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“Acme”, professionalism and social adaptation of a person: periodization of development and typology of human social activity

The problem of the correlation of giftedness, genius and “norm”, adaptability and reactivity, situational and “supra-situational” activity, biological and social determinants of professional achievements, intervals of age-related sensitivity, personal and professional potential has not arisen in psychology today and periodically declares itself in new and new contexts. In acmeology, it is not formulated as an alternative, not as a disjunction, but as a conjunction, as a potential and as the possibility of the most effective self-realization of each person.

Acmeology is understood as a scientific discipline that studies the laws and phenomena of a person’s development to the stage of his maturity, when he reaches the highest level in this development. Acmeology studies a developing person as an individual, person, subject of labor in the process of highly professional activity (Abulkhanova-Slavskaya, 1990; Bodalev, 1998; Derkach, Zazyshn, Markova, 2000; Markova, 1996). Acme (from Greek - the peak, the blossoming time) is the highest point, the heyday of the person, its highest achievements, when the person shows his maturity in all spheres of life and, above all, in professional activities. Acme means the maximum development of abilities and talents; it is believed that acme falls on the period of age maturity, social and personal maturity of a person. The acmeological approach is a basic generalizing category that describes a set of principles, techniques and methods of scientific research that allow us to study and solve scientific and practical problems and tasks in the volume of their real ontological being.

In acmeology, the topic under discussion partly appears in its pragmatic aspect - as an extremely urgent problem of the search and development of psychotechnologies, algorithms that allow, or, formulating softer-contributing, helping an active person to most fully and harmoniously take place in different areas of his life. One of the main ways to resolving it is to consider a person as an active subject of his life (Abulkhanova-Slavs-kaya, 1990; Brushlinsky, 2003). Therefore, it should be primarily about the social determinants of the highest professional achievements of a person as “external conditions” and “internal” that determine them (S.L. Rubinstein), specific personality neoplasms (self-actualization, self-effectiveness, self-determination, etc.).

Without simplifying the problem to searching and formulating a “strategy of geniuses,” in this paper it seems necessary to dwell on the issue of social determinants of the highest professional achievements of a person, the “price” of professionalism, and in general, the balance of “professionalism” and psychological mechanisms of “social adaptation” of a person. The costs of the unsolved problem are more than obvious (psychological burnout syndrome, occupational destruction, etc.). An analysis of the aforementioned multifaceted problem seems appropriate to begin with a consideration of the periodization of development and the typology of human social adaptation.

When analyzing theories of periodization in the historical perspective, several characteristic features are distinguished.

First, during the 20th century, scientists' perceptions of periodization changed markedly. At first, in the first third of the past century, the focus was exclusively on children's age, and all that followed was perceived as monotonous uniformity (P.P. Blonsky, L.S. Vygotsky, J. Piaget, 3. Freud). In the second third of the 20th century, the life path of a person as a whole is already becoming the object of research (S. Buller, R. Kegan, D. Levinson, J. Lovinger, S.L. Rubinshtein, E. Ericson, and others). In the middle of the century, the attention of scientists focuses on the central part of this path - a professional career (E.A. Klimov, D. Super, R. Heyvighurst, G. Shihi and others), and then - on the last periods of life (A. Birdside, E. Kübler-Ross, E. Pettison et al.).

Secondly, there was a tendency for an increasingly differentiated perception by scientists of the age stages of development.

Thirdly, there was a transition from an explanation of periodization by any one key determinant to recognition of their polyphony.

Finally, fourthly, there was a gradual departure from the understanding of periodization as rigidly and unequivocally determined, occurring within clearly defined age limits, to the recognition of direct and indirect determination by a number of factors, including social (official status, family authority, and much more) , to the recognition of the phased ascension of man to the heights of his development and improvement.

The above trends of scientific explanation lead to the formulation of the main questions of our study: a) is the dynamics of historical chronology in the understanding of periodization of development only a change in the quality of scientific knowledge about it, or are there facts of obvious social determination of the stages and levels of human development? b) whether the social determination of the periodization of development is a general and diffuse process, or is it a specific process that manifests itself differently depending on the level of the “quality of social adaptation” of a person (manifested in the activity of his position as a subject of his own life, in life strategies and other)?

