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"Acme" as a phenomenon of development of a group, organization, community

Plan

1. General theoretical and acmeological prerequisites for applying acmeological criteria to group subjects.

2. The ratio of social, psychological and acmeological approaches in the study of "acme" as a phenomenon in the development of a group, organization, community.

3. Acmeological criteria and indicators of achievement by the acme group.

Key words: “acme”, “acme” of the group, “acme” of the organization, criteria for achievement by the group of “acme”, conditions and factors for the development of groups and achievements of “acme”.

- “acme” of the group - an indicator of the highest achievements in its activity, level of organization and self-organization, cohesion of people based on common goals, interests, values;

- “acme” of the organization - the highest manifestation of the ability to organize and self-organization, aimed at solving problems significant for it and for society;

- “acme” of a community - a set of basic values ​​that are significant for the group as a whole and its members, uniting people not only with common goals and joint activities to achieve them, but also ensuring their spiritual unity, consciousness and sense of “we”;

- criteria for achievement by the Akme group: objective (performance, work efficiency, high level of organization and self-organization), subjective (formation of general group goals, interests, values) - each of the criteria must be correlated with the stages, stages of development of the group and indicators, reflecting the level of its development (from the stage of education, further - becoming, to maturity). The highest indicator of the development of a group, its “acme”, is the transformation of its external goals and values ​​into significant ones for the group and its individual members;

- conditions and factors for the development of the group and its achievement of “acme” - external and internal conditions that stimulate the group to fulfill its social functions, harmonization of intra-and intergroup relations; balance of core business and related activities; consistency of individual and group interests and values; the predominance of moral and spiritual principles in business and interpersonal relationships.

The development of personality as a subject of activity during the period of "adulthood", "maturity" B.G. Ananiev described it as a phase of ontogenesis, "when a person lives the most productive creative, professional and socially active life." Consequently, one of the indicators of a person’s maturity is the system of social relations with which he is associated with other people, as separate individuals, with individuals associated and united in appropriate groups, organizations, and communities. Thus, a person at the maturity stage acts not only as a subject of activity, but also a subject of relations. In this regard, it is advisable to include its status and role characteristics in the general system of indicators and criteria for acme achievement. The wealth of the individual is determined by the wealth of its objective relations and connections with the world, other people, its subjective attitude to the world and other people. In this case, it is logical to assume that the associated individual, i.e., a group formed from separate personalities, can also be considered from the point of view of acmeological criteria of maturity and achievement of the peaks of his development, which is expressed in a system of objective relationships and subjective indicators.

What are the theoretical prerequisites that give reason to apply the acme criterion to the “aggregate person” - group, organization, community?

First of all, it is an active, and with it subjective approaches in acmeological research, which, being general scientific principles of social and humanitarian knowledge, are also used in acmeology. In its most general form, activity is considered as a form of personality activity, through which its basic needs are satisfied, the assimilation and change of the external environment, and with it the person himself, is carried out.

Activity appears as mutual transitions of the subject into objects (G.S. Batishchev). Since the system-forming sign of activity is objectivity, it acts as the basis of human activity and creativity. An active attitude to the surrounding nature, the world, circumstances makes a person create and create a certain reality that does not exist in the natural world, but which a person needs in accordance with his needs. So, a person from a being who adapts to circumstances turns into a creature that creates them, which means he acquires the properties of a subject of activity: objective activity is the construction of culture as a unity and identity of development and creativity (G.S. Batishchev).

As noted by G.S. Batishchev, the cultural and historical subject of activity, is the identity of a public person and the human community. A subject is a combination of interindividual essences of a human creator. What are these entities? These are not existing between people or independently of them, above them and not forming the sum of individual, but qualitatively new formations - essences of the second order, higher order - social entities.

To understand the nature of these entities, it is necessary to take into account the fact that human activity, being objective, has another essential characteristic: it is of a joint nature. Historically, contributing to the preservation of man in the struggle against nature and compensating for his individual weakness in this struggle, joint activities and life activities ensured the development of the generic man in phylogenesis. At the same time, each time, being together with others ensures the formation of a person as a person, as a subject, as an individual (in ontogenesis). When joining a joint life activity, a person enters into a complex and diverse system of relations (objective and subjective) with other people. The immediate real form of these relations is communication, a process in which the inner world of one person is opened to another. But for this to happen, the group, the community must become a reference, that is, one whose values ​​are accepted by these people.

