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Acmeological and axiological approaches to the problem of tolerance in interpersonal communication

Acmeology studies first of all those conditions and factors that provide the highest level of human achievement in any area of ​​professional activity as a person and as a mature subject of this activity (B.G. Ananyev, A.A. Bodalev, A.A. Derkach, I .A. Rybnikov et al.). Therefore, in the framework of acmeology, tolerance in interpersonal communication is understood by us as an integral characteristic (indicator) of professionalism and maturity of a person, the field of activity of which is interaction within the framework of the "man - man" system.

Traditionally, tolerance as an ethical value is associated with the existence of differences in human communities, with the problem of respect, acceptance and understanding of the rich diversity of their “otherness”. The most important internal factor ensuring the manifestation of tolerance / intolerance in contacts between people is the value-semantic sphere of personality, its structural and substantial components. Therefore, the axiological approach to the problem of the formation of tolerance as a social value and individual value orientation is quite justified.

What factors can contribute to the formation of a "culture of tolerance" in society as opposed to the usual confrontation in interpersonal communication? Before presenting our answer to this question, let us dwell on the interpretation of tolerance in social disciplines, and, in particular, in psychology.

In the modern scientific literature there are various approaches to the study of the problem of tolerance. General philosophical aspects of tolerance are presented in the works of Yu. Bromley, PP Valitova, V.A. Lector, I.B. Hasanova, M.P. Kapustina, M. Mchedlova, L.V. Skvortsova and in many other publications. The psychological and pedagogical perspective of this topic is devoted to the work of K.F. Graumanova, D.V. Zinoviev, P.F. Ko-Mogorov, C. Wayne and other researchers. V.A. Tishkov emphasizes the need to create a new direction - “pedagogy of tolerance”. Particular attention in philosophy, sociology and social psychology has been and is being paid to the socio-cultural (Shalin V.V. et al.) And ethnic aspects of tolerance.

In psychological studies, tolerance, in particular, was considered as non-susceptibility to external influences, adverse factors, that is, as resistance (F.D. Gorbov, V.I. Lebedev, E.A. Milerian, V.V. Suvorova, A.V. Petrovsky, M.G. Yaroshevsky, etc.). We studied resistance to manipulation and resistance to influence (E.V. Sidorenko, A.Yu. Panasyuk, IB Sheburakov and others), psychological stability in destructive and overwhelming situations (G.Yu. Platonov, etc.), frustration tolerance (G.F. Zaremba, B.A. Vyatkin, K.V. Sudakov, etc.), stress tolerance (A.A. Baranov, etc.). In the context of social psychology, tolerance can be understood as tolerance for any differences (ethnic, national, religious, racial, etc.) (D. Brodsky, A. Gerber, E.G. Lukovitskaya, N.V. Moldenhauer, V.F. . Petrenko and others). However, according to A.G. Asmolov (2000), the most comprehensive is the understanding of tolerance as resistance to conflict, in contrast to the narrowed and misunderstood interpretation of it as tolerance.

Thus, the scientific publications on this topic are characterized by a variety of approaches, interpretations of tolerance, methodological guidelines of the researchers themselves and the scientific developments they have carried out. The same diversity is observed when analyzing definitions of tolerance. For example, in a sociological encyclopedic dictionary, tolerance is understood as abstaining from protest or any kind of reaction of condemnation while preserving oneself as a moral subject and not indifferent to the world; it is an awareness of reality (Sociological Encyclopedia of Words, 1997, p. 187). The London Philosophical Encyclopedia emphasizes that tolerance should be distinguished from freedom and independence, since it implies the existence of things with respect to which there is confidence that it is impossible to agree with them. Freedom is not connected with criticizing people and their actions. The element of judgment is built into the meaning of tolerance. To be tolerant means to condemn and only then reconcile. Tolerance is not identical with equality, and just as it differs from freedom, it differs from brotherhood. Tolerance is not reducible to indifference, since there is no need to come to terms with what does not bother us (The Encyclopedia of Philosophy, 1967, vol. 8, p. 143-146).