The approach to the search for “keys” to the problem of professional achievement presupposes a preliminary solution to the typology of the social activity of a person (a person as an active subject of his life): hardly a general population of people can be considered a homogeneous sample; in its practical aspect, it will more likely affect well-defined social groups of people; its practical implementation involves significant social activity of a person organized in a certain way.

Qualitative changes in the lives of individuals and society as a whole over the past century give serious reasons to consider the problem under discussion not only as age-related periodization, not only as personal and professional development, but, above all, as a periodization of human life in all aspects of its manifestation, including - in the existential aspect. Based on the understanding of life periodization as qualitative phenomena of a person’s adaptation to the environment, determined by the totality of biological, mental and social factors of its development with their ambiguous relationship, it can be assumed that periodization does not manifest itself just and forever established a clear change in the phases of development, but, perhaps, how individual and integral response of the organism, psyche, human personality to the actual part of the real and specific external and internal conditions of his life (including socio-economic, subcultural and intrapsychic).

From this hypothesis it follows that: 1) in the life of different people in different historical eras, individual phases of development can be more or less extended depending on the conditions of society, personal maturity and life position of a person as an active subject of his life; 2) the phase of the highest mental, professional and spiritual uplift of a person - “acme” - can shift along the “axis” of his life time.

What is the real relationship of these phenomena in the real interaction (conjugation, coordination, balancing) of a person with the world, with society, with organization, with a social group, with itself in the process of its formation as a person, an individuality? How much is the external environment capable of changing the duration, severity, intensity of individual phases and the very peak of human development? These and other questions prompted us to study the dynamics of the person’s personal and professional development during the crisis of society.

To answer the above questions, we conducted a series of empirical studies. The subject of the discussed fragment of the work was the dynamics of the formation of professionalism of subjects (public servants).

Let us turn to the results of the discussed fragment of our study, which was carried out using the methodology developed by us, “The Dynamics of the Formation of Professionalism”. Respondents were attracted not so much as subjects, but, first of all, as experts in their personal and professional development (retrospective - present - perspective), as well as experts in the personal and professional development of their colleagues. The dynamics of the formation of the components of professionalism and abilities (learning ability, conscious intelligence, creativity), complex psychological formations - the style of professional activity (SPD) and leadership style at different age periods, as well as the impact on some professional socio-demographic and acmeological conditions and factors. For statistical analysis, 101 questionnaires were used.

Expert estimates were characterized by moderate variability, normal distribution in the range of the scale from 0 to 8, standard deviations were more often in the range from 1.4 to 1.8. The greatest variability of means and deviations is inherent in the assessments of “external conditions” and the formation of the style of professional activity (SPD), which is understandable. Sex - 2/3 of the experts are men (66%), 34% are women; age - from 19 to 54 years, the average value of x = 37.3 years; work experience - from 2 to 37 years, average x = 16.6 years; position - from specialist to head of department.

Estimates of experts different in age, length of service, and position are characterized by similarity and consistency in most of the variables evaluated. All the averages of the estimated components (“variables”) of the formation of SPD and professionalism have a “peak”, which most often occurs at the age of 35-40-45 years, and symmetrical ascending and descending branches. Intercorrelations and moderate standard deviations indicate the similarity of the assessments and self-assessments of the experts involved. So, the “peak” of experts' own professionalism falls on 40-45 years, creativity - on 40 years; maximum estimates of the formation of integral psychological formations - the style of professional activity and leadership style - for 40-45 and 45-50 years, respectively.
The data obtained correspond to the logic of the results of studies conducted under the guidance of B.G. Ananyeva (1968).

In general, the professional career of the subjects is divided into two large stages - up to 35-40 and after 40-45 years - without a pronounced middle stage ("plateau"), which usually takes up a considerable time interval, according to a number of popular scientific concepts (Bodalev, Rudkevich , 2003; Klimov, 1988; Markov, 1996). The professional path of the subjects is characterized by a sharp peak and two gentle - ascending and descending branches. The dynamics of the formation of professionalism takes on even more “dramatic sound” if one does not operate with “raw” average expert estimates, but with the “delta of genesis” —the relative values ​​of progress – regression over the considered time period. In this case, all the curves hopelessly go below the zero mark after 35-45 years. Correlation analysis reveals another phenomenon - “acme drift”, which reflects the presence of only one “peak” in the subjective perception of their career paths by our subjects.

