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Acmeological foundations of personal self-realization in the main areas of human activity

The interest in the problem of personal self-realization in modern science is associated primarily with the rethinking of previously accumulated experience and concepts in the field of understanding the structure of life and all its laws. Man is considered by modern science as an “open system” that exchanges energy and information with the environment, has a certain internal content, as well as many internal states. Accumulating new experience, a person changes himself and, consequently, the surrounding world, of which he is a part. The problem of personal self-realization is also closely related to the question of the resources inherent in a person that can be used to optimally solve the socio-economic problems of society.

According to B. G. Ananyev, “for social forecasting, scientific knowledge is needed about the reserves and resources of human development itself, about the true potentials of this development” (Ananyev, 2001, p. 5).

S. L. Rubinstein defines a person as “a creature that realizes its essence in the objects generated by it and through itself recognizes it ... the specificity of the human way of being lies in the measure of the correlation of self-determination and determination by others (conditions, circumstances), in the nature of self-determination in connection with the presence of in man of consciousness and action ”(Rubin Stein, 1997, p. 8).

Currently, there are many positions regarding the concept of "self-realization". So, L. A. Korostyleva believes that “self-realization” is the realization of the possibilities for the development of the “I” through one’s own efforts, co-creation, collaboration with other people (close and distant surroundings), society and the world as a whole ”(Korostyleva, 2005, p. . 52).

A slightly different friction point was expressed by E.E. Vakhromov. According to his views, self-realization is “a theoretical activity consciously carried out by the subject to analyze his life situation, identify existing problems and resources for solving them, set goals for himself and choose strategies for achieving them, analyze the practical experience gained in the implementation of his life plans and their correction ”(Vakhromov, 2001, p. 78). And he understands the closely related concept of self-actualization as a conscious activity, realized by the subject, aimed at solving the existing problems of his life situation, the result of which is self-change (by developing abilities, gaining individual and social competencies), as well as changing the life situation. At the same time, he proposes to consider the life path of a person as a story, the main facts of which are acts of his self-actualization.

Offering to consider human life as a “trajectory” of the “system” movement in time, E. E. Vakhromov believes that “this is the process of acquiring qualitatively new,“ emergent ”properties, growth of self-awareness and a variety of forms of activity through conscious activity to master social and individual competencies ”(Vakhromov, 2001, p. 6).

In B. G. Ananiev, personality appears as an “object of social development.” He comes to the conclusion that the general principle of personality development in the process of activity, communication and cognition is the principle of hierarchy and develops the concept of “individuality” as an individual attaining the highest level of development of his essence and his whole life. Offering a historical, biographical understanding of the life time, B. G. Ananiev revealed the most important, from the point of view of personality development, characteristics - the start, the culmination of the highest achievements in the chosen activity and the finish, showing the dependence of the climax on the moment of start, and start - on the history of personality education . At the same time, B. G. Ananyev connects all these facts mainly with a person as a subject of a chosen activity, and not of the life path as a whole. He believes that “the main moments of the formation, stabilization, and personal identity can be determined only by comparing shifts in many parameters of a person’s social development: civil status, economic status, family status, combining, consolidating, or separating social functions (roles, nature of values ​​and their reevaluation in certain historical circumstances), a change in the environment of development and communication, conflict situations and the solution of life problems, the fulfillment or unfulfillment of life about a plan, success or failure — triumph or defeat in the struggle ”(Ananyev, 2001, p. 137).

The research of the peaks of human development is carried out by acmeology. The basis of this science is the idea of ​​the uniqueness and value of human life, the ability of a person to be creative and to improve himself. The concept of “acme” was first introduced into scientific circulation by the philosopher P. Florensky in the context of Russian religious and philosophical anthropology (N. Berdyaev, V. Solovyov, N. Lossky, A. Losev). In the case of acme, we are talking about identifying the highest achievement throughout the life of a person.

By definition, acme means a person’s achievement of his main “peak” in life, maturity, which is a harmonious combination, the result of the development of a person as an individual, as a person, as a subject of activity and individuality. In contrast to the theory of self-actualization, the emphasis here is on achieving recognized success in a certain socially significant form of professional activity, supported by external and expert evaluations.

A new interest in this concept arose in connection with the development in the middle of the 20th century. existential-humanistic philosophical anthropology and "peak" psychology (B. G. Ananiev, S. Buhler, C. Rogers, S. L. Rubinstein, A. Maslow, V. Frankl and others). In these approaches, a person is considered as the highest value and integrity, special attention is paid to his ability to develop and self-development in the context of life.

A modern interpretation of the concept of “acme” was developed by B. G. Ananyev in connection with the return of Russian science to the problem of complex human research, the desire to identify patterns and stages of its development. In acmeology, a person is considered as a developing, functioning personality that “fits” (in the words of B. G. Ananiev) into other systems (life activity in general, communication activities, cognition) and in each of them is considered according to the laws of each of the indicated systems. If this is a profession system, then acmeology is interested in the personality of a professional in a specific field (public service, education, management, etc.). Thus, acmeology considers a person not only in a psychological aspect, but also in social and professional aspects, trying to find out the possibilities of harmonization of his various hypostases.