In such a group of associations, communities, relationships of mutual dependence, determined by the commonality of goals and joint actions to achieve them, do not limit individual manifestations, but contribute to their development, and therefore in this community group genuine freedom is possible as self-essence, self-worth, and not as freedom. " from something "," from someone. "

If a person acts as a subject of interaction, then a group, society can be considered as some subjects, which are a set of interacting individuals and, at the same time, qualitatively new formations that can be described or characterized through a system of relatively stable criteria, as well as dynamic indicators that change in depending on the level of development of the group.

To uncover the specifics of acme groups, organizations, communities, it is necessary to synthesize philosophical, psychological and acmeological approaches. Let's start with a philosophical approach.

With regard to society as a system and its constituent elements, social structure - various social groups, we have already talked not just about the subject, but about the social subject, following a certain logic of the real world and knowledge.

Society as a system functions and develops, ensuring the production and reproduction of: 1) living people; 2) material and spiritual means of life; 3) forms of social relations and communication. Joint activity (social practice) is carried out in the context of social relations, which act as an internal, stable, substantial relationship, which is objective in nature, without taking into account which a person cannot achieve an adequate action. However, “impersonal” social relations exist only in abstraction, since people make history, and in their activities and relationships (already personified) these relations “come to life”, always acquiring a specific personified form. History is made by people pursuing certain goals, having their own interests, knowing or not knowing its laws, taking into account or not taking into account real circumstances, acting consciously or under the influence of passion.

In a joint activity, people are united in certain groups, associations, associations. So social subjects appear: large and small social groups, communities, institutions that ensure the functioning of society and the individual, the involvement of an individual in joint activities. A specific type of social relations — social relations — is taking shape between various group entities. They can be in the nature of cooperation, rivalry, mutual assistance and competition, unity or confrontation, confrontation up to conflict. Joint life activity necessitates the coordination of the actions of individuals, the organization of their individual efforts to achieve common goals, and is reflected in the recognition by each of his involvement in the community as a condition of his own survival, success, self-realization.

The category "social" is used in different senses. In science, one can single out the understanding of “social” in the narrow sense of the word as a specific sphere of “public”. However, there is an understanding of “social” in the broad sense of the word as a synonym for social, meaning belonging, the inclusion of phenomena in the sphere of the supraorganic, possessing certain substantial characteristics, not reducible to the properties of other spheres of reality. To determine the qualitative specifics of a social system, it is necessary to take into account internal and external circumstances, which in interaction form its integral lifestyle, the way of reproduction in the environment. The mode of existence that distinguishes people from nature is the purposeful activity of an individual and aggregate person. A social subject carries out his life in a specific historical and sociocultural context, which determines the nature of this activity, as well as the scope of activity and self-realization of the subject. Historically and logically, individual and social actors are formed in communication and interaction. From this it follows that the question of what comes before an individual or aggregate subject is not entirely correct. Recognizing the fact that the phenomenon of an individual subject in its origin, determination, content carries a sign of sociality, that signs of subjectivity are formed in a person through relations with other people, society, many researchers do not consider it possible to single out "social subject" as a separate category.
However, many scientists consider it legitimate to single out the category of “social subject” as an independent one, having its own content and forms of manifestation.

Different from the subject in general, the social subject cannot be understood by mechanically adding the adjective "social" to the subject "subject". Their synthesis gives rise to a qualitatively new formation "social subject". A social subject is a social entity, determined by a system of causal, systemic, structural and dynamic connections and providing balance and progressive development of the social system as a whole and its individual parts.

In relation to a social subject, the basic characteristics of the subject - activity, activity, consciousness, self-awareness, relationships - acquire a new sign of "sociality". Thus, we are already dealing with the category of social activity, social activity, social consciousness, social thinking, social relations and their reflections in the “spirit of the subject”.