In addition, in psychology, tolerance is understood as: “1. Establishing liberal acceptance of the patterns of behavior, beliefs, and values ​​of others. This term is used by some with very positive connotations, in the sense that tolerance includes vigorous defense of the values ​​of others and recognition of pluralism, and also that a truly tolerant, tolerant person will resist any attempt to prevent their free expression. Others, however, use it in an indefinitely negative sense, implying that tolerance is a kind of unnatural abstinence, a kind of gnashing of teeth when resigned to the behavior, beliefs and values ​​of others. This last use comes from 2. 2. The ability to endure stress, tension, pain, etc. without serious harm ”(The Big Explanatory Psychological Dictionary, 2000, p. 363).

Various authors (mainly philosophers) emphasize various aspects of the specifics of tolerance. It is connected with the fact that the necessary conditions for the actualization of tolerance are: antagonism in interpersonal interaction (Balashova, 1996), denial, rejection, negative emotions (Yovel, 1993, etc.), assessment, which is understood by many as a necessary sign of tolerance (Lectorsky, 1997 and etc.). According to P. King, “to be tolerant” means to endure, endure, put up with a person, activity, idea, etc., which or which you really do not approve of (King, 1971). For PP Valitova, tolerance necessarily involves suppressing feelings of rejection (Balashova, 1996). I. Yovel emphasizes the dialectical unity of acceptance and denial of another. Two opposites become compatible rather than mutually exclusive (Yovel, 1993). Answering the question of what tolerance is, S. Mendus recalls that tolerance differs both from freedom and from allowing or resolving that the conversation about tolerance arises only when differences appear together with disapproval or disgust (Mendus, 1989) .

The conclusion from such statements can be formulated as follows: tolerance is necessary in certain situations, which are characterized by the threat of social identity, the clash of incompatible interests, needs, values, that is, are conflicting in nature. Therefore, tolerance in its essence means that contradiction (antagonism), appreciation, rejection, negation and negative emotions are transformed into respect, acceptance, understanding. The forms of manifestation of tolerance are not tolerance itself, its core, the fundamental basis. It is the content of the contradiction and the moment of the transformation of "negative" into "positive", in our opinion, that represent the psychological specificity of tolerance.

Schematically specific features of tolerance in interpersonal communication can be represented as follows: antagonism in interpersonal interaction is associated with an internal contradiction (mismatch), which generates evaluativeness and negative emotions.
Then, the intrapsychic forms of overcoming the contradiction (mismatch) on the basis of transcendence are activated.

As a theoretical assumption about the nature of this phenomenon, we offer the following interpretation, which implements an axiological approach to the problem of tolerance: in the formation of a tolerant attitude towards another person, a simultaneous perception of him as integrity and as a fragment of integrity occurs. At the same time, holistic perception is based on a stable system of relations (the value-semantic core of tolerance), which acts as a “psychological background” of a single, already automatically manifested attitude that predetermines the readiness for the emergence of tolerance. The system of relations includes an attitudeless attitude, recognition, acceptance, respect, openness. It is thanks to the basic system of relations as a value-semantic basis of tolerance that the "fragmented" perception of another person (which includes assessment, disagreement, denial, condemnation) will be transformed into reconciliation, openness, that is, into a tolerant attitude. In this case, a critical dialogue becomes just the form of manifestation of tolerance.

If, instead of the indicated basic system of relations, appraisal, rejection, disrespect, etc. will dominate, then assessment, disagreement and condemnation will logically end with intolerance as open intolerance. With this understanding of tolerance, one of its distinguishing features is disagreement at the cognitive level and negative emotions at the affective. Otherwise, there are no boundaries between acceptance, empathy, respect, other concepts that are close in meaning and tolerance. Antagonism between subjects of interpersonal communication is a point of bifurcation, from which the process proceeds either as tolerant or intolerant.