Consider the results of factor analysis. In the secondary factorization of the questionnaire data, 101 (out of 130 initially participating in it) civil servants, we identified seven fixed factors.

The first factor, in accordance with the content of the variables that determine it and their factor weights, is called “Professionalism of 50-year-olds”. It integrates the components of professionalism of subjects in adulthood (40-50 years) - creativity, professionalism in the narrow sense, SPD, leadership style. It can be assumed that there is no obvious continuity of professionalism of adulthood with similar substructures at a younger age, that initial, “starting” PVCs in adulthood play secondary roles.

The second factor - “Professionalism of 25-35-year-olds” - combines the totality of components of professionalism in 25-30 years with the highest “weights” (0.80-0.55) and 35-40 years with lesser weights (0.35-0 , 40). The content of the factor indicates its independence from the first, a special system of professionalism of 25-35-year-olds, which differs from other age stages. 25-30-year-old respondents and their colleagues evaluated almost equally. This may indicate both objectivity, impartiality of the view, equality of opportunity, as well as insufficient psychological and managerial competence.

The third factor, “Intelligence Substructures,” describes the intelligence substructures in various fields of activity. It is independent of other factors, and it does not include the components of intelligence in the field of human-to-human activities.

The fourth factor - “Self-assessment of professionalism” - determines the factor weights of indicators of professionalism and creativity at all age stages (25, 30, 35, 40, 45, 50), the role of relatives in the formation of professionalism of subjects, the creative component of intelligence in the field of “man-person” , "Man is nature," "man is image." Apparently, these structures of intelligence are necessary to achieve professionalism at any age.

The fifth factor - “Life experience” - determines the age, length of service, the role of spouses, the number of children, the role that parents of the subjects played in their choice of profession, as well as official status.

Sixth - “Dialogue factor” - reflects the formation of leadership style at the age of 25 to 40 years; in addition, it is associated with such substructures of the intellect as creativity and learning in the areas of “man-sign”, “man-technique”, and creative abilities in the field of “man-technique”. It is significant that the leadership style at a younger age is associated with the mentioned substructures, while leadership style at the age of 40 and above is associated with the structure of intelligence in the sphere of human-to-human activities (factor 7). Leaders, friends, men, work collectives, and father influence the formation of leadership style from 25 to 40 years old. In the “leading” and early leading period, the professionalism of the subjects rather depends on their “technical intelligence” (it is the development of this group of PVCs that contributes to their professional success in the first 25-40 years), and later on the development and reflection of the PVCs related to social competence, experience, social sensitivity.

The seventh factor - “Style of activity” - combines the components of the style of professional activity of subjects aged 40 years and older, as well as leadership style in the range of 30-45 years and components of intelligence in the field of human-to-human activity: creative abilities, learning ability and conscious intelligence. It is noteworthy that the formation of the style of professional activity of subjects in adulthood is associated with the role of women in the life of men.

So, the results of the study indicate the high importance of socio-historical and cultural conditions that affect the dynamics of the formation of professionalism, the periodization of professional career and human life as a whole. (Similar results were obtained by us in other professional samples as well — security officers, ambulance station doctors, and primary school teachers (Tapochek, 2001).) The role of some acmeological factors — a number of “general” conditions of human life, selectively showing high determining force in certain periods of life and in certain conditions of human activity. All this gives rise to the question of the social typology of people according to the criterion of the dynamics of “acme” as an integral indicator of the level and quality of socialization of a person.

It seems reasonable to us to single out five levels of human adaptation to society:

1) “stars of the first magnitude” - people whose highest professional achievements on the scale of humanity are often associated with some social maladaptation of a highly gifted person;

2) “stars of the second magnitude” - people who have reached significant heights in professional and personal development. This type is often represented by two subtypes - “harmonious” in terms of comprehensive social adaptation, successfully realizing themselves in simultaneously different spheres of life, and “workaholics” focused exclusively on professional activities;

3) “planets” - people who “rotate in orbit”, given them by external conditions, do not go beyond the boundaries of their starting social niche, are often qualified specialists, but do not differ in extraordinary and high professional achievements. Они часто более ориентированы на процесс, а не на результат деятельности; «живут», а не «идут по жизни»;