It is possible to say with a certain degree of certainty that the phenomenon of a social subject identified above can constitute an object and subject of such an acmeology branch as social acmeology, and an analysis of its properties, dynamics of formation and development factors, constitute its problem field. Such a field of knowledge can be created at the intersection of social philosophy, social psychology and acmeology.

The diversity of social actors makes it necessary to classify them. Differentiation of subjects can be made on three grounds. As criteria for the selection of a particular type of entities accepted: substantial, sphere and institutional. In accordance with the first basis, the following types of subjects were identified and characterized: personality, group (large and small, organized and spontaneous). In connection with the division of labor, a sphere approach is used, and in accordance with it, subjects are considered: economics, politics, law, morality, art, religion, etc. The institutional aspect allows us to distinguish institutions, organizations, unions, public associations as subjects. Each society is characterized by a certain set of subjects and their quality. The subjective structure is largely determined by the level of development of society, the specific historical situation, the nature of intersubjective relations.

A specific criterion for the typology of social subjects is the level of development of the subject according to the stages: education, formation and maturity. At the stage of maturity, the subject gains its qualitative certainty, turning from a group into a community, from a simple set of people into their integral union, from the sum of individual "I" into an integrated "we". Paraphrasing a well-known expression, we can say that the indicator of subjectivity is the transformation of a group, a personality from a potential “subject - in itself” into a real “subject - for itself”, which is expressed in self-awareness, initiative, internal cohesion, self-determination and activity.

An integral criterion is the acme criterion, which can be distinguished in the following indicators:

The consciousness and self-consciousness of the group act as an indicator of spiritual community, however, this community manifests itself in different ways at different stages of group formation. The following communities are distinguished:

- the lowest typological level - the similarity of psychological traits due to the similarity of conditions (typical worker, typical intellectual typical businessman);

- middle - identification level, - when an individual member of a group realizes his belonging to this group, the group - to society on the basis of its values, way of thinking, goals and distinguishes itself from those who belong to other groups (we are “reformers” , they are "conservatives");

- the highest level of community - the level of solidarity (consolidation) - psychological readiness for joint action in the name of common interests and goals.

The values ​​of large social groups crystallize and "settle" in the psychology of the "cells" - small groups and individuals, in the individual consciousness. The level of identity with a community depends on many factors, including the specific situation.

It is important not only to identify the levels of generality, but also to study the factors acting to increase or decrease the level of generality. When moving from the first to the second level, the following factors act: the social structure of society, the objective position of the group in it, its social role, level of development; intragroup structure (identification processes occur differently in groups that are homogeneous and heterogeneous in structure); empiricism, obviousness, immediacy of reflection in the minds of people of signs that allow to identify themselves and a group, not only the underlying attributes that provide commonality, but also secondary ones that lie on the surface, accessible and understandable to everyone, matter.

In the transition from the second to the third stage, the following factors are significant: the intensity of communication - the degree of concentrated group, a shared lifestyle, the commonality of interests of "We", the development of intragroup organization; practice of joint actions; Leaders characters.

In the formation of the subject-group as a community, the socio-psychological mechanisms “We” - “They” operate, the laws of intergroup and intragroup interaction (identification, isolation, reproduction, group favoritism, outgroup aggression, causal attribution, etc.). The development of socio-philosophical theory, as well as the use of the development of various sciences, allows not only to explicate the concept of “social subject”, but also to fill it with specific content and to reveal forms of manifestation of social subjectivity. However, it allows you to expand the content of the phenomenon of "acme".

In relation to the group, “acme” indicators are revealed through its socio-psychological characteristics, which are finalized and get a more or less stable character. Среди них: групповое (а на более высокой стадии – коллективное) сознание, включающее групповые цели, программы действия, взгляды на внутреннее бытие группы и внешние условия), групповые ценности (отражающие или находящиеся в противоречии с общественными или индивидуальными), групповые традиции, нормы, регулирующие отношения между людьми. Поскольку группа является элементом структуры общества, на нее не могут не влиять принятые в обществе идеи, идеалы, образцы, ценности. Усваивая их и преобразуя с учетом собственного опыта, группа поднимается до уровня субъекта своей жизнедеятельности, показателями этого уровня выступают: совместность, сработанность, сплоченность (А.И. Донцов), а кроме того, общность общегрупповых целей, интересов, ценностей, психологическая совместимость, готовность к сотрудничеству и взаимозаменяемости, положительный эмоциональный настрой.

