicidal (D. I.