4) «планирующие» - лица, явно регрессирующие относительно достижений их близких родственников и своих собственных первоначальных потенций, явно непродуктивно использующие имеющийся личностный и социальный потенциал. Результаты профессиональной деятельности редко выступают для них как образы целенаправленной активности;

5) «достигающие дна» - лица, которых по разным причинам не удерживают «социальные сети» (правовые, этические, групповые нормы, помощь и поддержка близких); лица, характеризующиеся девиантным и делинквентным поведением (неоднократно судимые, бомжи, хронические безработные и т.п.).

Очевидно, что как задачи научного исследования, так и задачи разработки психотехнологий должны быть соответствующим образом дифференцированы. Большая часть субъектов, в отношении которых можно говорить о возможности направленного психотехнического воздействия, - это представители второго, третьего и четвертого типов.

Анализ генезиса составляющих профессионализма субъектов государственной службы (статистики, результаты корреляционного и факторного анализа) дает основания к следующим выводам.

1. Темп развития профессионализма руководителя на всем протяжении его карьеры неравномерен и имеет крутую восходящую ветвь и ветвь нисходящую с фрагментарно стабильными участками. В динамике становления СПД и профессионализма субъектов явно различаются две части, два этапа карьеры - восходящая (до 35-40) и нисходящая (после 40-45 лет) ветви. Темпы развития профессионализма субъектов обусловлены не только законами психологического развития, но и целым рядом акмеологических факторов.

2. Темпы развития профессионализма наиболее высоки в интервале между 25-30 годами. Затем они замедляются в интервале между 30-35 годами примерно в два раза. К 35-40 годам развитие составляющих профессионализма замедляется еще на 30-90% от начальной - максимальной - «дельты». В интервале между 40-45 годами происходит качественный перелом в развитии анализируемых составляющих профессионализма субъектов, темпы развития монотонно снижаются и становятся «отрицательными» по сравнению с профессиональным стартом субъектов деятельности. В этом возрасте, согласно данным исследования, можно говорить об относительном регрессе составляющих профессионализма субъектов. «Пики» развития более простых составляющих профессионализма субъектов приходятся на более ранний возраст (например, пик креативности - на 35-40 лет), более сложных - на более поздний (СПД - 45 лет, стиль руководства - 45-50 лет). В период 25-40 лет профессионализм субъектов скорее связан с техническими аспектами профессиональной деятельности. Именно развитие этой группы ПВК наиболее активно способствует профессиональной успешности субъекта. После 40 лет профессионализм уже более связан с развитием и рефлексией ПВК, относящихся к социальной компетентности, сензитивности, опыту.

3. Результаты исследования свидетельствуют об очевидной роли в периодизации карьеры и динамики становления профессионализма субъектов социально-исторических и ряда акмеологических факторов: первоначально - роль отца, позже - первого руководителя, трудового коллектива, супругов, числа детей в собственной семье и др.

4. Очевидное различие профессиональных достижений разных людей, а также их потенциала предполагает решение вопроса типологии уровней социальной адаптации человека и специфики психологических механизмов, их обеспечивающих.
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«Акме», профессионализм и социальная адаптация человека: периодизация развития и типологии социальной активности человека