Для такой группы характерна определенная иерархия ценностей: ориентация на продуктивную работу; коллективистские отношения, превращение общественно необходимых целей в коллективно и личностно значимые, ориентация на "другого", положительная мотивация, готовность к совместной работе.

Можно также выделить ряд акмеологических показателей группы: компетентность, ответственность, организованность (высший уровень самоуправления), дисциплинированность, инициативность, принципиальность, трудолюбие, хозяйственность, справедливость, сотрудничество, критичность, корпоративная культура, самосознание, чувство "Мы".

Интегральным показателем акме группы можно считать оптимальное соотношение общественных, групповых и личных целей, интересов и ценностей, их согласованность и сбалансированность. Все это позволяет группе превратиться из объекта управления в субъект самоуправления. Это означает, что, выполняя функцию посредника между личностью и обществом, группа вместе с тем создает непосредственную благоприятную среду для самореализации, самораскрытия и саморазвития каждой личности, используя для этого многочисленные механизмы и методы стимулирования активности, как индивидуальной, так и групповой.

Совершенно понятно, что достигнутое группой акме требует значительных усилий для его поддержания. Вместе с тем, учитывая сложность и многообразие внутренних и внешних факторов жизнедеятельности группы, ее динамику, нельзя себе представить, что возможен и "обратный" ход, могут наступить периоды спада, кризиса, даже разрушения. В этой связи, исследуя группу в акмеологии, важно учитывать разработанные в философии понятия, характеризующие "субъект" в такие кризисные периоды. Употребляя понятие субъект в позитивном плане (как "работающий" на общество, группу, других, себя), исследователи считают возможным говорить и о субъекте в негативном, деструктивном смысле, т. е. о субъекте, активность и деятельность которого носит разрушительный характер или, во всяком случае, по своей направленности противостоит или не совпадает с общепринятыми нормами и ценностями. В таком случае говорят об "асоциальном субъекте", который характеризуется девиантным поведением. Таким образом, оставаясь внешне вполне активным, субъект направляет свою активность не на конструктивные задачи, а на разрушительные, и вряд ли в таком случае можно применить к нему критерий "акме".

Summary

При разработке категории "акме" правомерно ее употребление не только по отношению к личности, но по отношению к группе, общности.

Как субъект совместной деятельности и отношений, складывающихся в ее процессе между отдельными ее участниками, группа проходит в своем развитии несколько стадий развития: создания, становления, зрелости. Именно на стадии зрелости возможно акме группы, интегральным показателем которого является превращение группы в общность на основе общих интересов, целей, ценностей.

Существует определенная связь между акме личности и группы. Оба этих феномена оказывают друг на друга воздействие при соответствующих условиях и предпосылках. Группа – в том случае, если создает благоприятные условия для самовыражения, самореализации личности; личность – если она принимает ценности группы как собственные, что стимулирует проявление и развитие ее творческих начал.
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"Акме" как феномен развития группы, организации, общности