Tolerant behavior is possible as a result of actualization, first of all, of such a personal resource as value-semantic formations. In this case, the other person acts as a value, as a given.

In our understanding, values ​​are rational-sensory regulators of the life of society and the individual. They are fixed in the structure of cultural standards, in cultural universals, and at the same time, they appear, develop and form in a particular person in the process of going through a life’s path, in making choices, in continuous self-determination based on awareness and experience of one’s own experience. Values ​​are not accepted from the outside: they are created in the process of experiences, in addition to rational components include an irrational component and, accordingly, have a strong emotional foundation. Undoubtedly, values ​​as ultimate foundations in the system of regulation and self-regulation of human life and behavior are rooted in the ontology of social and individual life, being an integral attribute of our being. That is why it is very important to analyze the psychological mechanisms of interaction, mutual influence of the normative values ​​of culture (society, social group) and individual values ​​and value orientations that are created, assimilated and translated in the active work of a person. Thus, one of the most important practical issues related to the targeted formation of tolerance in interpersonal communication is the question of under what conditions these values ​​can be assimilated, actualized, occupy a dominant position in the hierarchy of value orientations of a person, and become “peak” human values .

When answering the question about the necessary conditions for updating and strengthening tolerance in interpersonal relations, we rely primarily on the distinction made between C. Rogers (Rogers and Freiberg, 2002) of the value structure and the value process. The value structure is an established, in a sense, “frozen” value. The value process is a living, fluid, continuous formation of values, their registration in the experienced and realized life experience. In this process, a person selectively treats and “absorbs” those values ​​that are more consistent with the psychological attitudes, emotions, feelings, etc. that already exist in her. In addition, values ​​are considered as the basis for making personal choices (Dobroshtan, 1999), therefore, their hierarchy and content directly determine the process of self-determination, the core of which is the act of choice, which, in turn, determines the specifics of development.

The optimal course of the value process, the result of which will be the manifestation of a tolerant attitude to the communication partner, is possible in the process of experiencing some specific sensory experience in a particular situation, its awareness and understanding, correlation of one’s own values ​​(value-semantic attitudes) with universally defined universals and the implementation of self-determination as an emotionally rational choice. Since tolerance is interpreted by us as a cultural universal and as a possible value orientation of the individual, the research tasks include comparing the value orientation on the tolerance of a specific personality with the basic cultural constants (universals) of Russian culture. Thus, the content of value-semantic and motivational-needful formations of the personality determines the specifics of the manifestation of tolerance / intolerance in interpersonal communication.

As an answer to the question about the necessary conditions for updating and strengthening tolerance as a value and value orientation, we proposed a system block of socio-psychological training programs. The content of the programs is developed on the basis of the acmeological approach. Since a mature personality (and a mature society) is capable of conscious and targeted tolerance, an acmeological approach that explores the conditions for achieving superior results in a particular activity by a mature subject is quite adequate to the goals and objectives of this block of programs.

The training is organized in such a way that, on the one hand, cultural universals are clearly and clearly presented at the level of social group consciousness in the form of tolerance as a cultural value, and, on the other hand, conditions are created for the optimal flow of the value process.

The practical implementation of the acmeological and axiological approaches to the problem of the formation of tolerance in interpersonal communication has been the development and testing of programs of socio-psychological training. In the framework of the Federal Targeted Program for the Formation of Attitudes of Tolerant Consciousness and the Prevention of Extremism in Russian Society for 2001-2005, four programs were prepared: “Formation of a teacher’s tolerant position and ways of constructive resolution of pedagogical conflicts”, “Development of a teacher as a tolerant personality”, “Tolerance as a Creation Factor partnerships in business communication ”,“ Tolerance to conflict interpersonal interaction ”.

This work confirms that the content of value-semantic and motivational-needful formations of the personality determines the specifics of tolerance / intolerance in interpersonal communication.
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Acmeological and axiological approaches to the problem of tolerance in interpersonal communication

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