  1. Lecture No. 5 Topic: Physiology of the human body. Stress, its role in adapting a person to social and labor activities.
    Lecture plan. 1. The structure and function of the nervous regulatory system of the human body. 2. The structure and function of the humoral regulatory system of the human body. 3. The concept of mental health. Criteria and factors determining psycho. health. The concept of stress as a general adaptation syndrome (the doctrine of stress G. Selye). 4. The essence of psychogenic stress and its effect on humans.
    Попытаемся в самых общих чертах проследить взаимозависимости, которые существуют между особенностями акме человека и 1) социально-экономическими условиями общества, членом которого он является, 2) конкретным историческим временем, в которое он живет; 3) его социальной принадлежностью; 4) конкретной социальной ситуацией; 5) возрастом человека; 6) его полом. Как мы уже знаем, акме человека —
    Одной из основных проблем, которые должна разрешить ак-меология, является освещение во взаимосвязи друг с другом характеристик социальной микросреды и человека, когда результатом их взаимодействия является такое формирование этого человека, которое выводит его на высший уровень развития и как индивида, и как личность, и как субъекта деятельности. Перед рассмотрением интересующих нас
  4. Этапы психо-социального развития человека и «Эгопсихология» Эрика Эриксона.
    В своих 8 принципах психо-социального развития человека (книга «Детство и общество», 1950) известный американский психолог Эриксон (Erik Erikson, 1892 - 1994)), ученик З.Фрейда (учился в Венском психоаналитическом институте) развил и дополнил теорию Фрейда. Согласно Эриксону в своем психо-социальном развитии человек преодолевает 8 противоречий: В грудном возрасте - доверие против недоверия.
  5. Acme: content role, specificity of manifestation. Acme in the personal development of a person
    The phenomenon of acme and its main characteristics Adulthood in all manifestations of its natural and social nature of a person is the peak in its development, followed by old age, old age, which are characterized by a gradual decrease in physical health, weakening civic activity, reduction in the volume and content of parental responsibilities, shutdown
  6. "Акме" в профессиональном развитии человека
    Plan 1. The essence of the phenomenon of "acme" in professional development. 2. Types of professional "acme". 3. The criteria for professional "acme" in relation to the indicators of professionalism and professional competence. 4. Conditions for achieving professional acme. Keywords: professional “acme”, professionalism, professional competence, professional, professional
  7. "Акме" в профессиональном развитии человека
    Plan 1. The essence of the phenomenon of "acme" in professional development. 2. Types of professional “acme1.” 3. Criteria for professional “acme” in relation to indicators of professionalism and professional competence. 4. Conditions for achieving professional “acme.” Keywords: professional “acme”, professionalism, professional competence, professional, professional
  8. "Акме" в личностном развитии человека
    План 1. Постиндустриальный вызов. 2. Личностная зрелость как основание профессионализма. 3. "Я" — социальное качество личности с психологическим статусом "Мы". 4. Профессиональная самореализация как путь личности к "акме". Ключевые слова: постиндустриальное общество, личность, акмическая личность, "Я", экзистенциональный, миссия, акме. — постиндустриальное общество —
  9. "Акме" в личностном развитии человека
    План 1. Постиндустриальный вызов. 2. Личностная зрелость как основание профессионализма. 3. "Я" – социальное качество личности с психологическим статусом "Мы". 4. Профессиональная самореализация как путь личности к "акме". Ключевые слова: постиндустриальное общество, личность, акмическая личность, "Я", экзистенциональный, миссия, акме. - постиндустриальное общество – стадия
  10. Проблема периодизации развития человека
    Цель любой периодизации – обозначить на линии развития точки, отделяющие друг от друга качественно своеобразные периоды. Вопрос о делении онтогенеза на отдельные, в возрастном отношении ограниченные стадии, ступени или фазы имеет долгую традицию, но по-прежнему остается открытым. Критерии, на основании которых производится такое деление, а также содержание, число и временная протяженность
  11. "Акме" в контексте индивидуального развития человека
    План 1. Индивидуальность в системе качеств человека и акме. 2. Интегральная индивидуальность как результат и как условие развития человека. 3. Стиль как система согласования индивидуальности человека со средой. 4. Типология стилей. Ключевые слова: индивидуальность, интегральная индивидуальность, индивидуальный стиль деятельности, стиль профессиональной деятельности. -
  12. "Акме" в контексте индивидуального развития человека
    План 1. Индивидуальность в системе качеств человека и акме. 2. Интегральная индивидуальность как результат и как условие развития человека. 3. Стиль как система согласования индивидуальности человека со средой. 4. Типология стилей. Ключевые слова: индивидуальность, интегральная индивидуальность, индивидуальный стиль деятельности, стиль профессиональной деятельности. -
  13. Test. Акмеологический подход к периодизации возрастного развития человека, 2011
    Введение Теоретические принципы периодизации возрастного развития Различные авторские периодизации возрастного развития Сравнительный анализ различных периодизаций возрастного развития Основные характеристики человека в различные периоды его возрастного развития Взрослость и зрелость как важнейшая для акмеологии ступень жизненного цикла человека Общая характеристика развития человека в
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