  1. "Акме" как феномен развития группы, организации, общности
    План 1. Общетеоретические и акмеологические предпосылки применения акмеологических критериев к групповым субъектам. 2. Соотношение социального, психологического и акмеологического подходов в исследовании "акме" как феномена развития группы, организации, общности. 3. Акмеологические критерии и показатели достижения группой акме. Ключевые слова: "акме", "акме" группы, "акме"
  2. Сущность феномена "акме" в профессиональном развитии
    "Акме" в профессиональном развитии (профессиональное "акме") — это психическое состояние, означающее высший для данного человека уровень в его профессиональном развитии, который приходится на данный отрезок времени. Professional "acme" is a mental state, meaning maximum mobilization, the realization of all professional abilities, capabilities and reserves of a person
  3. Сущность феномена "акме" в профессиональном развитии
    "Акме" в профессиональном развитии (профессиональное "акме") – это психическое состояние, означающее высший для данного человека уровень в его профессиональном развитии, который приходится на данный отрезок времени. Профессиональное "акме" – это психическое состояние, означающее максимальную мобилизованность, реализованность всех профессиональных способностей, возможностей и резервов человека
  4. ФЕНОМЕН АКМЕ И НЕКОТОРЫЕ ОБЩИЕ УСЛОВИЯ ЕГО ФОРМИРОВАНИЯ И РАЗВИТИЯ
    Многосторонний анализ особенностей, которые характеризуют развитие людей как индивидов, как личностей, как субъектов деятельности и как индивидуальностей, обнаруживает, с одной стороны, определенные черты сходства в протекании этого многосложного процесса, а с другой — дает возможность увидеть очень существенные различия. Сходство заключается в том, что, если на этой стадии рассмотрения его
  5. Феномен "акме" и его главные характеристики
    План 1. "Акме" как одно из основных понятий новой науки. 2. Более широкое и более узколокальное понимание "акме" при прослеживании развития человека на ступени взрослости. 3. "Микроакме" как промежуточные вершины в развитии человека, предваряющие достижение им "макроакме". 4. Основные характеристики "акме" человека. 5. "Псевдоакме" как антипод подлинной вершины в развитии человека.
  6. Феномен "акме" и его главные характеристики
    План 1. "Акме" как одно из основных понятий новой науки. 2. Более широкое и более узколокальное понимание "акме" при прослеживании развития человека на ступени взрослости. 3. "Микроакме" как промежуточные вершины в развитии человека, предваряющие достижение им "макроакме". 4. Основные характеристики "акме" человека. 5. "Псевдоакме" как антипод подлинной вершины в развитии человека.
  7. Организационная среда рабочей команды как внешнее условие развития коллективного "акме"
    Что касается релевантных (т. е. уместных) нашему обсуждению элементов организационной среды (или, как ее еще называют, организационного контекста) рабочей команды, то к ним, согласно современным научным данным, могут быть отнесены: организационная культура, групповые задачи, степень автономии рабочей команды, интерактивная обратная связь, вознаграждения и признание, обучение и консультирование,
  8. Организационная среда рабочей команды как внешнее условие развития коллективного «акме»
    Что касается релевантных нашему обсуждению элементов организационной среды (или, как ее еще называют, организационного контекста) рабочей команды, то к ним, согласно литературным данным (Sundstrom et al., 1990), могут быть отнесены: организационная культура, групповые задачи, степень автономности рабочей команды, интерактивная обратная связь, вознаграждения и признание, обучение и
  9. Организационная среда рабочей команды как внешнее условие развития коллективного "акме"
    Что касается релевантных (т. е. уместных) нашему обсуждению элементов организационной среды (или, как ее еще наз вают, организационного контекста) рабочей команды, к ним, согласно современным научным данным, могут быть соотнесены: организационная культура, групповые задачи, степень автономии рабочей команды, интерактивная обратная связь вознаграждения и признание, обучение и консультирование,
  10. Сущность аутопсихологической компетентности как способа развития "акме" в контексте индивидуальности
    Одним из главных психологических условий активизации личностного потенциала человека является его аутопсихологическая компетентность, обеспечивающая оптимальные модели самоорганизации жизни и профессиональной деятельности. Изучение аутопсихологической компетентности предполагает получение ответов на ряд вопросов. Каков алгоритм познания себя, что необходимо знать о себе и в каком объеме?
  11. Сущность аутопсихологической компетентности как способа развития "акме" в контексте индивидуальности
    Одним из главных психологических условий активизации личностного потенциала человека является его аутопсихологическая компетентность, обеспечивающая оптимальные модели самоорганизации жизни и профессиональной деятельности. Изучение аутопсихологической компетентности предполагает получение ответов на ряд вопросов. Каков алгоритм познания себя, что необходимо знать о себе и в каком объеме?
  12. Acme: content role, specificity of manifestation. Acme in the personal development of a person
    The phenomenon of acme and its main characteristics Adulthood in all manifestations of its natural and social nature of a person is the peak in its development, followed by old age, old age, which are characterized by a gradual decrease in physical health, weakening civic activity, reduction in the volume and content of parental responsibilities, shutdown
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