According to A. A. Bodalev, “acmeology is a science that arose at the junction of natural, social, technical and humanitarian disciplines and studying the laws and mechanisms of human development at the stage of his maturity, and especially when he reaches the highest level in this development” ( Bodalev, 1998, p. 12). One of the fundamental tasks of acmeology is to study the optimal paths for people to achieve the “individual, personal and active stage of maturity”, as well as timely bringing a person to this stage, which allows him to use his qualities with maximum efficiency to benefit not only himself but also society .

L. Rubinstein used the concept of "peak of life" in connection with the problem of personality development. He saw the problem in that, reaching the heights of life, a person did not exhaust himself “to the bottom”, but retained motivation, strength and potential for new achievements. Particular attention was paid to the fact that in order to reach the peaks, the availability of abilities is completely insufficient, only activity, perceived as personally significant, contributes to progress to the peaks.

Self-realization of a person in society is two-sided. The subject realizes his needs, aspirations, intentions and plans aimed at the further development of both himself and the surrounding reality.

A person realizes himself in various spheres of life. An important place in human life is occupied, first of all, by the professional sphere as a whole. The model of professional self-realization can be represented by the following stages: professional self-determination, choice of the type and orientation of activity, formation in the chosen profession, professional growth and development of professional competence.

At different stages of the path of life, self-realization has its own specifics, its own characteristic features. Such features are determined by the personality traits of a person, his claims, expectations, life scenarios and strategies. A significant role is played by life situations in which he finds himself.

In the process of life, a person accumulates individual experience, while realizing the structuring of his life world. In the context of the life path, the subject poses certain life tasks, “problematizing” the world around him. This problematization is also largely due to the actualization of subjective experience, its structure and content. Drawing on his experience, the subject not only identifies tasks, problem situations, but also determines the subsequent activity vector by resolving them.

To realize his thoughts and aspirations, the subject attracts and uses his life experience, which largely determines his life path, giving it direction, saturating it with life meanings. Life experience is a kind of open access system, that is, constantly absorbing new knowledge and behaviors, available for use in real life situations.

The main problems in the theory of self-realization arise in connection with an excessive focus on the internal determinants of the development of a person’s personality. But even C. Rogers coined the term "congruency" to denote a high degree of correspondence between the individual and objective pictures of the world. The degree of congruency, according to Rogers, is determined by the degree of success of a person’s activity on the basis of his ideas about the world and about himself. Low congruency occurs when there are serious differences between awareness, experience, and communication of experience; it is defined as the inability not only to perceive accurately, but also to accurately transmit your experience. Low congruence, from the position of C. Rogers, is a serious obstacle to the full development of man, his self-actualization.

Interaction with other people in the life processes allows each person to change, based on the analysis of the positive and negative results and discussion of experience, their individual world view. Each individual picture of the world, thus, is a product of the thinking of a person who comprehends his life path, and is a dynamic formation. Each perceived and realized event in life is, therefore, a prerequisite for changing the individual picture of the world and, therefore, life plans and methods for their implementation.

The objectively existing world of reality provides a person with a certain living space, a situation in which there are many problems, many ways to solve them, and the subject in this situation has a certain degree of freedom of choice. The concept of “situation” in the Psychological Dictionary of 1998 is described as “a system of conditions external to the subject that induce and mediate its activity” (Brief Psychological Dictionary, 1998, p. 348).

The first attempt to approach the analysis of situational parameters was made by W. Thomas, who considers the situation as predetermining a person’s lifestyle. So an approach to a holistic study of the situation in the interpretation of the subject, as it is given to the subject in his experiences. W. Thomas notes that a person, first of all, gives a definition of a situation. This determines the actions of the individual, and the purpose of such definitions is the whole way of life and the personality itself. Each person can know only a certain part of the objective world of reality (cited by Grishin, 2001, p. 167–168). Their reflection in the human mind takes place in accordance with its individual perceptual characteristics, a special angle of vision and thinking processes, which is an individual picture of the human world.

The person’s experience of his specific situation motivates him to work, including to specific activities to know the world and himself. By knowing, a person changes himself and, therefore, the world of which he is a part. The changed world, in turn, requires continuous renewal of man and the image of the world. Once the process has begun, there is a pronounced tendency to accelerate, intensify. “Life is a deep-going, infinity ability to be in the process of change, formation, stay, in change ... stay itself must be considered within change, they make up unity” (Rubinstein, 1999, p. 23).

It is this picture, according to S. L. Rubinstein, which belongs to the consciousness of the subject, is the basis of his worldview and the most important psychological prerequisite for life.

The real content of the world is always “wider” than the individual picture of the world due to elements existing in reality, but not giving in to the perception and awareness of this person, that really affect the person, but fall out of the scope of his knowledge.

Acting in various life situations, solving a whole range of problems, a person inevitably enters into social and cultural interaction with other people, while achieving success in solving assigned tasks or failing. What is the result of a productive ability to solve problem situations remains today one of the urgent problems of psychology.

Thus, setting the task of human research, it is necessary to attract the whole complex of sciences about man and society (philosophy, sociology, psychology, economics, etc.). This will allow us to develop practical models for harmonizing the relationship between a person and public institutions, society as a whole so as not to put a person in a position of uncertainty and risk.
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Acmeological foundations of personal self-realization in the main areas of human activity

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